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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107645/review-article-antiemetics-in-the-pre-hospital-setting-a-systematic-review-of-efficacy-and-safety
#1
REVIEW
Rishabh Verma, Paula Matich, David Symmons, Venkat Vangaveti
Antiemetics are medications that are frequently used in the pre-hospital setting. However, recent evidence indicates that antiemetics are ineffective in reducing undifferentiated nausea scores and vomiting rates. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antiemetics administered in the pre-hospital setting. This is a systematic review employing PRISMA guidelines of seven studies selected that included randomised controlled trials and prospective studies, investigating the use of antiemetics in the pre-hospital setting...
August 14, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107536/the-soluble-fiber-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-does-not-increase-the-fecal-losses-of-dietary-fat-in-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-crossover-trial
#2
Kelli A Lytle, Debra A Harteneck, Michael D Jensen
Background: α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD), a soluble dietary fiber, may improve abnormal plasma lipids and promote weight loss. Preliminary evidence suggests that it may exert these effects by binding dietary fat and reducing absorption; this has not been tested in humans. Objective: The primary objective was to test whether supplemental α-CD increases fecal content of dietary lipid in humans. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study completed at the Mayo Clinic...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107404/the-effects-of-add-on-fronto-temporal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-other-psychopathological-symptoms-and-insight-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-double-blind-sham-controlled-trial
#3
Chuan-Chia Chang, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Che-Yi Chao, Chin-Bin Yeh, Hsin-An Chang
Background: The efficacy of fronto-temporal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in treating auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) and other psychopathological symptoms of schizophrenia patients has been examined in a small number of clinical trials with limited sample sizes, but the results are mixed. Fronto-temporal tDCS has also been demonstrated to enhance patients' insight into their mental illness in an open-label pilot study. The current investigation aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of fronto-temporal tDCS on the severity of AVHs, other schizophrenia symptoms and insight in a large double blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107203/atheroprotective-effects-and-molecular-targets-of-bioactive-compounds-from-traditional-chinese-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Lei Qiao, Wenqiang Chen
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has served the Chinese people since antiquity, and is playing an important role in today's healthcare. However, there has been controversy in the use of these traditional herbs due to unclear components and absence of scientific proof. As China plans to modernize traditional medicine, successful attempts to better understand the molecular mechanisms of TCM have been made by focusing on isolating active ingredients from these remedies. In this review, we critically examined the current evidence on atheroprotective effects of bioactive compounds from TCM using in vitro or in vivo models in the past two decades...
August 11, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107054/antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-neutropenic-children-with-acute-leukemia-do-the-presently-available-data-really-support-this-practice
#5
REVIEW
Carmelina Calitri, Eliana Ruberto, Elio Castagnola
Antibiotics are frequently administered for prophylaxis of fever in neutropenic children with cancer. This strategy is mainly derived from adults' data, and various pediatric studies evidenced the effectiveness of antibiotics (e.g. fluorquinolones) in the prevention of febrile neutropenia. However, only two pediatric randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials have been performed, with a total of 262 leukemic children enrolled, and no other one was ever powered for analyzing effectiveness over other infectious complications...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107043/the-benefits-of-adding-metformin-to-tamoxifen-to-protect-the-endometrium-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Susan R Davis, Penelope J Robinson, Fiona Jane, Shane White, Kristy A Brown, Sofie Piessens, Andrew Edwards, Jane McNeilage, Jillian Woinarski, Mitchell Chipman, Robin J Bell
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether metformin prevents tamoxifen-induced endometrial changes and insulin resistance (IR) after a diagnosis of breast cancer. METHODS: This was a single centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial. Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer taking tamoxifen were randomly allocated to metformin 850mg or identical placebo, twice daily, for 52 weeks. Outcome measures included double endometrial thickness (ET) measured by transvaginal ultrasound, fasting insulin, glucose and IR estimated by the homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA-IR)...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107042/effect-of-calcium-citrate-versus-calcium-carbonate-on-elevated-pth-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-double-blinded-randomized-trial
#7
Lene Ring Madsen, Rasmus Espersen, Lars Rejnmark, Bjørn Richelsen
OBJECTIVE: Following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels potentially harmful to bone health are commonly observed. Owing to assumed superior absorption, calcium citrate is often recommended over calcium carbonate following RYGB for the treatment of elevated PTH. We aimed to investigate the impact of either calcium carbonate or calcium citrate (1200 mg elementary calcium) in patients with elevated PTH levels following RYGB. DESIGN: Clinical, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial of a 12-week-duration at a Danish University Hospital...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106883/efficacy-of-sertraline-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-naive-to-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-a-10-week-randomized-multicenter-placebo-controlled-double-blind-academic-clinical-trial
#8
Roselin Valle-Cabrera, Yudexi Mendoza-Rodríguez, Maytee Robaina-García, Javier Ballesteros, Juan Rafael Cordero-Jiménez, Nadia B Espinosa-Rodríguez, Yenia Sotolongo-Garcia, Bianca Lauria-Horner
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of sertraline compared with placebo in a good clinical practice trial conducted with major depressive disorder patients naive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. METHODS: This was a 10-week randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double blind, superiority trial. Adult patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria), total score of 19 to 36 in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), were randomly allocated to sertraline (n = 39) or placebo (n = 38)...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106880/evaluating-the-effect-of-coenzyme-q10-augmentation-on-treatment-of-bipolar-depression-a-double-blind-controlled-clinical-trial
#9
Maryam Mehrpooya, Fatemeh Yasrebifar, Mohammad Haghighi, Younes Mohammadi, Leila Jahangard
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a chronic and recurrent mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania, and major depression. Based on available evidence, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation have important roles in the pathophysiology of bipolar depression. More specifically, it seems that coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a mitochondrial modulator, as well as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, might be effective in modulating these pathophysiological pathways...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106876/the-effect-of-body-weight-changes-on-total-plasma-clozapine-concentrations-determined-by-applying-a-statistical-model-to-the-data-from-a-double-blind-trial
#10
Francisco J Diaz, Richard C Josiassen, Jose de Leon
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Some therapeutic drug monitoring studies suggest that increased weight is associated with small increases in clozapine concentrations. The goal of this study was to reanalyze a US double-blind study using a sophisticated statistical model to test whether weight gains from baseline or increases in percentage of body fat from baseline, computed from a published equation, are associated with increased total plasma clozapine concentrations after controlling for the effects of smoking and sex...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106535/efficacy-of-ibuprofen-and-codeine-paracetamol-to-reduce-immediate-bleaching-sensitivity-caused-by-in-office-tooth-bleaching-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#11
Samila Neres de Oliveira, Isauremi Vieira de Assunção, Boniek Castillo Dutra Borges
PURPOSE: To evaluate (1) the efficacy of Ibuprofen and codeine + paracetamol to control immediate bleaching sensitivity caused by in-office tooth bleaching performed with 35% hydrogen peroxide, and (2) tooth shade change caused by 35% hydrogen peroxide. METHODS: In this randomized, controlled and double blind clinical trial, 60 volunteers were divided into three treatment groups: 400 mg placebo (PL)(n=20), 400 mg ibuprofen (IB)(n=20), or 30 mg codeine + 500 mg paracetamol (CP)(n=20)...
August 2018: American Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106335/comparison-of-whitening-dentifrices-on-the-effectiveness-of-in-office-tooth-bleaching-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#12
N Jiang, C Zhang, C Agingu, T Attin, H Cheng, H Yu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of whitening dentifrices on the effectiveness of in-office tooth bleaching. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. The participants were randomly allocated into three groups according to the different dentifrices used during this clinical trial: regular dentifrice (group C), conventional whitening dentifrice (group CW), and whitening dentifrice containing blue covarine (group CU)...
August 14, 2018: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106248/d-cycloserine-augmented-one-session-treatment-of-specific-phobias-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
Lara J Farrell, Allison M Waters, Ella L Oar, Evelin Tiralongo, Vinay Garbharran, Clair Alston-Knox, Harry McConnell, Nigel Collings, Melanie Zimmer-Gembeck, Caroline L Donovan, Chris Testa, Eric A Storch, Thomas H Ollendick
BACKGROUND: D-Cycloserine has potential to enhance exposure therapy outcomes. The current study presents a preliminary randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind pilot trial of DCS-augmented one-session treatment (OST) for youth (7-14 years) with specific phobia. A secondary aim of this pilot study was to explore the effects of youth age and within-session fear reduction as potential moderators of DCS outcomes in order to generate hypotheses for a larger trial. It was hypothesized that DCS would be associated with greater improvements than placebo, that children (7-10 years) would have greater benefits than adolescents (11-14 years), and that DCS effects would be stronger for participants with the greater within-session fear reduction during the OST...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106172/measures-of-functioning-in-patients-with-episodic-migraine-findings-from-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-phase-2b-trial-with-galcanezumab
#14
David W Ayer, Vladimir Skljarevski, Janet H Ford, Allen W Nyhuis, Richard B Lipton, Sheena K Aurora
Objective - To evaluate 12-week changes from baseline of 2 disease-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures in adults with migraine treated with galcanezumab, an investigational humanized antibody binding calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), or placebo. Background - Preventing headache-related functional impairment is an important goal of migraine preventive treatment and a measurement target for PROs. Understanding which drugs have the potential to improve patient functioning in addition to preventing migraine headaches is vital to lessening patient burden...
August 14, 2018: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105847/comparison-of-therapeutic-effects-of-conventional-and-liposomal-form-of-4-topical-hydroquinone-in-patients-with-melasma
#15
Faezeh Taghavi, Mahnaz Banihashemi, Naghmeh Zabolinejad, Maryam Salehi, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Hoda Marhamati, Faeze Golnouri, Mahyar Dorri
BACKGROUND: Melasma is a common acquired hyperpigmentation disorder observed mainly in young women. Hydroquinone is the basic treatment that its effect alone and in combination with other medications has been proven. Liposomes are microscopic vesicles in which water and lipid-soluble medications can be introduced to enhance their efficacy and specificity. The aim of this study was to compare therapeutic effects of topical liposomal hydroquinone with its conventional form on melasma. METHODS: This double-blind randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 20 women...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105510/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-lusutrombopag-in-japanese-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease-undergoing-radiofrequency-ablation
#16
Ryosuke Tateishi, Masataka Seike, Masatoshi Kudo, Hideyuki Tamai, Seiji Kawazoe, Takayuki Katsube, Toshimitsu Ochiai, Takahiro Fukuhara, Takeshi Kano, Katsuaki Tanaka, Mineo Kurokawa, Kazuhide Yamamoto, Yukio Osaki, Namiki Izumi, Michio Imawari
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia represents an obstacle for invasive procedures in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. We aimed to estimate the appropriate dose and evaluate the efficacy and safety of lusutrombopag for the treatment of thrombocytopenia before percutaneous liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for primary hepatic cancer in patients with CLD. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in Japan, 61 CLD patients with platelet count < 50 × 103 /µL at screening were randomized to placebo or lusutrombopag 2, 3, or 4 mg once daily for 7 days, followed by a 28-day post-treatment assessment period...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104997/levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Libo Wang, Jia Li, Jiajun Chen
Background: Levodopa has been widely used and regarded as the most effective therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD), but long-term treatment with oral levodopa may result in motor fluctuations and involuntary movements (dyskinesias). There is evidence to suggest that Continuous infusion of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) can effectively manage motor and non-motor complications in PD, but clinical studies investigating this have yielded inconsistent results. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to examine the efficacy and safety of LCIG for patients with PD...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104833/a-double-blind-randomized-control-trial-to-compare-the-effect-of-varying-doses-of-intrathecal-fentanyl-on-clinical-efficacy-and-side-effects-in-parturients-undergoing-cesarean-section
#18
Muhammad Asghar Ali, Samina Ismail, Muhammad Sohaib, Asiyah Aman
Background and Aims: It is a common practice to add intrathecal lipophilic opioids to local anesthetics to improve the quality of subarachnoid block. This study was designed to find a dose of intrathecal fentanyl, which can improve the quality of surgical anesthesia with minimal side effects in parturients undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia with intrathecal bupivacaine. Material and Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 243 parturients undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive 10, 15, or 25 μg of intrathecal fentanyl with 10 mg of 0...
April 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104831/dexmedetomidine-for-prevention-of-early-postoperative-catheter-related-bladder-discomfort-in-voluntary-kidney-donors-prospective-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Tapas Kumar Singh, Sandeep Sahu, Anil Agarwal, Devendra Gupta, Prabhaker Mishra
Background and Aims: Catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) has started to gain recognition as a problem in early postoperative care. Dexmedetomidine reduces bladder contractility via M3 muscarinic receptor antagonism and α-2 receptor agonism, apart from its concomitant therapeutic benefits, such as sedation and sympatholysis, in a postoperative period. We, therefore, evaluated the efficacy of dexmedetomidine in reducing incidence and severity of CRBD. Material and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done on 110 voluntary kidney donors for live related kidney transplantations were planned for laparoscopic donor nephrectomy...
April 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102677/leucine-metabolites-do-not-enhance-training-induced-performance-or-muscle-thickness
#20
Filipe J Teixeira, Catarina N Matias, Cristina P Monteiro, Maria J Valamatos, Joana Reis, Francisco Tavares, Ana Batista, Christophe Domingos, Francisco Alves, Luís B Sardinha, Stuart M Phillips
Leucine metabolites, α-hydroxyisocaproic acid (α-HICA) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (calcium, HMB-Ca and free acid, HMB-FA), have been proposed to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance. PURPOSE: We aimed to conduct a double-blind randomized controlled pragmatic trial to evaluate the effects of off-the-shelf leucine metabolite supplements of α-HICA, HMB-FA and HMB-Ca, on resistance training-induced changes in muscle thickness, and performance...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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