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Tumour cell implantation

Barbara Kutryb-Zajac, Patrycja Koszalka, Paulina Mierzejewska, Alicja Bulinska, Magdalena A Zabielska, Karolina Brodzik, Aleksandra Skrzypkowska, Lukasz Zelazek, Iwona Pelikant-Malecka, Ewa M Slominska, Ryszard T Smolenski
The activity of a cell-surface ecto-adenosine deaminase (eADA) is markedly increased in the endothelial activation and vascular inflammation leading to decreased adenosine concentration and alterations in adenosine signalling. Depending on the specific pathway activated, extracellular purines mediate host cell response or regulate growth and cytotoxicity on tumour cells. The aim of this study was to test the effects of adenosine deaminase inhibition by 2'deoxycoformycin (dCF) on the breast cancer development...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Stefano Gambera, Ander Abarrategi, Fernando González-Camacho, Álvaro Morales-Molina, Josep Roma, Arantzazu Alfranca, Javier García-Castro
Osteosarcoma is a type of bone tumour characterized by considerable levels of phenotypic heterogeneity, aneuploidy, and a high mutational rate. The life expectancy of osteosarcoma patients has not changed during the last three decades and thus much remains to be learned about the disease biology. Here, we employ a RGB-based single-cell tracking system to study the clonal dynamics occurring in a de novo-induced murine osteosarcoma model. We show that osteosarcoma cells present initial polyclonal dynamics, followed by clonal dominance associated with adaptation to the microenvironment...
September 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Giovanni Beltrami
Giant cell tumours (GCT) of the finger phalanges are extremely rare but have a high rate of recurrence. This report details the case of a GCT of the proximal phalanx of the fourth finger in a 64-year-old man. The patient was initially subjected to systemic neoadjuvant denosumab treatment, and subsequent aggressive curettage, sparing of the articular joints, local cryotherapy and autologous intercalary fibular bone graft. Finger function after surgery was considered satisfactory, despite limited proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint motion...
September 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Areerat Kunanopparat, Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Anapat Sanpavat, Suthiluk Patumraj, Pisit Tangkijvanich, Tanapat Palaga, Nattiya Hirankarn
AIM: To investigate the role of Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) on tumour growth in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vivo . METHODS: We suppressed DLL4 expression in an HBV expressing HCC cell line, HepG2.2.15 and analysed the growth ability of cells as subcutaneous tumours in nude mice. The expression of tumour angiogenesis regulators, VEGF-A and VEGF-R2 in tumour xenografts were examined by western blotting. The tumour proliferation and neovasculature were examined by immunohistochemistry...
September 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Rozina Aktar, Antje Dietrich, Falk Tillner, Shady Kotb, Steffen Löck, Henning Willers, Michael Baumann, Mechthild Krause, Rebecca Bütof
Objective Clinically relevant animal models of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) are required for the validation of novel treatments. We compared two different orthotopic transplantation techniques as well as imaging modalities to identify suitable mouse models mimicking clinical scenarios. Methods We used three genomically diverse NSCLC cell lines [National Cancer Institute (NCI)-H1703 adenosquamous cell carcinoma, NCI-H23 adenocarcinoma and A549 adenocarcinoma) for implanting tumour cells either as spheroids or cell suspension into lung parenchyma...
September 14, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Jianlong Li, Qingbin Li, Lin Lin, Rui Wang, Lingchao Chen, Wenzhong Du, Chuanlu Jiang, Ruiyan Li
BACKGROUND: Glioma metastasis, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chemoresistance indicate poor prognosis. Accumulating evidence reveals that Notch1 is an important factor in tumour progression. However, the role of Notch1 in glioma EMT and associated microRNAs (miRNAs) with the Notch pathway remain controversial. METHODS: Utilizing cBioPortal database to examine the gene signature of NOTCH1 (encoding Notch1), CDH2 (encoding N-cadherin) and SNAI1 (encoding Snail-1) in disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS)...
August 31, 2018: BMC Neurology
Linda A Buss, Anishah Mandani, Elisabeth Phillips, Nicola J A Scott, Margaret J Currie, Gabi U Dachs
BACKGROUND/AIM: Patients with breast cancer and metabolic syndrome have poorer outcomes. We aimed to develop and characterise an apolipoprotein E-null/aromatase knockout (ApoE-/- /ArKO) mouse model of breast cancer with metabolic syndrome to aid research of the mechanisms behind poor prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wild-type, ApoE-/- and ApoE-/- /ArKO mice were orthotopically implanted with EO771 murine breast cancer cells. Tumour growth was monitored and tumours investigated for pathological features such as cancer-associated adipocytes, hypoxia and cancer cell proliferation...
September 2018: In Vivo
I A Clark, B Vissel
While cytokines such as TNF have long been recognized as essential to normal cerebral physiology, the implications of their chronic excessive production within the brain are now also increasingly appreciated. Syndromes as diverse as malaria and lead poisoning, as well as non-infectious neurodegenerative diseases, illustrate this. These cytokines also orchestrate changes in tau, α-synuclein, amyloid-β levels and degree of insulin resistance in most neurodegenerative states. New data on the effects of salbutamol, an indirect anti-TNF agent, on α-synuclein and Parkinson's disease, APOE4 and tau add considerably to the rationale of the anti-TNF approach to understanding, and treating, these diseases...
October 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Maral E A Tabrizi, Tara L Lancaster, Thamir M Ismail, Athina Georgiadou, Ankana Ganguly, Jayna J Mistry, Keqing Wang, Philip S Rudland, Shakil Ahmad, Stephane R Gross
S100P has been shown to be a marker for carcinogenesis where its expression in solid tumours correlates with metastasis and a poor patient prognosis. This protein's role in any physiological process is, however, unknown. Here we first show that S100P is expressed both in trophoblasts in vivo as well as in some corresponding cell lines in culture. We demonstrate that S100P is predominantly expressed during the early stage of placental formation with its highest expression levels occurring during the first trimester of gestation, particularly in the invading columns and anchoring villi...
July 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael Kehrer, Sebastian Koob, Andreas Kehrer, Dieter Christian Wirtz, Jan Schmolders
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a haematological blood cancer in elderly patients, in which neoplastic cell populations cause osteolytic destruction in the bone skeleton. More than 50% of all patients sustain pathological fractures during the course of their disease. Of all malignant lesions of the spine, multiple myeloma is the most frequent spinal tumour and accounts for approximately 15% of all cases. 8 - 10% of the patients develop neurological deficits. In addition to systemic antineoplastic therapy, surgical treatment is often required in order to reconstruct and stabilise bone defects associated with multiple myeloma, as well as to address tumour-related complications...
July 31, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Lili Liang, Zhixin Zhang, Xiaowei Qin, Ying Gao, Peng Zhao, Jing Liu, Weihui Zeng
Malignant melanoma is an aggressive form of cancer which is highly resistant to chemotherapy. We have previously found that gambogic acid (GA), a kind of polyprenylated xanthone, exhibits an antitumour role in melanoma. The study was designed to investigate novel mechanisms of the antitumour effect of GA in melanoma cells and implanted nude mice. Gambogic acid significantly decreased cell viability, increased apoptosis and reduced migration and invasion in A375 cells. In addition, cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in both A375 and A375/CDDP cells was increased by GA...
June 30, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Hor-Yue Tan, Ning Wang, Sha Li, Ming Hong, Wei Guo, Kwan Man, Chien-Shan Cheng, Zhen Chen, Yibin Feng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex process which involves deregulation of multiple signalling pathways. The hyper-activation of Wnt signalling promotes sustained expansion, invasion, and neovascularization of HCC. Mangiferin, a natural small molecule present in Mangifera indica L. has been shown to inactivate β-catenin, which is an indispensable regulator in Wnt pathway. Our study aimed to determine whether mangiferin has any inhibitory effect on HCC and examine how it modulates Wnt signalling...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Joan Comenge, Jack Sharkey, Oihane Fragueiro, Bettina Wilm, Mathias Brust, Patricia Murray, Raphael Levy, Antonius Plagge
Understanding the fate of exogenous cells after implantation is important for clinical applications. Preclinical studies allow imaging of cell location and survival. Labelling with nanoparticles enables high sensitivity detection, but cell division and cell death cause signal dilution and false positives. By contrast, genetic reporter signals are amplified by cell division. Here, we characterise lentivirus-based bi-cistronic reporter gene vectors and silica-coated gold nanorods (GNRs) as synergistic tools for cell labelling and tracking...
June 27, 2018: ELife
Hongfei Qi, Qiang Chen, Hailong Ren, Xianglong Wu, Xianhu Liu, Tingli Lu
Surface modification of metallic implants with bioactive and biodegradable coatings could be a promising approach for bone regeneration. The objective of this study was to prepare chitosan/gelatin nanospheres (GNs) composite coating for the delivery of dexamethasone (DEX). GNs with narrow size distribution and negative surface charge were firstly prepared by a two-step desolvation method. Homogeneous and stable gelatin nanospheres/chitosan (GNs/CTS) composite coatings were formed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD)...
May 18, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
R E G Rici, S E A L Will, A C L Luna, L F Melo, A C Santos, R F Rodrigues, R M Leandro, D A Maria
Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common malignant bone cancer in children and dogs. The therapeutic protocols adopted for dogs and humans are very similar, involving surgical options such as amputation. Besides surgical options, radiotherapy and chemotherapy also are adopted. However, hematologic, gastrointestinal and renal toxicity may occur because of chemotherapy treatments. Recent study clearly showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) may be associated with decreases of the tumorigenic potential of canine OSA...
May 20, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Richard B Berish, Aymon N Ali, Patrick G Telmer, John A Ronald, Hon S Leong
Metastatic disease is the principal cause of prostate-cancer-related mortality. Our ability to accurately recapitulate the spread of prostate cancer to bone - the most common site of metastasis - is critical to the development of novel metastasis-directed therapies. Several translational models of prostate cancer bone metastasis have been developed, including animal models, cell line injection models, 3D in vitro models, bone implant models, and patient-derived xenograft models. The use of these models has led to numerous advances in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of metastasis and innovations in targeted therapy...
July 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
E Schültke, E Bräuer-Krisch, H Blattmann, H Requardt, J A Laissue, G Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND: Resistance to radiotherapy is frequently encountered in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. It is caused at least partially by the high glutathione content in the tumour tissue. Therefore, the administration of the glutathione synthesis inhibitor Buthionine-SR-Sulfoximine (BSO) should increase survival time. METHODS: BSO was tested in combination with an experimental synchrotron-based treatment, microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), characterized by spatially and periodically alternating microscopic dose distribution...
May 10, 2018: Radiation Oncology
E Matutes
Over the last decade, there has been a significant body of information regarding the biology of the lymphoid neoplasms. This clearly supports the need for updating the 2008 WHO (World Health Organization) classification of haematopoietic and lymphoid tumours. The 2017 WHO classification is not a new edition but an update and revision of the 4th edition. New provisional entities but not new definitive entities are included, and novel molecular data in most of the entities and changes in the nomenclature in few of them have been incorporated...
May 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Naside Mangir, Ahtasham Raza, John W Haycock, Christopher Chapple, Sheila Macneil
BACKGROUND/AIM: Decreasing the vascularity of a tumour has proven to be an effective strategy to suppress tumour growth and metastasis. Anti-angiogenic therapies have revolutionized the treatment of advanced-stage cancers, however there is still demand for further improvement. This necessitates new experimental models that will allow researchers to reliably study aspects of angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to demonstrate an in vivo technique in which the highly vascular and accessible chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo is used to study tumour-induced changes in the macro and microvessels...
May 2018: In Vivo
V Yeung, J P Webber, E A Dunlop, H Morgan, J Hutton, M Gurney, E Jones, J Falcon-Perez, Z Tabi, R Errington, A Clayton
Communication between diseased cells and the microenvironment is a complex yet crucial element in progression of varied pathological processes. Recent studies in cancer highlight an important role for small extracellular nanovesicles secreted by cancer cells as modulators of cancer-associated stroma, leading to enhanced angiogenesis and metastatic priming. The intrinsic factors regulating extracellular nanovesicle biogenesis and secretion are therefore relevant in studies of nano-communication in the cancer milieu...
May 10, 2018: Nanoscale
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