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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319479/making-worlds-in-a-waking-dream-where-bion-intersects-friston-on-the-shaping-and-breaking-of-psychic-reality
#1
Matthew John Mellor
With the publication of Wilfred Bion's text 'Learning from Experience,' psychoanalysis was afforded a new schema for understanding the processes and implications involved in an infant's contact with their caregivers. As a result, our conception of some of the most fundamental phenomena of psychic life was significantly enriched. By proposing his theory of alpha-functioning, Bion mapped out how meaningful connexions to the internal and external worlds become established in the mind. In contrast, and through working clinically with psychotic patients, Bion revealed how these ties can catastrophically come undone...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267339/neurofeedback-treatment-of-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-two-case-reports
#2
Khashayar Pazooki, Max Leibetseder, Walter Renner, Gabriel Gougleris, Efsevia Kapsali
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia, like diminished emotional expression and a dearth of self-initiated behavior do not respond reliably to anti-psychotic medication or to conventional psychotherapeutic approaches. Starting from evidence on the probable neural basis of such symptoms and on the effectiveness of neurofeedback with other psychological disorders, the present case study applied 20 sessions of EEG neurofeedback to a 45-year-old female and a 30-year-old male, both diagnosed with severe negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
September 28, 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233476/psychotherapy-in-psychosis-experiences-of-fully-recovered-service-users
#3
Jone Bjornestad, Marius Veseth, Larry Davidson, Inge Joa, Jan Olav Johannessen, Tor Ketil Larsen, Ingrid Melle, Wenche Ten Velden Hegelstad
Background: Despite the evidence of the importance of including service users' views on psychotherapy after psychosis, there is a paucity of research investigating impact on full recovery. Objectives: To explore what fully recovered service users found to be the working ingredients of psychotherapy in the recovery process after psychosis. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a phenomenological investigation with thematic analysis as the practical tool for analysis. Twenty fully recovered service users were interviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170114/treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-clinical-biological-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Frederick C Nucifora, Edgar Woznica, Brian J Lee, Nicola Cascella, Akira Sawa
Treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) refers to the significant proportion of schizophrenia patients who continue to have symptoms and poor outcomes despite treatment. While many definitions of TRS include failure of two different antipsychotics as a minimum criterion, the wide variability in inclusion criteria has challenged the consistency and reproducibility of results from studies of TRS. We begin by reviewing the clinical, neuroimaging, and neurobiological characteristics of TRS. We further review the current treatment strategies available, addressing clozapine, the first-line pharmacological agent for TRS, as well as pharmacological and non-pharmacological augmentation of clozapine including medication combinations, electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation, and psychotherapies...
August 29, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138029/psychedelics-and-psychotherapy-in-canada-humphry-osmond-and-aldous-huxley
#5
Erika Dyck, Patrick Farrell
The decade of the 1950s is well known among historians of psychiatry for the unprecedented shift toward psychopharmacological solutions to mental health problems. More psychiatric medications were introduced than ever before or since (Healy, 2002). While psychiatric researchers later credited these drugs, in part, for controlling psychotic, depressive, and anxious symptoms-and subsequently for emptying decaying psychiatric institutions throughout the Western world-psychiatrists also produced a number of other theories that relied on a more delicate and nuanced blending of psychotherapy and psychopharmacology...
August 2018: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132466/-the-problem-of-aggressive-behavior-in-epilepsy-clinical-and-neurobiological-aspects
#6
M A Kutlubaev, V D Mendelevich
Aggressive behavior is observed in a significant number of patients with epilepsy. The aggressive behavior is associated with structural and functional changes in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. From the clinical point of view, aggressive behavior more often is not related to the seizure, and develops as part of borderline psychiatric disorder. Another potential cause of aggressive behavior is postictal psychotic disorder. Pre- and intraictal aggressive behavior is rarely observed. Anticonvulsants may influence differently on aggression...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109423/-diseases-of-the-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-in-old-age-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Christian Jagsch, Alex Hofer
BACKGROUND: The number of people with diseases of the schizophrenia spectrum in old age will increase significantly in the coming years. In the literature the topics of schizophrenia and delusional disorders in older and old people are inadequately represented. AIM: This article gives an overview of the most important diagnostic and differential diagnostic characteristics. Another important aspect is the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options in old age...
August 14, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101974/childhood-maltreatment-and-psychotic-experiences-exploring-the-specificity-of-early-maladaptive-schemas
#8
David Boyda, Danielle McFeeters, Katie Dhingra, Laura Rhoden
OBJECTIVE: One potential mechanism that has received limited attention in psychosis research is early maladaptive schemas (EMS). Our aim was to examine whether EMS acts as a potential mediating pathway between early trauma and psychotic symptomology. METHODS: A quantitative survey was conducted online. N = 302 participants took part. The analysis used a multiple mediation framework. RESULTS: Analysis demonstrated significant specificity effects...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095482/the-use-of-newer-antipsychotics-in-bipolar-inpatients-over-a-17-year-observation-period
#9
Julia Dehning, Heinz Grunze, Michaela Walpoth-Niederwanger, Georg Kemmler, Armand Hausmann
Antipsychotics (AP) are commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. They cover a broad spectrum of indications including acute psychotic, manic and depressive symptoms, and maintenance treatment. This study evaluates the changes in prescribing patterns of first-generation antipsychotics (FGA) and second-generation AP at Innsbruck University Hospital for the treatment of bipolar inpatients between 1999 and 2016. In this retrospective chart review, we included adult patients with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (ICD 9: F296; ICD 10: F31) who were admitted as inpatients at the Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy between 1999 and 2016 for more than 7 days...
November 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092241/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-with-secondary-psychotic-features-ptsd-sp-diagnostic-and-treatment-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Ebele Compean, Mark Hamner
Trauma exposure leads to various psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorders, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, and trauma related disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are some overlapping symptoms of both PTSD and psychosis that make diagnosis challenging. Despite this overlap, the evidence of PTSD with comorbid psychosis as a distinct entity lies in the research showing biologic, genetic and treatment management differences between psychotic PTSD, non-psychotic PTSD, psychotic disorders and healthy controls...
January 10, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058819/a-qualitative-study-of-veterans-mixed-emotional-reactions-to-receiving-a-ptsd-diagnosis
#11
Natalie E Hundt, Tracey L Smith, John C Fortney, Jeffrey A Cully, Melinda A Stanley
Many veterans do not engage in needed mental health care. To address this problem, we need to understand these patients' experiences from the very start of their care, which includes the assessment and diagnosis process and the communication of that diagnosis to the patient. The patient's reaction to this process can set the tone for the patient's relationship with the mental health system and his or her therapist, yet therapists often receive little training in how to most effectively provide a diagnosis to patients...
July 30, 2018: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040434/medication-adherence-among-children-and-adolescents-with-severe-mental-illness-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Juliet Beni Edgcomb, Bonnie Zima
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating predictors of medication adherence in children and adolescents with severe mental illness (SMI). METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and PsycINFO from 1980 through October 1st, 2017, for original peer-reviewed articles that investigated predictors of adherence to psychopharmacologic treatment among children (≤18-years-old) with a primary psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, recent suicide attempt, or psychiatric hospitalization...
October 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30029159/factors-associated-with-the-receipt-of-documented-evidence-based-psychotherapy-for-ptsd-in-va
#13
Rebecca K Sripada, Paul N Pfeiffer, Sheila A M Rauch, Dara Ganoczy, Kipling M Bohnert
OBJECTIVES: The VA has mandated that evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) be offered to patients with PTSD, but only a small minority of the psychotherapy delivered to VA patients with PTSD is a documented EBP. It is unknown what factors are associated with receiving a documented EBP. METHOD: Patients who received an EBP in FY2015 that was documented using a templated progress note (N = 21,808) were compared with patients who received psychotherapy for PTSD that was not documented using a template (N = 251,886)...
July 11, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016999/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-schizophrenia-outcomes-for-functioning-distress-and-quality-of-life-a-meta-analysis
#14
Keith R Laws, Nicole Darlington, Tejinder K Kondel, Peter J McKenna, Sameer Jauhar
BACKGROUND: The effect of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) on the core symptoms of schizophrenia has proven contentious, with current meta-analyses finding at most only small effects. However, it has been suggested that the effects of CBTp in areas other than psychotic symptoms are at least as important and potentially benefit from the intervention. METHOD: We meta-analysed RCTs investigating the effectiveness of CBTp for functioning, distress and quality of life in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and related disorders...
July 17, 2018: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015791/brain-and-behavior-commentary-on-two-cases-involving-the-effect-of-structural-brain-lesions-on-psychiatric-disorders
#15
David A Kahn
In this issue of the journal, 2 case reports are presented that illustrate explicit influences of structural brain lesions on psychiatric symptoms. In both cases, the patients had preexisting, classically diagnosed psychiatric disorders-schizophrenia in the first case and bipolar I disorder in the second case. In the first case, a 61-year-old woman with chronic paranoid schizophrenia experienced a marked reduction in psychotic symptoms after bilateral frontal strokes. In the second case, a 60-year-old man who had experienced manic and depressive episodes since his 20s developed partial complex seizures after having repeated head trauma in his 40s, with subsequent onset of chronic personality changes associated with temporal lobe epilepsy that made his psychiatric treatment a greater challenge...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975338/compassion-and-loving-kindness-meditation-an-overview-and-prospects-for-the-application-in-clinical-samples
#16
Johannes Graser, Ulrich Stangier
OBJECTIVES: This article presents a brief overview of the empirical evidence of well-established mindfulness interventions and an in-depth review of less-established compassion-based interventions (CBIs) and loving-kindness meditation (LKM). Definitions, cognitive and physiological mechanisms, and methods of assessment are discussed. METHOD: A literature review using the databases Google Scholar, PsycINFO, and PubMed was conducted. RESULTS: Whereas the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy has been documented in many trials, only seven randomized, controlled trials have been completed on CBIs and LKM...
July 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960939/individuals-with-borderline-personality-disorder-manifest-cognitive-biases-implicated-in-psychosis
#17
Priya Puri, Devvarta Kumar, Kesavan Muralidharan, M Thomas Kishore
Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) frequently manifest psychotic symptoms. Certain cognitive biases have been implicated in the genesis and maintenance of psychotic symptoms. The present study aimed at exploring whether individuals with BPD manifest these cognitive biases. Twenty-eight individuals with BPD and 28 healthy participants were assessed on four sub-domains of the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale, viz. jumping to conclusions, belief inflexibility, attention for threat and external attribution...
September 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946270/efficacy-and-acceptability-of-interventions-for-attenuated-positive-psychotic-symptoms-in-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-of-psychosis-a-network-meta-analysis
#18
Cathy Davies, Joaquim Radua, Andrea Cipriani, Daniel Stahl, Umberto Provenzani, Philip McGuire, Paolo Fusar-Poli
Background: Attenuated positive psychotic symptoms represent the defining features of the clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR-P) criteria. The effectiveness of each available treatment for reducing attenuated positive psychotic symptoms remains undetermined. This network meta-analysis (NMA) investigates the consistency and magnitude of the effects of treatments on attenuated positive psychotic symptoms in CHR-P individuals, weighting the findings for acceptability. Methods: Web of Science (MEDLINE), PsycInfo, CENTRAL and unpublished/gray literature were searched up to July 18, 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909768/-psychotherapy-of-psychotic-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Fabian Lamster, Matthias Jäger
Psychotherapy of psychotic disorders Abstract. The efficacy of psychotherapy for individuals with psychotic disorders is well documented and its implementation is recommended by international guidelines. Goals of psychotherapeutic interventions are reduction of symptoms, prevention of relapse, improvement of cognitive, emotional and social functioning, social integration and participation, and enhancement of quality of life as well as self-perception. Cognitive-behavioral and family interventions, cognitive and social trainings as well as psychoeducation are particularly recommended according to the literature...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909760/-epidemiology-etiology-and-treatment-of-patients-with-psychosis-and-co-morbid-substance-use-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Franz Moggi
Epidemiology, etiology and treatment of patients with psychosis and co-morbid substance use disorder Abstract. More than 25 years ago, when the research on the efficacy of treatments for patients with a comorbidity of psychosis and substance use disorder has been systematically started, some authors described the treatment of these patients as a "mission impossible". Approximately half of all individuals with schizophrenia develop substance use disorders in the course of their life; about one third of them a comorbid alcohol use disorder and about one quarter a comorbid substance use disorder with other addictive substances...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
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