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Tumour cell implantation

I A Clark, B Vissel
While cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) are long recognised as essential to normal cerebral physiology, the implications of their chronic excessive production within the brain are now also increasingly appreciated. Syndromes as diverse malaria and lead poisoning, as well as the non-infectious neurodegenerative diseases illustrate this. These cytokines also orchestrate changes in tau, α-synuclein, β-amyloid levels and degree of insulin resistance in most neurodegenerative states. New data on the effects of salbutamol, an anti-TNF agent, on α-synuclein and Parkinson's disease, APOE4 and tau add considerably to the rationale of the anti-TNF approach to understanding, and treating, these diseases...
August 10, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Maral E A Tabrizi, Tara L Lancaster, Thamir M Ismail, Athina Georgiadou, Ankana Ganguly, Jayna J Mistry, Keqing Wang, Philip S Rudland, Shakil Ahmad, Stephane R Gross
S100P has been shown to be a marker for carcinogenesis where its expression in solid tumours correlates with metastasis and a poor patient prognosis. This protein's role in any physiological process is, however, unknown. Here we first show that S100P is expressed both in trophoblasts in vivo as well as in some corresponding cell lines in culture. We demonstrate that S100P is predominantly expressed during the early stage of placental formation with its highest expression levels occurring during the first trimester of gestation, particularly in the invading columns and anchoring villi...
July 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael Kehrer, Sebastian Koob, Andreas Kehrer, Dieter Christian Wirtz, Jan Schmolders
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a haematological blood cancer in elderly patients, in which neoplastic cell populations cause osteolytic destruction in the bone skeleton. More than 50% of all patients sustain pathological fractures during the course of their disease. Of all malignant lesions of the spine, multiple myeloma is the most frequent spinal tumour and accounts for approximately 15% of all cases. 8 - 10% of the patients develop neurological deficits. In addition to systemic antineoplastic therapy, surgical treatment is often required in order to reconstruct and stabilise bone defects associated with multiple myeloma, as well as to address tumour-related complications...
July 31, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Lili Liang, Zhixin Zhang, Xiaowei Qin, Ying Gao, Peng Zhao, Jing Liu, Weihui Zeng
Malignant melanoma is an aggressive form of cancer which is highly resistant to chemotherapy. We have previously found that gambogic acid (GA), a kind of polyprenylated xanthone, exhibits an anti-tumour role in melanoma. The study was designed to investigate novel mechanisms of the anti-tumour effect of GA in melanoma cells and implanted nude mice. GA significantly decreased cell viability, increased apoptosis and reduced migration and invasion in A375 cells. In addition, cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in both A375 and A375/CDDP cells was increased by GA...
June 30, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Hor-Yue Tan, Ning Wang, Sha Li, Ming Hong, Wei Guo, Kwan Man, Chien-Shan Cheng, Zhen Chen, Yibin Feng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex process which involves deregulation of multiple signalling pathways. The hyper-activation of Wnt signalling promotes sustained expansion, invasion, and neovascularization of HCC. Mangiferin, a natural small molecule present in Mangifera indica L. has been shown to inactivate β-catenin, which is an indispensable regulator in Wnt pathway. Our study aimed to determine whether mangiferin has any inhibitory effect on HCC and examine how it modulates Wnt signalling...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Joan Comenge, Jack Sharkey, Oihane Fragueiro, Bettina Wilm, Mathias Brust, Patricia Murray, Raphael Levy, Antonius Plagge
Understanding the fate of exogenous cells after implantation is important for clinical applications. Preclinical studies allow imaging of cell location and survival. Labelling with nanoparticles enables high sensitivity detection, but cell division and cell death cause signal dilution and false positives. By contrast, genetic reporter signals are amplified by cell division. Here, we characterise lentivirus-based bi-cistronic reporter gene vectors and silica-coated gold nanorods (GNRs) as synergistic tools for cell labelling and tracking...
June 27, 2018: ELife
Hongfei Qi, Qiang Chen, Hailong Ren, Xianglong Wu, Xianhu Liu, Tingli Lu
Surface modification of metallic implants with bioactive and biodegradable coatings could be a promising approach for bone regeneration. The objective of this study was to prepare chitosan/gelatin nanospheres (GNs) composite coating for the delivery of dexamethasone (DEX). GNs with narrow size distribution and negative surface charge were firstly prepared by a two-step desolvation method. Homogeneous and stable gelatin nanospheres/chitosan (GNs/CTS) composite coatings were formed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD)...
May 18, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
R E G Rici, S E A L Will, A C L Luna, L F Melo, A C Santos, R F Rodrigues, R M Leandro, D A Maria
Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common malignant bone cancer in children and dogs. The therapeutic protocols adopted for dogs and humans are very similar, involving surgical options such as amputation. Besides surgical options, radiotherapy and chemotherapy also are adopted. However, hematologic, gastrointestinal and renal toxicity may occur because of chemotherapy treatments. Recent study clearly showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) may be associated with decreases of the tumorigenic potential of canine OSA...
May 20, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Richard B Berish, Aymon N Ali, Patrick G Telmer, John A Ronald, Hon S Leong
Metastatic disease is the principal cause of prostate-cancer-related mortality. Our ability to accurately recapitulate the spread of prostate cancer to bone - the most common site of metastasis - is critical to the development of novel metastasis-directed therapies. Several translational models of prostate cancer bone metastasis have been developed, including animal models, cell line injection models, 3D in vitro models, bone implant models, and patient-derived xenograft models. The use of these models has led to numerous advances in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of metastasis and innovations in targeted therapy...
July 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
E Schültke, E Bräuer-Krisch, H Blattmann, H Requardt, J A Laissue, G Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND: Resistance to radiotherapy is frequently encountered in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. It is caused at least partially by the high glutathione content in the tumour tissue. Therefore, the administration of the glutathione synthesis inhibitor Buthionine-SR-Sulfoximine (BSO) should increase survival time. METHODS: BSO was tested in combination with an experimental synchrotron-based treatment, microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), characterized by spatially and periodically alternating microscopic dose distribution...
May 10, 2018: Radiation Oncology
E Matutes
Over the last decade, there has been a significant body of information regarding the biology of the lymphoid neoplasms. This clearly supports the need for updating the 2008 WHO (World Health Organization) classification of haematopoietic and lymphoid tumours. The 2017 WHO classification is not a new edition but an update and revision of the 4th edition. New provisional entities but not new definitive entities are included, and novel molecular data in most of the entities and changes in the nomenclature in few of them have been incorporated...
May 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Naside Mangir, Ahtasham Raza, John W Haycock, Christopher Chapple, Sheila Macneil
BACKGROUND/AIM: Decreasing the vascularity of a tumour has proven to be an effective strategy to suppress tumour growth and metastasis. Anti-angiogenic therapies have revolutionized the treatment of advanced-stage cancers, however there is still demand for further improvement. This necessitates new experimental models that will allow researchers to reliably study aspects of angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to demonstrate an in vivo technique in which the highly vascular and accessible chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo is used to study tumour-induced changes in the macro and microvessels...
May 2018: In Vivo
V Yeung, J P Webber, E A Dunlop, H Morgan, J Hutton, M Gurney, E Jones, J Falcon-Perez, Z Tabi, R Errington, A Clayton
Communication between diseased cells and the microenvironment is a complex yet crucial element in progression of varied pathological processes. Recent studies in cancer highlight an important role for small extracellular nanovesicles secreted by cancer cells as modulators of cancer-associated stroma, leading to enhanced angiogenesis and metastatic priming. The intrinsic factors regulating extracellular nanovesicle biogenesis and secretion are therefore relevant in studies of nano-communication in the cancer milieu...
May 10, 2018: Nanoscale
Qing-Guo Xu, Jian Yu, Xing-Gang Guo, Guo-Jun Hou, Sheng-Xian Yuan, Yuan Yang, Yun Yang, Hui Liu, Ze-Ya Pan, Fu Yang, Fang-Ming Gu, Wei-Ping Zhou
We previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is associated with the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its role in the invasion-metastasis cascade of HCC and the efficacy of IL-17A-targeting therapeutics in HCC remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that IL-17A promoted intrahepatic and pulmonary metastasesis of HCC cells in an orthotopic implant model. Moreover, our results showed that IL-17A induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promoted HCC cell colonization in vitro and in vivo, and the role of IL-17A in invasion-metastasis was dependent on activation of the AKT pathway...
June 2018: Molecular Oncology
K Yu, A S Youshani, F L Wilkinson, C O'Leary, P Cook, L Laaniste, A Liao, D Mosses, C Waugh, H Shorrock, O Pathmanaban, A Macdonald, I Kamaly-Asl, F Roncaroli, B W Bigger
AIMS: Resident and peripherally derived glioma associated microglia/macrophages (GAMM) play a key role in driving tumour progression, angiogenesis, invasion and attenuating host immune responses. Differentiating these cells' origins is challenging and current preclinical models such as irradiation-based adoptive transfer, parabiosis and transgenic mice have limitations. We aimed to develop a novel nonmyeloablative transplantation (NMT) mouse model that permits high levels of peripheral chimerism without blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage or brain infiltration prior to tumour implantation...
April 20, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Abbas Shafiee, Jacqui A McGovern, Christoph A Lahr, Christoph Meinert, Davide Moi, Ferdinand Wagner, Marietta Landgraf, Elena De-Juan-Pardo, Roberta Mazzieri, Dietmar W Hutmacher
Despite significant advances, most current in vivo models fail to fully recapitulate the biological processes that occur in humans. Here we aimed to develop an advanced humanized model with features of an organ bone by providing different bone tissue cellular compartments including preosteoblasts, mesenchymal stem/stromal (MSCs), endothelial and hematopoietic cells in an engineered microenvironment. The bone compartment was generated by culturing the human MSCs, umbilical vein endothelial cells with gelatin methacryloyl hydrogels in the center of a melt-electrospun polycaprolactone tubular scaffolds, which were seeded with human preosteoblasts...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Qianqian Chen, Aijie Xin, Ronggui Qu, Wenbi Zhang, Lu Li, Junling Chen, Xiang Lu, Yongwei Gu, Jing Li, Xiaoxi Sun
Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase 3 (ENPP3), a protein detected in the human uterus, has been found to play an important role in the development and invasion of tumours. It was recently discovered that ENPP3 was upregulated during the window of implantation in the human endometrium but its functional relevance remains elusive. The objective was to determine ENPP3 expression in human endometrium and its roles in endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. ENPP3 expression was analysed using immunohistochemistry and western blot assay...
April 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Gessica Giusto, Giangiacomo Beretta, Cristina Vercelli, Emanuela Valle, Selina Iussich, Roberta Borghi, Patrizio Odetti, Fiammetta Monacelli, Clara Tramuta, Elena Grego, Patrizia Nebbia, Patrizia Robino, Rosangela Odore, Marco Gandini
BACKGROUND: Novel pectin-honey hydrogels have been developed and characterized as medical device. Ideally, a wound dressing should maintain optimal fluid affinity, permit moisture evaporation, protect the wound from microbes, and have shape-conformability, biocompatibility, and antibacterial activity. OBJECTIVE: A novel, simple and fast method to produce pectin-honey wound dressings is described. METHODS: The properties of these pectin-honey hydrogels were investigated, including swelling ability, water vapour transmission rate, hydrogen peroxide production, methylglyoxal content and antibacterial activity...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
María Agustina Castro, Boris Rodenak-Kladniew, Adriana Massone, Mónica Polo, Margarita García de Bravo, Rosana Crespo
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for most cases of lung cancer. The peel oil of mandarin Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Dancy (MPO) is a natural source of essential oils and carotenoids. Volatile and non-volatile lipid compounds were characterized by chromatographic methods. We demonstrate that MPO causes a dose-dependent growth inhibition of NSCLC model cells (A549) in culture and tumour growth in vivo of the same cells implanted in nude mice fed with MPO-supplemented diets. MPO induced cell cycle arrest mainly at the G0/G1 phase and reduced the amount of membrane-bound Ras protein along with apoptosis induction...
April 25, 2018: Food & Function
P J Asikainen, A M Kullaa, A Koistinen, E A J M Schulten, C M Ten Bruggenkate
The treatment of oral cancer usually consists of surgical removal of the tumour, possibly followed by radiotherapy. The purpose of this dissertation research was to investigate the effects of radiotherapy on the oral tissues, in particular the superficially positioned epithelial cells in the oral mucosa. Earlier studies with electron microscopy revealed that unradiated oral mucosa cells, when observed at high magnification, contain microplicae (ridges or folds). Together with various saliva components, these microplicae form a protective layer that offers defence against, for instance, microorganisms...
March 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
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