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Michael Dreher, Ayham Daher, András Keszei, Nikolaus Marx, Tobias Müller, Christian Cornelissen, Vincent Brandenburg
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) often occur together. However, COPD is underdiagnosed among CHD patients. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence of COPD and relevant pulmonary function test (PFT) impairments in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Patients undergoing coronary angiography for AMI were prospectively included. Body plethysmography, lung diffusing capacity, blood gas analysis, and echocardiography were performed...
August 15, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Jessica P Gillung, Shaun L Winterton, Keith M Bayless, Ziad Khouri, Marek L Borowiec, David Yeates, Lynn S Kimsey, Bernhard Misof, Seunggwan Shin, Xin Zhou, Christoph Mayer, Malte Petersen, Brian M Wiegmann
The onset of phylogenomics has contributed to the resolution of numerous challenging evolutionary questions while offering new perspectives regarding biodiversity. However, in some instances, analyses of large genomic datasets can also result in conflicting estimates of phylogeny. Here, we present the first phylogenomic scale study of a dipteran parasitoid family, built upon anchored hybrid enrichment and transcriptomic data of 240 loci of 43 ingroup acrocerid taxa. A new hypothesis for the timing of spider fly evolution is proposed, wielding recent advances in divergence time dating, including the fossilized birth-death process to show that the origin of Acroceridae is younger than previously proposed...
August 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Matthew J Kagie, Aaron D Lanterman
This paper addresses parameter estimation for an optical transient signal when the received data has been right-censored. We develop an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the amplitude of a Poisson intensity with a known shape in the presence of additive background counts, where the measurements are subject to saturation effects. We compare the results of our algorithm with those of an EM algorithm that is unaware of the censoring.
July 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
M Matejcic, F Lesueur, C Biessy, A L Renault, N Mebirouk, S Yammine, P Keski-Rahkonen, K Li, B Hémon, E Weiderpass, V Rebours, M C Boutron-Ruault, F Carbonnel, R Kaaks, V Katzke, T Kuhn, H Boeing, A Trichopoulou, D Palli, C Agnoli, S Panico, R Tumino, C Sacerdote, J R Quirós, E J Duell, M Porta, M J Sánchez, M D Chirlaque, A Barricarte, P Amiano, W Ye, P H Peeters, K T Khaw, A Perez-Cornago, T J Key, H B Bueno-de-Mesquita, E Riboli, P Vineis, I Romieu, M J Gunter, V Chajès
There are both limited and conflicting data on the role of dietary fat and specific fatty acids in the development of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The fatty acid composition was measured by gas chromatography in plasma samples collected at recruitment from 375 incident pancreatic cancer cases and 375 matched controls. Associations of specific fatty acids with pancreatic cancer risk were evaluated using multivariable conditional logistic regression models with adjustment for established pancreatic cancer risk factors...
August 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Andrew C McKown, Jonathan D Casey, Derek W Russell, Aaron M Joffe, David R Janz, Todd W Rice, Matthew W Semler
RATIONALE: Hypoxemia is a common complication during tracheal intubation of critically ill adults and is a frequently used endpoint in airway management research. Identifying patients likely to experience low oxygen saturations during tracheal intubation may be useful for clinical practice and clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for lower oxygen saturations and severe hypoxemia during tracheal intubation of critically ill adults and develop prediction models for lowest oxygen saturation and hypoxemia...
August 15, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Jennifer A Staton, Stephanie R Dungan
This study focused on mechanisms of adsorption for dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) from a dispersion of large, unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) onto a clean air-water interface. The adsorption kinetics were tracked using dynamic surface tension measurements for 0.01-10 mM concentrations of DLPC, contained within monodisperse LUVs with mean diameters between 100 and 300 nm. Any lipid in excess of the solubility limit, determined to be 1.1(±0.7) × 10-5 mM (1.1 × 10-8 M), was assumed to be in vesicle form. The adsorption rate was found to increase with increasing lipid concentration and decreasing vesicle diameter, indicating a clear mechanistic role for the vesicles...
August 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jakub Dybas, Piotr Berkowicz, Bartosz Proniewski, Katarzyna Dziedzic-Kocurek, Jan Stanek, Malgorzata Baranska, Stefan Chlopicki, Katarzyna M Marzec
The work presents the complementary approach to characterize the formation of various Hb species inside isolated human RBCs exposed to NO, with a focus on the formed Hb-NO adducts. This work presents a complementary approach based on Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) supported by Blood Gas Analysis, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy and Mössbauer Spectroscopy to characterize the formation of various Hb species, with a focus on the Hb-NO adducts formed inside isolated human RBCs exposed to NO, under the experimental conditions of low and high levels of oxygen Hb saturation...
August 15, 2018: Analyst
Dorothy A Perry, Lindsay M Thomson, Frank A Pigula, Brian D Polizzotti, James A DiNardo, Arthur Nedder, Kimberlee Gauvreau, John N Kheir
BACKGROUND: Hyperoxemia (arterial oxygen tension >100 mm Hg) may occur in critically ill patients and have effects on mixed venous saturation (SvO2 ) and on Fick-based estimates of cardiac output (CO). We investigated the effect of hyperoxemia on SvO2 and on assessments of CO using the Fick equation. METHODS: Yorkshire swine (n = 14) were anesthetized, intubated, and paralyzed for instrumentation. SvO2 (co-oximetry) and tissue oxygen tension (tPO2 , implantable electrodes) in brain and myocardium were measured during systematic manipulation of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 ) using graded hyperoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen 0...
August 14, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Yosra Ben Torkia, Guilherme Luiz Dotto, Abdelmottaleb Ben Lamine
Experimental adsorption of synthetic dyes, FD&C red no. 40 and Tartrazine, onto Spirulina platensis has been analyzed using a statistical physics treatment at different temperatures (298, 308, 318, and 328 K) and at different values of pH (4, 6, and 8). The statistical physics formalism was used to develop the analytical expressions of models. The interpretation of the adsorption of these dyes on Spirulina platensis was achieved by choosing the adequate model and by presenting the evolution of the parameters involved in the analytical expression of this model such as the number of adsorbed dye molecules per site (nd ), the receptor sites density (Dr ), the adsorbed quantity at saturation (qs ), and the molar adsorption energy (ΔE)...
August 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mohamed Ahmed Naseef, Howida Kamal Ibrahim, Samia Abd El-Kader Nour
This work aimed to enhance the oral bioavailability of diacerein. The drug was incorporated in self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed using Capryol™90, Miglyol®812 and isopropyl myristate as oils, Tween®80 and Tween®20 as surfactants and PEG 200 and PEG 300 as co-surfactants. Among a total of 432 formulae, 17 formulae were clear. They were assessed for mean droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), saturation solubility and transmission electron microscopy. Solid granules were obtained by adsorption on Aeroperl®300...
August 14, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Jian Zeng, Shiwei Zhang, Kairui Tang, Gong Chen, Wei Yuan, Yong Tang
The next generation of micro/nano-fluidic systems, featuring manipulation of a single nanoliter volume of a chemical reactant or bio-substance, is greatly dependent on the accurate manipulation of a single nano-droplet. In this paper, to resolve the lack of efficient methods for 3-D actuation of nano-droplets with high tunability, we proposed an electro-wetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) driving scheme on a graphene surface. The droplet could be actuated when the EWOD-saturated contact angle was reached, which determined the critical magnitude of the E-field...
August 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Neelima Panth, Adam Gavarkovs, Martha Tamez, Josiemer Mattei
Despite growing evidence of the impact of diet on human fertility, few studies have examined the public health implications of this association in the United States (U.S.). This narrative review summarizes current scientific evidence on associations between dietary intake and fertility, discusses challenges in the public health landscape surrounding infertility, and proposes evidence-based recommendations to address these issues. Diets high in unsaturated fats, whole grains, vegetables, and fish have been associated with improved fertility in both women and men...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
A A Kononova, A S Sokolova, S V Cheresiz, O I Yarovaya, R A Nikitina, A A Chepurnov, A G Pokrovsky, N F Salakhutdinov
There is currently no approved antiviral therapy for treatment of Marburg virus disease (MVD). Although filovirus infection outbreaks are quite rare, the high mortality rates in such outbreaks make the development of anti-filoviral drugs an important goal of medical chemistry and virology. Here, we performed screening of a large library of natural derivatives for their virus entry inhibition activity using pseudotype systems. The bornyl ester derivatives containing saturated N-heterocycles exhibited the highest antiviral activity...
December 1, 2017: MedChemComm
Xavier Portell, Valérie Pot, Patricia Garnier, Wilfred Otten, Philippe C Baveye
There is still no satisfactory understanding of the factors that enable soil microbial populations to be as highly biodiverse as they are. The present article explores in silico the hypothesis that the heterogeneous distribution of soil organic matter, in addition to the spatial connectivity of the soil moisture, might account for the observed microbial biodiversity in soils. A multi-species, individual-based, pore-scale model is developed and parameterized with data from 3 Arthrobacter sp. strains, known to be, respectively, competitive, versatile, and poorly competitive...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Philippe Richard, François Billaut
Elite athletes in varied sports typically combine ergogenic strategies in the hope of enhancing physiological responses and competitive performance, but the scientific evidence for such practices is very scarce. The peculiar characteristics of speed skating contribute to impede blood flow and exacerbate deoxygenation in the lower limbs (especially the right leg). We investigated whether combining preconditioning strategies could modify muscular oxygenation and improve performance in that sport. Using a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, seven male elite long-track speed skaters performed on-ice 600-m time trials, preceded by either a combination of preconditioning strategies (COMBO) or a placebo condition (SHAM)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lubna Ansari Baig, Azadar Kauser Ali, Shiraz Shaikh, Maciej Maksymilian Polkowski
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the causes, consequences and possible solutions for violence against healthcare. METHODS: The qualitative study was conducted in Karachi June 2015 to December 2015 using in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions with all stakeholders. Transcription was done verbatim using both audio and videotapes of all the sessions. First open coding was done using inductive analyses by 3 researchers. After consensus, these codes were used for thematic content analysis...
August 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Zoe Harcombe
US public health dietary advice was announced by the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human needs in 1977 and was followed by UK public health dietary advice issued by the National Advisory Committee on Nutritional Education in 1983. Dietary recommendations in both cases focused on reducing dietary fat intake; specifically to (i) reduce overall fat consumption to 30% of total energy intake and (ii) reduce saturated fat consumption to 10% of total energy intake. The recommendations were an attempt to address the incidence of coronary heart disease...
August 14, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Kadir Onk, Hulya Yalcintan, Mehmet Sari, Serpil Adiguzel Isik, Akin Yakan, Bulent Ekiz
Study was conducted to determine the effects of genotype and sex on the technological properties and fatty acid composition of duck meat. Native (n = 15) and Peking (n = 15) ducks were slaughtered at 10 wk old, and meat samples were taken from M. pectoralis major (breast) and M. peroneus longus (thigh). The pH24, drip loss, expressed juice, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), color variables, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics were examined. Ultimate pH of breast meat in Peking ducks (6...
August 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Luoyi Zhu, Ao Yang, Yang Mu, Niya Zhang, Lvhui Sun, Shahid Ali Rajput, Desheng Qi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary non-gossypol cottonseed oil (CSO) or cottonseed meal (CSM) and their interactions on the texture properties, structure, nutritional composition, and edible safety of egg yolk. A total of 162 24-wk-old Hy-line Brown laying hens were randomly allocated into 9 diet treatments with 6 replicates of 3 hens per cage. A 3 × 3 factorial design using corn soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0, 6, or 12% CSM and 0, 2, or 4% CSO in place of soybean meal and soybean oil, respectively, was utilized...
August 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Victoria Dreier Thøfner Hultén, Fin Biering-Sørensen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen Jennum
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate circadian rhythm and sleep complaints in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) as determined by diurnal saliva melatonin and cortisol as well as activity measurements and subjective sleep quality. METHODS: Fourteen patients with cervical SCI (cSCI), six patients with thoracic SCI (tSCI) and eight able-bodied controls all underwent two consecutive weeks wearing a wrist actigraph in addition to filling out a sleep diary...
July 19, 2018: Sleep Medicine
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