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Ties Boerma, Carine Ronsmans, Dessalegn Y Melesse, Aluisio J D Barros, Fernando C Barros, Liang Juan, Ann-Beth Moller, Lale Say, Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Mu Yi, Dácio de Lyra Rabello Neto, Marleen Temmerman
In this Series paper, we describe the frequency of, trends in, determinants of, and inequalities in caesarean section (CS) use, globally, regionally, and in selected countries. On the basis of data from 169 countries that include 98·4% of the world's births, we estimate that 29·7 million (21·1%, 95% uncertainty interval 19·9-22·4) births occurred through CS in 2015, which was almost double the number of births by this method in 2000 (16·0 million [12·1%, 10·9-13·3] births). CS use in 2015 was up to ten times more frequent in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where it was used in 44·3% (41·3-47·4) of births, than in the west and central Africa region, where it was used in 4·1% (3·6-4·6) of births...
October 13, 2018: Lancet
Myung-Sang Moon, Sang-Jae Kim, Min-Su Kim, Dong-Suk Kim
Study Design: A case study. Purpose: To assess the chronological changes of the disease-related kyphosis after chemotherapy alone, secondly to clarify the role of growth cartilage in the healed lesion on kyphosis change, and to define the accurate prediction time in assessing residual kyphosis. Overview of Literature: None of the previous papers up to now dealt with the residual kyphosis, stability and remodeling processes of the affected segments...
October 16, 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Xianwen Chen, Sjerp de Vries, Timo Assmuth, Jan Dick, Tia Hermans, Ole Hertel, Anne Jensen, Laurence Jones, Sigrun Kabisch, Timo Lanki, Irina Lehmann, Lindsay Maskell, Lisa Norton, Stefan Reis
Urbanization is a global trend, and consequently the quality of urban environments is increasingly important for human health and wellbeing. Urban life-style is typically associated with low physical activity and sometimes with high mental stress, both contributing to an increasing burden of diseases. Nature-based solutions that make effective use of ecosystem services, particularly of cultural ecosystem services (CES), can provide vital building blocks to address these challenges. This paper argues that, the salutogenic, i...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rui Xin, Kai Zhang, Nan Wu, Ying Zhang, Zhiguang Niu
This paper investigated 10 carbapenemase genes and selected the hosts of these genes in the estuary of Bohai Bay. The results showed that the OXA-58 producer accounted for a large percentage of carbapenem resistant bacteria in the sampling points, whereas the VIM, KPC, NDM, IMP, GES, OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-48 and OXA-51 producers were not detected in the study. In addition, 9 bacterial genera with 100% identical blaOXA-58 sequences, including Pseudomonas, Rheinheimera, Stenotrophomonas, Shewanella, Raoultella, Vibrio, Pseudoalteromonas, Algoriphagus, Bowmanella and Thalassospira, were isolated from seawater...
October 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Michael Leane, Kendal Pitt, Gavin K Reynolds, Neil Dawson, Iris Ziegler, Aniko Szepes, Abina M Crean, Rafaela Dall Agnol
Following the first Manufacturing Classification System (MCS) paper, the team conducted surveys to establish what active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) properties were important when selecting or modifying materials to enable an efficient and robust pharmaceutical manufacturing process. The most commonly identified factors were: API particle size: Small particle sizes are known to increase risk of processing issues 1 . Drug loading in the formulation: High drug loadings allow less opportunity to mitigate poor API properties through the use of excipients...
October 15, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Sheena M Eagan
Often known as ' global health diplomacy ' , the provision of medical care to accomplish strategic objectives, advance public diplomacy goals and enhance soft power is increasingly emphasised in international affairs and military policies. Despite this emergent trend, there has been little critical analysis and examination of the ethics of military actors engaging in this type of work. This type of mission represents the most common form of military medical deployment within the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan and is now explicitly emphasised in many militaries' defence doctrine...
October 12, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Li Huang, Felix Haifeng Liao, Kathleen A Lohse, Danelle M Larson, Michail Fragkias, Donna L Lybecker, Colden V Baxter
There is increasing evidence of environmental change impacts on freshwater ecosystem services especially through land use and climate change. However, little is known about how land conservation could help mitigate adverse water-sustainability impacts. In this paper, we utilized the InVEST tool and the Residual Trends method to assess the joint effects and relative contributions of climate change and land conservation on freshwater ecosystem services in the Portneuf River catchment in Idaho, USA. We developed five hypothesized scenarios regarding gain and loss in the enrollment of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), the largest agricultural land-retirement program in the U...
September 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kai Wang, Ruei-Zeng Lin, Juan M Melero-Martin
Tissue engineering holds great promise in regenerative medicine. However, the field of tissue engineering faces a myriad of difficulties. A major challenge is the necessity to integrate vascular networks into bioengineered constructs to enable physiological functions including adequate oxygenation, nutrient delivery, and removal of waste products. The last two decades have seen remarkable progress in our collective effort to bioengineer human-specific vascular networks. Studies have included both in vitro and in vivo investigations, and multiple methodologies have found varying degrees of success...
October 12, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
E Hosseini Koupaie, S Dahadha, A A Bazyar Lakeh, A Azizi, E Elbeshbishy
The rapid depletion of natural resources and the environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels as the main source of global energy is leading to an increased interest in alternative and renewable energy sources. Particular interest has been given to the lignocellulosic biomass as the most abundant source of organic matter with a potential of being utilized for energy recovery. Different approaches have been applied to convert the lignocellulosic biomass to energy products including anaerobic digestion (AD), fermentation, combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jennifer L McGlaughon, Jennifer L Goldstein, Courtney Thaxton, Sarah E Hemphill, Jonathan S Berg
In order for ClinGen to maintain up-to-date gene-disease clinical validity classifications for use by clinicians and clinical laboratories, an appropriate timeline for reevaluating curated gene-disease associations will need to be determined. To provide guidance on how often a gene-disease association should be recurated, a retrospective analysis of 30 gene curations was performed. Curations were simulated at one-year intervals starting with the year of the first publication to assert disease-causing variants in the gene to observe trends in the classification over time, as well as factors that influenced changes in classification...
November 2018: Human Mutation
Lukas Vojtech, Marek Neruda, Tomas Reichl, Karel Dusek, Cristina de la Torre Megías
In this paper, the surface area of coated polymer-based textiles, i.e., copper and nickel plated woven polyester fabric, copper and acrylic coated woven polyester fabric, and copper and acrylic coated non-woven polyamide fabric, is investigated. In order to evaluate the surface area of the woven fabrics, Peirce's geometrical model of the interlacing point and measurement using an electron microscope are used. Non-woven fabrics are evaluated using an optical method, handmade method, and MATLAB functions. An electrochemical method, based on the measurement of the resistance between two electrodes, is used for relative comparison of the effective surface area of the coated woven and non-woven fabrics...
October 10, 2018: Materials
Jennifer Dargin, Bassel Daher, Rabi H Mohtar
Approaching water, energy, and food, as interconnected system of systems, as an alternative to traditional silo-based resources planning and management approaches continues to fall short of expectations of its research-backed benefits. The lack of nexus applications in policy and decision making can be related to numerous factors, with the main barrier being the complex nature of "nexus" systems combined with the disarray of tools attempting to model its interconnections. The paper aims to provide a method for comparing the perceived complexity of nexus tools identified by international organizations as well as primary literature sources...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Sei Jin Kim, Brent Sohngen, Abdoul G Sam
This paper examines how nutrient prices, weather, and other factors influenced P outputs in agricultural watersheds using a detailed daily dataset of water quality observations over a 40-year period. Because policies have focused differentially on soluble P through federal permitting programs for point sources and sediments through federal subsidies for conservation, we examine sediment, particulate P and soluble P separately. A novel element of this study is the inclusion of farm fertilizer and output (i.e...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Per E Jørgensen
A number of current trends will affect and probably change laboratory medicine, as we know it. Scientific and technological developments, digital health with big data and artificial intelligence, and centralization will change the interfaces among the specialties of laboratory medicine. They might even challenge the identity of some specialties. Other trends such as demographic changes, increased complexity of health care, digital health with electronic health records, and more demanding and well-informed patients will change the way laboratory medicine specialties deliver their services...
October 11, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Pedro J Chacon, Limeng Pu, Tallis H da Costa, Young-Ho Shin, Taher Ghomian, Hamed Shamkhalichenar, Hsiao-Chun Wu, Brian A Irving, Jin-Woo Choi
Advances in several engineering fields have led to a trend towards miniaturization and portability of wearable biosensing devices, which used to be confined to large tools and clinical settings. Various systems to continuously measure electrophysiological activity through electrical and optical methods are one category of such devices. Being wearable and intended for prolonged use, the amount of noise introduced on sensors by movement remains a challenge and requires further optimization. User movement causes motion artifacts that alter the overall quality of the signals obtained, hence corrupting the resulting measurements...
October 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Sally Bromley, Michael Drew, Scott Talpey, Andrew McIntosh, Caroline Finch
BACKGROUND: Electronic methods are increasingly being used to manage health-related data among sporting populations. Collection of such data permits the analysis of injury and illness trends, improves early detection of injuries and illnesses, collectively referred to as health problems, and provides evidence to inform prevention strategies. The Athlete Management System (AMS) has been employed across a range of sports to monitor health. Australian combat athletes train across the country without dedicated national medical or sports science teams to monitor and advocate for their health...
October 9, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
Alexandra Blair, Arjumand Siddiqi, John Frank
Addressing social determinants of health (SDoH) has been acknowledged as an essential objective for the promotion of both population health and health equity. Extant literature has identified seven potential areas of investment to address SDoH: investments in sexual and reproductive health and family planning, early learning and child care, education, universal health care, as well as investments to reduce child poverty, ensure sustainable economic development, and control health hazards. The aim of this paper is to produce a 'report card' on Canada's success in reducing socioeconomic and health inequities pertaining to these seven policy domains, and to assess how Canadian trends compare to those in the United Kingdom (UK), a country with a similar health and welfare system...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Adrián Jiménez-Ruano, Marcos Rodrigues Mimbrero, W Matt Jolly, Juan de la Riva Fernández
In this paper we investigate spatial-temporal associations of fire weather danger and fire regime features from 1979 to 2013. We analyze monthly time series of fire activity (number of fires and burned area) and fire weather danger rating indices (Fire Weather Index, Burning Index and Forest Fire Danger Index) at two spatial scales: (i) regionally, splitting the Spanish mainland into Northwest, Hinterland and Mediterranean regions; and (ii) locally, using the EMCWF grid. All analyses are based on decomposing time series to retrieve differential indicators of seasonal cycles, temporal evolution and anomalies...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
S Rocha, C Azevedo, E Oliveira, Â Alves, C Antunes, P Rodrigues, G Casal
Mullets inhabit a wide range of habitats from tropical to temperate regions and play a critical role in their ecosystems. This commercially important fish group constitutes a significant source of food in several geographic regions, and the production of some species for consumption is an increasing trend. About 64 myxosporean species have been reported in mullets, some of which are cryptic, as is the case of Myxobolus exiguus, and M. muelleri. This paper provides, for the first time, a detailed and critical revision of the data available for myxobolids reported in mullets, determining the species that have bona fide mugiliform fish hosts, in accordance with the original species descriptions, the available molecular data and the currently accepted taxonomic and phylogenetic criteria...
October 10, 2018: Parasitology
T K Sundari Ravindran, Tanya Seshadri
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the process and outcome of a consultative exercise undertaken to develop a medium-term agenda for the next decade, and to identify a short list of immediate priorities for health equity research in India. This exercise was undertaken over 2014-2017 as part of 'Closing the Gap: Health Equity Research Initiative in India', implemented by the Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies, at the Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, in south India...
October 9, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
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