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Emma Barrett
This article shows how elite stockbrokers Cazenove and Co. responded to the 'Big Bang' deregulation of the financial sector in 1986, using social networks and inherited practices to navigate an ostensibly technical and modernizing revolution. The Thatcher administration's reform of the London Stock Exchange was an economic enterprise intended to end restrictive practices and open the City to competition. A more open meritocratic financial sector marked the 'death of gentlemanly capitalism' and coalesced with a political agenda for entrepreneurialism and popular capitalism...
August 10, 2018: 20 Century British History
Eric Rodenbeck
Science, in the popular imagination, is about finding answers to questions. Scientists make discoveries, develop theories, and deliver those discoveries and theories to audiences with an interest in the truth as backed up by science. Well-designed data visualization (dataviz), by contrast, can generate and address not only new questions but new kinds of questions. It has the particular quality of allowing its viewers, users and makers the ability to generate new inquiries, and to put them in a better place to answer them...
August 10, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Koustav Roy, Garima Chauhan, Punita Kumari, Meetu Wadhwa, Shahnawaz Alam, Koushik Ray, Usha Panjwani, Krishna Kishore
AIMS: Sleep loss at high altitude (HA) play major role in worsening of neuropsychological functions, such as attention, memory and decision making. This study investigates the role of phosphorylated delta sleep inducing peptide (p-DSIP) in improving sleep architecture during chronic hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure and restoration of spatial navigational memory. METHODS: Morris water maze (MWM) trained rats were exposed to HH at 7620 m. p-DSIP was injected intra-peritoneally (10 μg/Kg bw) during HH exposure as an intervention against sleep alteration...
August 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Carlotta Caramia, Diego Torricelli, Maurizio Schmid, Adriana Munoz, Jose Gonzalez, Francisco Grandas, Jose Pons
Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) have a long-lasting popularity in a variety of industrial applications, from navigation systems, to guidance and robotics. Their use in clinical practice is now becoming more common thanks to miniaturization and the ability to integrate on-board computational and decision-support features. IMU-based gait analysis is a paradigm of this evolving process, and in this study its use for the assessment of Parkinson's Disease (PD) is comprehensively analyzed. Data coming from 25 individuals with different levels of PD symptoms severity and an equal number of age-matched healthy individuals were included into a set of 6 different machine learning (ML) techniques, processing 18 different configurations of gait parameters taken from 8 IMU sensors...
August 13, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Ali Mohammadi, Mohammadhossein Ebrahimi, Siru Kaartinen, Gustaf Jarnefelt, Jari Karhu, Petro Julkunen
We characterized the short-interval intracortical facilitation (SICF) via modulation of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) using paired-pulse stimulation, and analyzed the interactions with known SICF I-wave behavior. The objective was to optimize individual SICF to enhance TMS effects in motor mapping and therapeutic stimulations. We applied navigated TMS in nine healthy volunteers to study SICF. MEPs were measured for baseline using single-pulse TMS, and subsequently, paired-pulse TMS was applied to study SICF...
August 8, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
M N Sahadat, Arish Alreja, Nima Mikail, Maysam Ghovanloo
OBJECTIVE: Assistive technologies often focus on a remaining ability of their users, particularly those with physical disabilities, e.g. tetraplegia, to facilitate their computer access. We hypothesized that by combining multiple remaining abilities of the end users in an intuitive fashion, it is possible to improve the quality of computer access. In this study, 15 able-bodied subjects completed four computer access tasks without using their hands: center-out tapping, on-screen maze navigation, playing a game, and sending an email...
August 7, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Eric Macnaughton, Geoffrey Nelson, S Kathleen Worton, Sam Tsemberis, Vicky Stergiopoulos, Tim Aubry, Julian Hasford, Jino Distasio, Paula Goering
The scaling out of Housing First (HF) programs was examined in six Canadian communities, in which a multi-component HF training and technical assistance (TTA) was provided. Three research questions were addressed: (a) What were the outcomes of the TTA in terms of the development of new, sustained, or enhanced programs, and fidelity to the HF model? (b) How did the TTA contribute to implementation and fidelity? and (c) What contextual factors facilitated or challenged implementation and fidelity? A total of 14 new HF programs were created, and nine HF programs were sustained or enhanced...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Di Mu, Yiliang Xu, Tian Zhao, Kazutada Watanabe, Zhi-Cheng Xiao, Haihong Ye
INTRODUCTION: CNTN6 is an immunoglobulin domain-containing cell adhesion molecule that belongs to the contactin family. It is involved in the development of the nervous system. We aim to determine the effect of Cntn6 deficiency on the allocentric navigation in mice. METHODS: We recorded the travel distance and escape time of wild-type and Cntn6 mutant male and female mice in the Morris water maze task according to the protocol. RESULTS: There was hardly any Cntn6 expression in the hippocampus of postnatal day 0 (P0) mice, while obvious Cntn6 expression was present in the hippocampal CA1 region of the P7 mice...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
Naoki Nakano, Emmanuel Audenaert, Anil Ranawat, Vikas Khanduja
In the last 15 years, hip arthroscopy has become increasingly popular in addressing femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) because of its minimally invasive approach. However, assessing the adequacy of bone resection when correcting FAI can be difficult because visualisation and spatial awareness of the joint are poor. Recent advances in technology in the field of computer-assisted surgery and navigation and robotic surgery in orthopaedics as a resource for preoperative planning and intraoperative assistance have been widely reported...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
Annemarie Samuels
In this article, I elaborate the concept of narrative navigation to analyze the subjective and intersubjective ways in which people struggle through experiences of illness by constructing multiple, ambiguous and non-linear narratives that may continuously change, as they reposition themselves within changing circumstances. Drawing on ethnographic material on HIV care in Aceh, Indonesia, I show how subjunctivity and open-endedness are crucial narrative ways in which people living with HIV, their relatives, medical doctors and support group workers adjust to possibilities and limitations of care over time, thereby continuously negotiating what good care may be...
August 13, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Benjamin Gorissen, Michael De Volder, Dominiek Reynaerts
In the ever advancing field of minimally invasive surgery, flexible instruments with local degrees of freedom are needed to navigate through the intricate topologies of the human body. Although cable or concentric tube driven solutions have proven their merits in this field, they are inadequate for realizing small bending radii and suffer from friction, which is detrimental when automation is envisioned. Soft robotic actuators with locally actuated degrees of freedom are foreseen to fill in this void, where elastic inflatable actuators are very promising due to their S3-principle, being Small, Soft and Safe...
August 13, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Steven P Philpot, Garrett Prestage, Jeanne Ellard, Andrew E Grulich, Benjamin R Bavinton
Many gay Australian serodiscordant couples are currently relying on an HIV-positive partner's undetectable viral load (UVL) to practice condomless sex. For these couples, preventing HIV is often considered a mutual responsibility, yet they lack a formally endorsed strategy that helps them navigate 'UVL for prevention' (UfP) as a couple. Drawing on interviews with 21 Australian gay men representing 15 serodiscordant couples, we explored 'the couple' within serodiscordant HIV prevention. In learning to rely on UfP, couples were initially apprehensive as they navigated unfamiliar territory, but their concerns faded over time...
August 13, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Nora A Herweg, Michael J Kahana
While extensive research on the neurophysiology of spatial memory has been carried out in rodents, memory research in humans had traditionally focused on more abstract, language-based tasks. Recent studies have begun to address this gap using virtual navigation tasks in combination with electrophysiological recordings in humans. These studies suggest that the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) is equipped with a population of place and grid cells similar to that previously observed in the rodent brain. Furthermore, theta oscillations have been linked to spatial navigation and, more specifically, to the encoding and retrieval of spatial information...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jin Zhang, Lijun Ren, Huaxia Deng, Mengchao Ma, Xiang Zhong, Pengcheng Wen
The limited load capacity and power resources of small-scale fixed-wing drones mean that it is difficult to employ internal high-precision inertial navigation devices to assist with the landing procedure. As an alternative, this paper proposes an attitude measurement system based on a monocular camera. The attitude angles are obtained from a single captured image containing five coded landmark points using the radial constraint method and three-dimensional coordinate transformations. The landing procedure is simulated for pitch angles from -15 ∘ to -40 ∘ , roll angles from -15 ∘ to +15 ∘ and yaw angles from -15 ∘ to +15 ∘ ...
August 13, 2018: Sensors
Shih-Yu Chen, Chun-Ta Ho, Wei-Wen Liu, Mark Lucanic, Hsiu-Ming Shih, Pei-Hsin Huang, Hwai-Jong Cheng
During neural development, growing axons express specific surface receptors in response to various environmental guidance cues. These axon guidance receptors are regulated through intracellular trafficking and degradation to enable navigating axons to reach their targets. In Caenorhabditis elegans , the UNC-5 receptor is necessary for dorsal migration of developing motor axons. We previously found that MAX-1 is required for UNC-5-mediated axon repulsion, but its mechanism of action remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that UNC-5-mediated axon repulsion in C...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Robin Urquhart, Jyoti Kotecha, Cynthia Kendell, Mary Martin, Han Han, Beverley Lawson, Cheryl Tschupruk, Emily Gard Marshall, Carol Bennett, Fred Burge
BACKGROUND: Strategies have been developed for use in primary care to identify patients at risk of declining health and dying, yet little is known about the perceptions of doing so or the broader implications and impacts. AIM: To explore the acceptability and implications of using a primary care-based electronic medical record algorithm to help providers identify patients in their practice at risk of declining health and dying. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative descriptive study in Ontario and Nova Scotia, Canada...
August 13, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Danielle R Trakimas, Judith S Kempfle, Katherine L Reinshagen, Daniel J Lee, Elliott D Kozin, Aaron K Remenschneider
PURPOSE: Effective operative approaches for the treatment of refractory vertigo in Meniere's disease are invasive. Vestibular neurectomy can preserve hearing and has been shown to be effective; however, current approaches require an extensive craniotomy. Transcanal endoscopic approaches to the internal auditory canal (IAC) with cochlear preservation have been recently described and may offer a minimally invasive approach to selectively sectioning the distal vestibular nerves while preserving residual hearing...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Thomas B Silverman, Alejandro Vanegas, Awilda Marte, Jennie Mata, Margaret Sin, Juan Carlos Rodriguez Ramirez, Wei-Yann Tsai, Katherine D Crew, Rita Kukafka
BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations confer a substantial breast risk of developing breast cancer to those who carry them. For this reason, the United States Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended that all women be screened in the primary care setting for a family history indicative of a mutation, and women with strong family histories of breast or ovarian cancer be referred to genetic counseling. However, few high-risk women are being routinely screened and fewer are referred to genetic counseling...
August 13, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Yuko Mizuno, Darrel H Higa, Carolyn A Leighton, Katherine B Roland, Julia B Deluca, Linda J Koenig
OBJECTIVE: To provide the first systematic review on the associations between HIV patient navigation and HIV care continuum outcomes (i.e., linkage to care, retention in care, ART uptake, medication adherence, and viral suppression) in the United States (U.S.). We identified primary research studies that addressed these associations and qualitatively assessed whether provision of patient navigation was positively associated with these outcomes, including strength of the evidence. METHODS: A systematic review, including both electronic (MEDLINE [OVID], EMBASE [OVID], PsycINFO [OVID], and CINAHL [EBSCOhost]) online databases and manual searches, was conducted to locate studies published from January 1, 1996 through April 23, 2018...
August 9, 2018: AIDS
Sarah Stotz, Jung Sun Lee, Jori Hall
OBJECTIVE: To understand low-income adults' expectations and experiences using an innovative smartphone and theory-based eLearning nutrition education programme, entitled Food eTalk. DESIGN: Longitudinal mixed-methods single case study including a series of focus group and individual interviews, demographic and Internet habits surveys, and user-tracking data. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, analysed using the constant comparative method and digitalized using Atlas...
August 13, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
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