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Yoshishiro Hiramatsu, Hiroya Takeuchi, Osamu Goto, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Yuko Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: Recently, minimally invasive approaches such as endoscopic treatment or laparoscopic gastrectomy for early gastric cancer have made rapid progress. However, the extent of gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy in laparoscopic surgery is radical, similar to that of open gastrectomy for patients with early gastric cancer diagnosed as not indicated for endoscopic treatment. Since it is well known that lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor, the standard procedure of gastrectomy with radical lymph node dissection has been performed for the purpose of curative resection...
December 14, 2018: Digestion
Brid O'Brien, Dympna Tuohy, Anne Fahy, Kathleen Markey
BACKGROUND: Higher education institutes are witnessing an increase in the cultural and ethnic diversity of their student population. While this adds to the learning experience, there is a dearth of evidence examining how students on nursing programmes, from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds learn with and from each other. There is need for a greater understanding of the factors that both facilitate and inhibit intercultural learning within the classroom. OBJECTIVES: This study explored the perceptions and experiences of home students on a postgraduate nursing programme, of intercultural learning within the classroom...
December 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Julien R Serres, Stéphane Viollet
Flying insects are being studied these days as if they were agile micro air vehicles fitted with smart sensors, requiring very few brain resources. The findings obtained on these natural fliers have proved to be extremely valuable when it comes to designing compact low-weight artificial optical sensors capable of performing visual processing tasks robustly under various environmental conditions (light, clouds, contrast). Here, we review some outstanding bio-inspired visual sensors, which can be used for either detecting motion in the visible spectrum or controlling celestial navigation in the ultraviolet spectrum and for attitude stabilisation purposes...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Zoe Donnell, Roseanne Hoffman, Gaya Myers, Kelly Sarmiento
INTRODUCTION: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) Guideline was created to help standardize diagnosis, prognosis, and management and treatment of pediatric mTBI. This paper describes the process CDC used to develop educational tools, and a dissemination and implementation strategy, in support of the CDC Pediatric mTBI Guideline. METHODS: Two qualitative data collection projects with healthcare providers who care for pediatric patients were conducted...
December 2018: Journal of Safety Research
Preeti Chopra, Darla M Castelli, Jonathan B Dingwell
Cell phone related pedestrian injuries are increasing, but the underlying causes remain unclear. Here, we studied how cell phone use directly affected obstacle avoidance ability. Thirty healthy adults participated. Cognitive capacity was quantified using standard tests. Participants walked on a treadmill in a virtual reality environment with and without performing a texting-like cell phone task. Participants also navigated either 'no', 'simple' or 'complex' object negotiation tasks that directly manipulated the cognitive complexity of this object negotiation task...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Florian Schöberl, Stephanie Irving, Cauchy Pradhan, Stanislavs Bardins, Christoph Trapp, Erich Schneider, Günter Kugler, Peter Bartenstein, Marianne Dieterich, Thomas Brandt, Andreas Zwergal
OBJECTIVE: To investigate long-term recovery of allocentric and egocentric spatial orientation as a sensitive marker for hippocampal and extrahippocampal network function in transient global amnesia (TGA). METHODS: A group of 18 patients with TGA performed an established real-space navigation paradigm, requiring allo- and egocentric spatial orientation abilities, 3 days (postacute stage) and 3 months (follow-up) after symptom onset. Visual exploration behavior and navigation strategy were documented by a gaze-controlled, head-fixed camera...
December 14, 2018: Neurology
Stella K Kang, Lincoln L Berland, William W Mayo-Smith, Jenny K Hoang, Brian R Herts, Alec J Megibow, Pari V Pandharipande
The lack of prospective outcomes studies for many types of incidental findings limits our understanding of both their natural history and the potential efficacy of treatment. To support decision making for the management of incidental findings, major sources of uncertainty in management pathways can be mapped and analyzed using mathematical models. This process yields important insights into how uncertainty influences the best treatment decision. Here, we consider a classification scheme, grounded in decision science, which exposes various levels and types of uncertainty in the management of incidental findings and addresses (1) disease-related risks, which are considered in context of a patient's competing causes of mortality; (2) potential degrees of intervention; (3) strength of evidence; and (4) patients' treatment-related preferences...
December 12, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Sayward Harrison, Xiaoming Li
Though mother-to-child HIV transmission has been dramatically reduced in the past decade, there are currently an estimated 1.8 million children living with HIV across the globe, and over 30% of all new HIV infections occur among youth ages 15-25. While all youth experience developmental challenges, children and adolescents who are living with HIV must navigate these challenges within the context of high HIV stigma and must cope with a host of psychosocial and health-related challenges. In addition, because HIV disproportionately impacts individuals from minority statuses (e...
December 14, 2018: AIDS Care
Jie Li, Zhengyao Jing, Xi Zhang, Jiayu Zhang, Jinqiang Li, Shiyao Gao, Tao Zheng
At present, existing wide range Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) inertial sensors have relatively lower precision and direct measurement of the missile's high-rotation motion inevitably uses a large-range sensor. To achieve high-precision navigation, this paper proposes a novel Semi-strap-down Stabilized Platform (SSP) based on the Missile-borne Semi-Strap-down Inertial Navigation System, which is used to mount sensors and lowers sensor range requirements through isolating the high-rotational motion of missile...
December 13, 2018: Sensors
Lénie J Torregrossa, Matthew A Snodgress, Seok Jin Hong, Heathman S Nichols, Enrico Glerean, Lauri Nummenmaa, Sohee Park
Objective: Embodied emotions arise from interoceptive and somatosensory processes, and are essential to the development of a stable sense of self. Emotional embodiment is therefore inherently interwoven with our sense of bodily self-awareness, and allows us to navigate complex social situations. Given that the core feature of schizophrenia (SZ) is characterized by the presence of bodily self-disturbances and social-emotional deficits, we hypothesized that embodiment of emotion would be disrupted in SZ...
December 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Kristen Gilmore Powell, Peter Treitler, N Andrew Peterson, Suzanne Borys, Donald Hallcom
BACKGROUND: Fatal opioid overdose is a national public health concern in the United States and a critical problem confronting New Jersey's addiction treatment system. New Jersey developed an innovative program, the Opioid Overdose Recovery Program (OORP), to address the epidemic and the issue of low treatment admissions following a non-fatal overdose. The OORP utilizes an intervention model with peer recovery specialists (RSs) and patient navigators (PNs) to engage individuals within emergency departments (EDs) immediately following an opioid overdose reversal...
December 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
B Camenen, G Naudet, G Dramais, J Le Coz, A Paquier
A multi-technique approach is proposed to study sand dynamics in an engineered piedmont river. Only a few studies focused on such systems and innovative methodological protocols still need to be designed to better understand sand transport in piedmont rivers where bedload dynamics has been largely modified with nowadays a residual sand transport on a fixed gravel matrix. The proposed methodology is based on an analysis of bathymetry and turbidity measurements and on modelling, including the development of sediment rating curves and 2D numerical modelling, and using sediment budgeting for cross-validation...
December 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Vanessa Lanoue, Helen M Cooper
A neuron's contribution to the information flow within a neural circuit is governed by the structure of its dendritic arbor. The geometry of the dendritic arbor directly determines synaptic density and the size of the receptive field, both of which influence the firing pattern of the neuron. Importantly, the position of individual dendritic branches determines the identity of the neuron's presynaptic partner and thus the nature of the incoming sensory information. To generate the unique stereotypic architecture of a given neuronal subtype, nascent branches must emerge from the dendritic shaft at preprogramed branch points...
December 11, 2018: Developmental Biology
Zejia Zheng, Xiang Wu, Juyang Weng
Traditional Turing Machines (TMs) are symbolic whose hand-crafted representations are static and limited. Developmental Network 1 (DN-1) uses emergent representation to perform Turing Computation. But DN-1 lacks hierarchy in its internal representations, and is hard to handle the complex visual navigation tasks. In this paper, we improve DN-1 with several new mechanisms and presenta new emergent neural Turing Machine - Developmental Network 2 (DN-2). By neural, we mean that the control of the TM has neurons as basic computing elements...
November 27, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Torben Elgaard Jensen, Anne K Kleberg Hansen, Stanley Ulijaszek, Anders K Munk, Anders K Madsen, Line Hillersdal, Astrid P Jespersen
The recent rise of computation-based methods in social science has opened new opportunities for exploring qualitative questions through analysis of large amounts of text. This article uses a mixed-methods design that incorporates machine reading, network analysis, semantic analysis, and qualitative analysis of 414 highly cited publications on obesogenic environments between 2001 and 2015. The method produces an elaborate network map exhibiting five distinct notions of environment, all of which are currently active in the field of obesity research...
December 14, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
L L Shi, H T Zhen
Objective: To explore the application and to evaluate the advantage of image navigation assisted nasal endoscopic surgery in optic nerve decompression. Method: Sixty patients accepted the image navigation assisted nasal endoscopic surgery therapy in optic nerve decompression were included in this retrospective study and followed up for about six months to four years. Result: The visual acuity was improved in 16 cases with visual acuity above light. One case is 10 cm index, two cases are 40 cm index, one case is 70 cm index, the visual acuity of rest 12 cases was between 0...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Cecilia Hultstrand Ahlin, Åsa Hörnsten, Anna-Britt Coe, Mikael Lilja, Senada Hajdarevic
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore patients' experiences of contact and interaction with healthcare professionals (HCPs) during the diagnostic process of melanoma. BACKGROUND: In Sweden, most patients with suspected skin lesions seek care at the primary level of services in the first instance. Previous research describe the diagnostic process as a complex journey with uncertainty. Nonetheless, the importance of contact and interaction between patient and HCPs during the diagnostic process is rarely explored...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Hanneke Wiltjer, Kate Seers, Elizabeth Tutton
AIM: To explore assessment on a hospital ward for older people from the perspectives of patients and healthcare professionals. DESIGN: A qualitative study drawing on grounded theory was undertaken between February 2015 - January 2016. METHODS: Interviews with 15 patients and 22 healthcare professionals, a focus group with six healthcare professionals, 45 hours of observation and review of 18 sets of patient notes. Analysis was conducted using initial and focused coding, continuously comparing data, emerging codes and themes...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Ivica Kostović, Iris Žunić Išasegi, Željka Krsnik
The objective of this paper was to collect normative data essential for analyzing the subplate (SP) role in pathogenesis of developmental disorders, characterized by abnormal circuitry, such as hypoxic-ischemic lesions, autism and schizophrenia. The main cytological features of the SP, such as low cell density, early differentiation of neurons and glia, plexiform arrangement of axons and dendrites, presence of synapses and a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) distinguish this compartment from the cell-dense cortical plate (CP; towards pia) and large fiber bundles of external axonal strata of fetal white matter (towards ventricle)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
S P Verney, L E Gibbons, N O Dmitrieva, A M Kueider, M W Williams, O L Meyer, J J Manly, S M Sisco, M Marsiske
OBJECTIVE: Health literacy is critical for understanding information from healthcare providers and correct use of medications and includes the capacity to filter other information in navigating health care systems. Older adults with low health literacy exhibit more chronic health conditions, worse physical functioning, and poorer mental health. This study examined the relationship between sociodemographic variables and health literacy, and the impact of cognitive training on change in health literacy over 10 years in older adults...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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