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Paola Lucidi, Francesca Porcellati, Geremia B Bolli, Carmine G Fanelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In addition to assisting in achieving improved glucose control, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor technology may also aid in detection and prevention of hypoglycemia. In this paper, we report on the current scientific evidence on the effectiveness of this technology in the prevention of severe hypoglycemia and hypoglycemia unawareness. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have found that the integration of CGM with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy, a system known as sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy, very significantly reduces the occurrence of these conditions by providing real-time glucose readings/trends and automatically suspending insulin infusion when glucose is low (LGS) or, even, before glucose is low but is predicted to soon be low (PLGS)...
August 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Alexander T Florence
This account of issues in the field of nanotechnologies for specific drug delivery is concerned mainly with its diverse literature. It is a prelude to proposing guidelines to ensure that papers are written acknowledging first the complexity of the task, and second that as there is no such thing as a generic nanoparticle, nor a typical drug, nor standard targets, generalisations are rarely possible. The objective is to discuss some trends which have led to over-confident extrapolations of experimental work in animals to treatment...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Hassan Asadi, Ehsan Mostafavi
Background: Scientometrics is a discipline that analyzes scientific publications to explore the structure and growth of science. In this work, the quantitative evaluation of the productivity of the Iranian Biomedical Journal (IBJ) is reviewed. Methods: The analysis was done based on a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical scientometric study. Data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Scimago Databases (2000-2017). Scopus and Scimago were used for data search and feature analysis...
August 19, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
P Ghaemmaghami, S M Taghi Ayatollahi, V Alinejad, Z Sharafi
BACKGROUND: Growth trajectory standards are important components that need to be monitored for suitable child growth. This study examined longitudinal data to identify the factors affecting growth trajectory standards of height and weight for infants. METHODS: This study included 566 neonates (286 boys and 280 girls) born in West Azerbaijan Province, northwest Iran, who were followed from birth to 4 years of age. The subjects' weight and height were recorded at birth, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9 months and 1, 1...
August 14, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Johannes Milvich, Daria Kohler, Wolfgang Freude, Christian Koos
Waveguide-based biochemical sensors exploit detection of target molecules that bind specifically to a functionalized waveguide surface. For optimum sensitivity, the waveguide should be designed to mediate maximum influence of the surface layer on the effective refractive index of the guided mode. In this paper, we define a surface sensitivity metric which quantifies this impact and which allows to broadly compare different waveguide types and integration platforms. Focusing on silicon nitride and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) as the most common material systems, we systematically analyze and optimize a variety of waveguide types, comprising simple strips, slot and double slot structures, as well as sub-wavelength gratings (SWG)...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Kaijie Liu, Qingbo Yu, Baolan Wang, Qin Qin, Mengqi Wei, Qi Fu
Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (SCR) with loaded urea is a method for removing NO under oxygen-rich and low-temperature conditions, which can solve the inhibitory effect of oxygen on the catalyst and the slip of ammonia. In present study, a series of activated carbon (wo-AC, co-AC, cs-AC and nu-AC) supported metal (Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn) oxide catalysts with loading urea were prepared by ultrasonic assisted impregnation. The catalysts were used for NO removal at 50-120 °C and characterized by XRD, SEM, GFAAS, EDS, XPS, BET and FTIR techniques...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Technology
Junqiang Sun, Mike Chu, Menghua Wang
The follow-up visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS) housed in the NOAA-20 satellite and the first of four in the NOAA Joint Polar Satellite System satellite series, was launched on 18 November 2017. The on-orbit satellite yaw maneuver operation was carried out on 25-26 January 2018 over 15 scheduled orbits to obtain responses of the reflective solar bands (RSBs) and the solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) over a specified angular range. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the yaw measurements that characterizes the three required input functions for the standard on-orbit RSB calibration pipeline...
August 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Hui Liu, Zhihong Yu, Chan Chen, Rui Hong, Kan Jin, Chun Yang
This study aims to analyze the scientific research progress on human fatigue assessment (HFA) by using a bibliometric method, which was conducted a systematic analyses of 28,028 scientific papers about HFA from the Web of Science database, and the results were discussed from the following perspectives: temporal distribution, geographical distribution, discipline distribution, and key words distribution. In addition, this analysis also provides the network of author co-citation and key words. The results are summarized as follows: 1) the number of papers about HFA increased rapidly since 1990s; 2) The United States is a high-yield, high-cited country with 36...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Kristin Baltrusaitis, John S Brownstein, Samuel V Scarpino, Eric Bakota, Adam W Crawley, Giuseppe Conidi, Julia Gunn, Josh Gray, Anna Zink, Mauricio Santillana
BACKGROUND: Influenza causes an estimated 3000 to 50,000 deaths per year in the United States of America (US). Timely and representative data can help local, state, and national public health officials monitor and respond to outbreaks of seasonal influenza. Data from cloud-based electronic health records (EHR) and crowd-sourced influenza surveillance systems have the potential to provide complementary, near real-time estimates of influenza activity. The objectives of this paper are to compare two novel influenza-tracking systems with three traditional healthcare-based influenza surveillance systems at four spatial resolutions: national, regional, state, and city, and to determine the minimum number of participants in these systems required to produce influenza activity estimates that resemble the historical trends recorded by traditional surveillance systems...
August 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Cecilia Oluseyi Osunmakinde, Ramganesh Selvarajan, Timothy Sibanda, Bhekie B Mamba, Titus A M Msagati
There has been an increase in the quest for metagenomics as an approach for the identification and study of the diversity of human viruses found in aquatic systems, both for their role as waterborne pathogens and as water quality indicators. In the last few years, environmental viral metagenomics has grown significantly and has enabled the identification, diversity and entire genome sequencing of viruses in environmental and clinical samples extensively. Prior to the arrival of metagenomics, traditional molecular procedures such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing, were mostly used to identify and classify enteric viral species in different environmental milieu...
August 14, 2018: Viruses
Olga Maria Lage, María C Ramos, Rita Calisto, Eduarda Almeida, Vitor Vasconcelos, Francisca Vicente
The increase of many deadly diseases like infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria implies re-inventing the wheel on drug discovery. A better comprehension of the metabolisms and regulation of diseases, the increase in knowledge based on the study of disease-born microorganisms' genomes, the development of more representative disease models and improvement of techniques, technologies, and computation applied to biology are advances that will foster drug discovery in upcoming years. In this paper, several aspects of current methodologies for drug discovery of antibacterial and antifungals, anti-tropical diseases, antibiofilm and antiquorum sensing, anticancer and neuroprotectors are considered...
August 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
Joanna Diong, Annie A Butler, Simon C Gandevia, Martin E Héroux
The Journal of Physiology and British Journal of Pharmacology jointly published an editorial series in 2011 to improve standards in statistical reporting and data analysis. It is not known whether reporting practices changed in response to the editorial advice. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of reporting practices in a random sample of research papers published in these journals before (n = 202) and after (n = 199) publication of the editorial advice. Descriptive data are presented. There was no evidence that reporting practices improved following publication of the editorial advice...
2018: PloS One
Sun Wei, Wang Yuwei, Zhang Chongchong
The surge of carbon dioxide emission plays a dominant role in global warming and climate change, posing an enormous threat to the development of human being and a profound impact on the global ecosystem. Thus, it is essential to analyze the carbon dioxide emission change trend through an accurate prediction to inform reasonable energy-saving emission reduction measures and effectively control the carbon dioxide emission from the source. This paper proposed a hybrid model by combining the random forest and extreme learning machine together for the carbon dioxide emission forecasting in this paper; the random forest is applied for influential factors analysis and the extreme learning machine for the prediction...
August 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Weiting Cai, Rentao Mu, Shenjun Zha, Guodong Sun, Sai Chen, Zhi-Jian Zhao, Hao Li, Hao Tian, Yu Tang, Franklin Feng Tao, Liang Zeng, Jinlong Gong
Progress in heterogeneous catalysis is often hampered by the difficulties of constructing active architectures and understanding reaction mechanisms at the molecular level due to the structural complexity of practical catalysts, in particular for multicomponent catalysts. Although surface science experiments and theoretical simulations help understand the detailed reaction mechanisms over model systems, the direct study of the nature of nanoparticle catalysts remains a grand challenge. This paper describes a facile construction of well-defined Pt-skin catalysts modified by different 3d transition metal (3dTM) atoms in subsurface regions...
August 2018: Science Advances
Nina Steinemann, Jens Kuhle, Pasquale Calabrese, Jürg Kesselring, Giulio Disanto, Doron Merkler, Caroline Pot, Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Stephanie Rodgers, Milo Alan Puhan, Viktor von Wyl
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most frequently observed neurological conditions in Switzerland, but data sources for country-wide epidemiological trend monitoring are lacking. Moreover, while clinical and laboratory MS research are generally well established, there is a gap in patient-centered MS research to inform care management, or treatment decisions and policy making not only in Switzerland but worldwide. METHODS: In light of these research gaps, the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Society initiated and funded the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry (SMSR) an open-ended, longitudinal and prospective, nationwide, patient-centered study...
August 13, 2018: BMC Neurology
Qiusheng Wang, Haipeng Li, Jinyong Lin, Chunxia Zhang
In engineering and technical fields, a large number of sensors are applied to monitor a complex system. A special class of signals are often captured by those sensors. Although they often have indirect or indistinct relationships among them, they simultaneously reflect the operating states of the whole system. Using these signals, the field engineers can evaluate the operational states, even predict future behaviors of the monitored system. A novel method of future operational trend forecast of a complex system is proposed in this paper...
August 10, 2018: Sensors
G Benveniste, H Rallo, L Canals Casals, A Merino, B Amante
The market share in electric vehicles (EV) is increasing. This trend is likely to continue due to the increased interest in reducing CO2 emissions. The electric vehicle market evolution depends principally on the evolution of batteries capacity. As a consequence, automobile manufacturers focus their efforts on launching in the market EVs capable to compete with internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) in both performance and economic aspects. Although EVs are suitable for the day-to-day needs of the typical urban driver, their range is still lower than ICEV, because batteries are not able to store and supply enough energy to the vehicle and provide the same autonomy as ICEV...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
D Ntirampeba, I Neema, L Kazembe
BACKGROUND: Making inferences about measles distribution patterns at small area level is vital for more focal targeted intervention. However, in statistical literature, the analysis of originally collected data on one resolution with the purpose to make inferences on a different level of spatial resolution is referred to as the misalignment problem. In Namibia the measles data were available in aggregated format at regional level for the period 2005 to 2014. This leads to a spatial misalignment problem if the purpose is to make decisions at constituency level...
2018: PloS One
Radovan Smisek, Jakub Hejc, Marina Ronzhina, Andrea Nemcova, Lucie Marsanova, Jana Kolarova, Lukas Smital, Martin Vitek
Use of wearable ECG devices for arrhythmia screening is limited due to poor signal quality, small number of leads and short records, leading to incorrect recognition of pathological events. This paper introduces a novel approach to classification (normal/'N', atrial fibrillation/'A', other/'O', and noisy/'P) of short single-lead ECGs recorded by wearable devices. 
 Approach: Various rhythm and morphology features are derived from the separate beats ('local' features) as well as the entire ECGs ('global' features) to represent short-term events and general trends respectively...
August 13, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Jan Jadżyn, Jolanta Swiergiel
This paper presents the molecular basis for the quite different behavior of the viscosity of 1,2- and 1,n-diols in dependence of the length of the alkyl part of the molecules of these compounds. The experimental data on the dipolar orientational effects revealed a decidedly different role of that part of the molecules in creating a microstructure of both the hydrogen-bonded liquids. In the case of 1,n-diols, an increase in the alkyl radical length, i.e. an increasing of the distance between the OH groups within the molecule, highly stimulates molecular self-assembly in form of gradually longer and wider ribbon-like clusters...
August 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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