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Yiqun Mo, Yue Zhang, Qunwei Zhang
Nanoparticles can enter the body via the lungs, the digestive tract, and the skin. The pulmonary effects of nanoparticles and the underlying mechanisms may be investigated by histopathological examination, immunostaining, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and so on. BAL is a simple, fast, and inexpensive method that is commonly used to investigate the immune cells and acellular components in the lungs, which reflect the health state of the lungs. In this chapter, we describe the detailed procedures of performing BAL on mouse lungs...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
A Stillhard, S Cazzaniga, L Borradori, Helmut Beltraminelli
The histopathological differentiation of melanocytic nevi from malignant melanoma (MM) is based on well-known criteria, and is straightforward in the vast majority of cases. However, there are few cases of melanocytic lesions (ML), the diagnosis of which is very challenging or even impossible. Here we have studied several morphological characteristics with particular focus on elastic fibers (EF) to identify features, helpful for the distinction between nevi and MM. In a monocentric retrospective study we have analyzed 14 morphological histological characteristics in 30 MMs and 90 nevi, encompassing 30 compound/dermal nevi, 30 junctional nevi, 30 dysplastic nevi...
December 13, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Zhi Dong, Kun Huang, Bing Liao, Huasong Cai, Yu Dong, Mengqi Huang, Xiaoqi Zhou, Yingmei Jia, Ling Xu, Yanji Luo, Zi-Ping Li, Shi-Ting Feng
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of prediction for targeted therapy-related gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one patients (81 men, mean age 53.9 ± 12 years) with solitary HCC who underwent preoperative enhanced MRI were retrospectively analyzed. Features including tumor size, signal homogeneity, tumor capsule, tumor margin, intratumoral vessels, peritumor enhancement, peritumor hypointensity, signal intensity ratio on DWI, T1 relaxation times, and the reduction rate between pre- and post-contrast enhancement images were assessed...
December 13, 2018: European Radiology
Meng-Chen Zhang, Xue-Hua Li, Si-Yun Huang, Ren Mao, Zhuang-Nian Fang, Qing-Hua Cao, Zhong-Wei Zhang, Xu Yan, Min-Hu Chen, Zi-Ping Li, Can-Hui Sun, Shi-Ting Feng
OBJECTIVES: Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides information on both perfusion and diffusion and has been used to evaluate Crohn's disease (CD) activity and fibrosis in children; however, there are no reports on its use in adults. We aimed to determine its value for detecting and grading intestinal fibrosis in adults with CD compared with contrast-enhanced imaging and traditional diffusion-weighted imaging using surgical histopathology as a reference standard...
December 13, 2018: European Radiology
Christophe T Arendt, Martin Beeres, Doris Leithner, Patricia Tischendorf, Marcel Langenbach, Benjamin Kaltenbach, Jasmin Dalgicdir, Thomas J Vogl, Tatjana Gruber-Rouh
OBJECTIVES: Increasing awareness of potential side effects from gadolinium-based contrast agents has underlined the need for contrast-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Numerous recent articles evaluated the risk of potential brain deposits, with the result that research is putting the focus more on alternative unenhanced imaging techniques. The aim of this study was to determine the need for contrast media for chest MRI in primary staging and follow-up care of lymphoma. METHODS: This monocentric, retrospective study encompassed patients under 25 years of age who had undergone histopathological examination of thoracic lymph nodes and at least one chest MRI examination with unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sequences...
December 13, 2018: European Radiology
Andrea Ciavattini, Matteo Serri, Jacopo Di Giuseppe, Carlo A Liverani, Maria G Fallani, Dimitrios Tsiroglou, Maria Papiccio, Giovanni Delli Carpini, Annalisa Pieralli, Nicolò Clemente, Francesco Sopracordevole
During pregnancy, the only diagnosis that may alter management is invasive cancer. Thus, the primary aim of the cytological screening and subsequent colposcopy performed during pregnancy should be the exclusion of invasive cancer, "Practice Bulletin No. 140: management of abnormal cervical cancer screening test results and cervical cancer precursors," (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2013) [1]. However, the impact of the delivery on the regression of the cervical lesions is still debated...
December 2018: Data in Brief
Sakthivel Chinnakkulam Kandhasamy, Anubhav Sangwan, Ashok K Sahoo, Gopalakrishnan Gunasekaran, Neelam Sahani, Thangadurai Ramasamy Raju, Subhashini Puducherry Ravichandran
Cecal leiomyomas are rare benign tumors of smooth muscle arising from the colonic muscularis mucosa or muscularis propria. They are usually asymptomatic in nature and, if symptomatic, may present as pain in the abdomen, intestinal obstruction, or bleeding. In some cases, leiomyoma can cause free perforation leading to peritonitis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and colonoscopy were the diagnostic modalities used for evaluation. It is extremely unusual for a benign lesion of the cecum to present as a ruptured subcutaneous abscess...
October 9, 2018: Curēus
Joseph S Raleigh, Matthew R Lanza, James A Perry
Case summary: A 15-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented for hyporexia and acute development of L4-Cd myelopathy (urinary incontinence, pelvic limb paresis with hyporeflexia and absent tail tone). Humane euthanasia was elected owing to the rapid neurological deterioration and necropsy was performed. Post-mortem examination identified a right-sided anal sac mass and medial iliac lymphadenopathy. No gross lesions were evident in the cauda equina or peripheral nerves...
July 2018: JFMS Open Reports
Nizhen Xu, Yanbing Jian, Yaxi Wang, Wen Tian
The aim of the present study was to investigate potential predictive factors of lymph node metastasis (LNM) and distant metastasis (DM) of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). A total of 61 patients newly diagnosed with MTC at the General Hospital of the Chinese People's Liberation Army between January 2001 and January 2016 were enrolled and divided into two groups according to the results of preoperative examinations and surgical histopathology as follows: Group NM (without metastases), and group M (with metastases)...
December 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Shu Matsushita, Taro Shimono, Takeo Goto, Satoshi Doishita, Yuko Kuwae, Yukio Miki
Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare neoplasms classified as World Health Organization grade I tumors. CPPs containing other tissues have occasionally been documented in the literature. However, few of these previous reports have provided clinical and radiological information. We herein report a case of a posterior fossa CPP with focal ependymal differentiation in a 42-year-old woman who presented with a 6-month history of progressive headache. Preoperative radiological images showed a hypervascular tumor protruding into the left foramen of Luschka with perilesional edema...
March 2019: Radiology Case Reports
Susumu Matsukuma, Kiyohaya Obara, Yoshitaka Utsumi, Kosuke Miyai, Hiroaki Takeo, Yoshiro Oshika, Koji Sensaki
Cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), p63, and p40 are commonly used as immunohistochemical markers for squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) of the lung. To elucidate their positivity in primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma (PPC), the present study examined 4 PPCs, including 1 surgically removed PPC and 3 postmortem PPCs. All PPCs consisted of nested cytotrophoblastic tumor cells and occasional syncytiotrophoblastic tumor cells although 1 surgically removed PPC was markedly affected by pre-operative therapy-associated necrosis and 3 postmortem PPCs coexisted with adenocarcinoma...
December 2018: Oncology Letters
Ana Roguljic, Gulio Spagnoli, Antonio Juretic, Bozena Sarcevic, Marija Banovic, Lidija Beketic Oreskovic
Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a large family of tumor-associated antigens expressed in human tumors of different histological origin, but not in normal tissues, with the exception of the testes and placenta. Numerous immunohistochemical studies have reported associations between CTA expression and a negative estrogen receptor (ER) status in breast tumors, and demonstrated that CTAs are frequently expressed in tumors with higher nuclear grade. The expression of CTAs has not been studied as extensively in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as it has been in invasive breast cancer...
December 2018: Oncology Letters
Huifang Liu, Siming Tao, Hongxia Ma, Jing Jin, Jing Jing, Li Yao, Xiulan Ma, Fengsen Li
The aim of this study was to investigated the functional changes of airway epithelial cells and mitochondria in rat models of asthenic lung and phlegm blocking combined with cough variant asthma (CVA). Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: Control and model group, with 8 rats in each group. On the basis of the CVA rat model induced and sensitized by ovalbumin and aluminum hydroxide, the rat models with asthenic lung and phlegm blocking combined with CVA were established via smoking stimulation...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Nivea F Luz, Thiago DeSouza-Vieira, Waldione De Castro, Aislan Carvalho Vivarini, Lais Pereira, Riam Rocha França, Paulo S Silveira-Mattos, Diego L Costa, Clarissa Teixeira, Claudio Meneses, Viviane S Boaventura, Camila I de Oliveira, Ulisses Gazos Lopes, Naomi Aronson, Bruno B Andrade, Claudia I Brodskyn, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Valeria M Borges
Sand flies bite mammalian hosts to obtain a blood meal, driving changes in the host inflammatory response that support the establishment of Leishmania infection. This effect is partially attributed to components of sand fly saliva, which are able to recruit and activate leukocytes. Our group has shown that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) favors Leishmania survival in infected cells by reducing inflammatory responses. Here, we show that exposure to sand fly bites is associated with induction of HO-1 in vivo . Histopathological analyses of skin specimens from human volunteers experimentally exposed to sand fly bites revealed that HO-1 and Nrf2 are produced at bite sites in the skin...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiaoye Fan, Hongming Lv, Lidong Wang, Xuming Deng, Xinxin Ci
Oxidative stress has been highlighted as therapeutic targets for acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Isoorientin (Iso), a well-known flavonoid-like compound, has been shown to have antioxidant potential. However, the effect of Iso on APAP-induced liver injury has not yet been elucidated. The present study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Iso and its underlying mechanism. C57BL/6J mice were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Iso in vivo and HepG2 cells were utilized to further decipher the mechanisms of Iso -induced Nrf2 activation...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Nitasha Gandhi, Harit Talwar, Sumir Gandhi, Vijay Alageshan, George Abraham, Surbhi Mehdiratta
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is relatively common in the Indian subcontinent with surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy/chemotherapy being the treatment modality of choice. Prosthetic rehabilitation with an obturator following resection is more economical and yields satisfactory results. Better patient acceptance and comfort necessitates hollowing the prosthesis to a great extent. This novel method modifies the existing lost-wax technique in fabricating a definitive hollow maxillary obturator...
July 2018: National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
Shreya Singh, Vineeta Gupta, Ruchieka Vij, Rashmi Aggarwal, Bhagwat Sharma, Madhav Nagpal
Introduction: Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral lichen planus are the precancerous or potentially malignant lesions and conditions whereas oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a cancerous or malignant lesion of the oral cavity. They have characteristic clinical and histopathological features. These diseases not only originate from epithelium but also associated with chronic inflammation juxta-epithellialy. Mast cells present in the connective tissue stroma and release pro-inflammatory and mitogenic cytokines...
July 2018: National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
Haridas Das Adhikari, Aparna Gupta
The procedure of regeneration has shown promising results in the treatment of nonvital teeth with immature apices. However, the tissue being regenerated can only be confirmed through histological examination. This report describes an immature nonvital 12 with apical pathology which was treated via revascularization using 3% NaOCl and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as irrigants; Ca(OH)2 as intracanal medicament and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as scaffold. On follow-up at 6 and 12 months, healing of periapical lesion, dentinal thickening, and apical closure with a canal exit forming distally were evident...
November 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Z Liu, W Hu, Z Sun, X Wang, L Liu, X Shao, K Zhang, Y Ma, J Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Type II focal cortical dysplasia is a common histopathological substrate in focal epilepsy. This study explored the spatial distribution of abnormal findings on MR imaging across the sulcus with type II focal cortical dysplasia using quantitative MR imaging postprocessing techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The morphometric analysis program and normalized FLAIR signal intensity analysis were applied to retrospectively analyze the MR imaging data of 58 patients with histopathologically confirmed type II focal cortical dysplasia...
December 13, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Cédric Draulans, Steven Joniau, Valérie Fonteyne, Louke Delrue, Karel Decaestecker, Wouter Everaerts, Piet Dirix, Laura Van den Bergh, Wouter Crijns, Hans Vandendriessche, Lodewijk Van Wynsberge, Piet Ost, Nicolaas Lumen, Pieterjan Buelens, Karin Haustermans, Charlien Berghen, Gert De Meerleer
BACKGROUND: In patients with prostate cancer (PCa) with histopathologically proven pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis (pN1) after extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND), multimodality treatment consisting of treatment of the primary tumor and whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) offers promising results, leading to better cause-specific survival rates compared with ADT alone. However, in case more than one pelvic LN is invaded by the tumor, approximately 40% of the patients relapse biochemically and clinically...
December 13, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
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