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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316530/the-choice-of-analytical-methodology-can-alter-conclusions-regarding-herd-effects-of-paediatric-pneumococcal-vaccination-programmes
#1
Jean-Yves Pirçon, Carla A Talarico, Kaatje Bollaerts, William P Hausdorff, Christopher J Clarke
BACKGROUND: Estimation of the magnitude of the herd effect on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is important when evaluating health benefits and cost-effectiveness of paediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programmes and may influence policy makers' decisions on PCV use. Several epidemiological, programmatic, and immunological factors can affect the magnitude of the PCV herd effect. We investigated to what extent the choice of analytical methodology may also influence herd effect estimates...
October 10, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113691/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#2
Sean T O'Leary, James D Campbell, David W Kimberlin
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, and each member's term is 4 years. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics (J...
August 2, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741721/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#3
Sean T O'Leary, David W Kimberlin, Yvonne A Maldonado
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, each of whom is appointed to a 4-year term. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. The ACIP met on October 25 and 26, 2017, to discuss herpes zoster vaccine, the child/adolescent and adult vaccination schedules, Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemiology and vaccines, pneumococcal vaccines, anthrax vaccines and disaster preparedness, hepatitis A outbreaks, influenza surveillance and vaccination coverage, vaccine safety, and considerations for a potential third dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine to combat ongoing mumps outbreaks...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176349/epidemiology-of-community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis
#4
Matthijs C Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has been dynamic in the past 30 years following introduction of conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type B, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments in bacterial meningitis epidemiology. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of bacterial meningitis in Western countries (Finland, Netherlands, and the United States) gradually declined by 3-4% per year to 0...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557739/epidemiology-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-cultures-and-time-to-detection-in-term-infants
#5
MULTICENTER STUDY
Rianna Leazer, Natasha Erickson, James Paulson, Ronen Zipkin, Monica Stemmle, Alan R Schroeder, Michael Bendel-Stenzel, Bryan R Fine
BACKGROUND: Although meningitis is rare in previously healthy term infants, lumbar puncture is often performed to evaluate for source of illness. This study was performed to determine the time to detection for positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and to provide an update on the current epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in term infants. METHODS: This study was a multicenter, retrospective review of positive CSF cultures in infants ≤90 days of age. Specimens were drawn in the emergency department or inpatient setting between January 2000 and December 2013...
May 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419350/epidemiology-of-meningitis-and-encephalitis-in-the-united-states-2011-2014
#6
Rodrigo Hasbun, Ning Rosenthal, J M Balada-Llasat, Jessica Chung, Steve Duff, Samuel Bozzette, Louise Zimmer, Christine C Ginocchio
Background: Large epidemiological studies evaluating the etiologies, management decisions, and outcomes of adults with meningitis or encephalitis in the United States (US) are lacking. Methods: Adult patients (≥18 years) with meningitis or encephalitis by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes available in the Premier Healthcare Database during 2011-2014 were analyzed. Results: A total of 26429 patients with meningitis or encephalitis were identified...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100596/genomic-epidemiology-of-penicillin-nonsusceptible-pneumococci-with-nonvaccine-serotypes-causing-invasive-disease-in-the-united-states
#7
Cheryl P Andam, Patrick K Mitchell, Alanna Callendrello, Qiuzhi Chang, Jukka Corander, Chrispin Chaguza, Lesley McGee, Bernard W Beall, William P Hanage
Conjugate vaccination against seven pneumococcal serotypes (PCV7) reduced disease prevalence due to antibiotic-resistant strains throughout the 2000s. However, diseases caused by resistant nonvaccine type (NVT) strains increased. Some of these emerging strains were derived from vaccine types (VT) that had changed their capsule by recombination. The introduction of a vaccine targeting 13 serotypes (PCV13) in 2010 has led to concern that this scenario will repeat itself. We generated high-quality draft genomes from 265 isolates of NVT pneumococci not susceptible to penicillin (PNSP) in 2009 and compared them with the genomes of 581 isolates from 2012 to 2013 collected by the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282711/clinical-and-epidemiological-evidence-of-the-red-queen-hypothesis-in-pneumococcal-serotype-dynamics
#8
Chris Stockmann, Krow Ampofo, Andrew T Pavia, Anne J Blaschke, Edward O Mason, Angela P Presson, Larry J Forney, Carrie L Byington
BACKGROUND: The Red Queen hypothesis is an evolutionary theory that describes the reciprocal coevolution of competing species. We sought to study whether introduction of the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13, respectively) altered pneumococcal serotype dynamics among children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) as predicted by the Red Queen hypothesis. METHODS: This study examined pneumococcal isolates (n = 641) obtained from children <18 years of age hospitalized with IPD from 1997 to 2014 in Utah...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076637/biological-and-epidemiological-features-of-antibiotic-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-pre-and-post-conjugate-vaccine-eras-a-united-states-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Lindsay Kim, Lesley McGee, Sara Tomczyk, Bernard Beall
Streptococcus pneumoniae inflicts a huge disease burden as the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and meningitis. Soon after mainstream antibiotic usage, multiresistant pneumococcal clones emerged and disseminated worldwide. Resistant clones are generated through adaptation to antibiotic pressures imposed while naturally residing within the human upper respiratory tract. Here, a huge array of related commensal streptococcal strains transfers core genomic and accessory resistance determinants to the highly transformable pneumococcus...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26795226/-real-time-pcr-detection-of-neisseria-meningitidis-haemophilus-influenzae-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-dna-in-clinical-specimens
#10
Z Vacková, D Lžičařová, N K Stock, J Kozáková
The study aim was to implement a molecular real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay recommended by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) for the detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in clinical (culture negative) specimens from patients with suspected invasive bacterial disease. Clinical specimens are referred to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Meningococcal Infections, Unit for Airborne Bacterial Infections, Centre for Epidemiology and Microbiology, National Institute of Public Health from various regions of the Czech Republic...
October 2015: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779776/pneumococcal-vaccination
#11
REVIEW
Catia Cillóniz, Rosanel Amaro, Antoni Torres
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumococcal diseases (invasive diseases, pneumonia, otitis media, and sinusitis) are among the most frequent preventable infectious diseases carrying a very high morbidity and case fatality rate worldwide. Pneumococcal vaccination is a key element to reduce the global burden of the disease in children and adult population. Our aim is to discuss current knowledge of the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: After the introduction of conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13), rates of pneumococcal diseases because of vaccine serotypes have decreased considerably among children in the vaccine target and among nonvaccinated children and adults...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26706275/trends-in-u-s-hospitalizations-and-inpatient-deaths-from-pneumonia-and-influenza-1996-2011
#12
D H Chang, Robert A Bednarczyk, Edmund R Becker, Jason M Hockenberry, Paul S Weiss, Walter A Orenstein, Saad B Omer
BACKGROUND: To reduce excess morbidity and mortality of pneumonia and influenza (PI), the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended the use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), and incrementally expanded the target group for annual influenza vaccination of healthy persons, to ultimately include all persons ≥6 months of age without contraindications as of the 2010-2011 influenza season. We aimed to capture broader epidemiologic changes by looking at PI collectively...
January 20, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26705748/molecular-epidemiology-of-nonencapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-among-japanese-children-with-acute-otitis-media
#13
Muneki Hotomi, Kouji Nakajima, Masanobu Hiraoka, Moon H Nahm, Noboru Yamanaka
The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may change the epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The increased prevalence of non-vaccine serotypes as the cause of pneumococcal diseases has already reported in the United States and Europe. However, little attention has been focused on the S. pneumoniae. In this study, nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae were identified in 15 isolates (6.4%) out of 236 pneumococcal strains obtained from the nasopharynges of children with acute otitis media (AOM), in 3 isolates (14...
February 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26590438/pneumococcal-disease-prevention-among-adults-strategies-for-the-use-of-pneumococcal-vaccines
#14
Tamara Pilishvili, Nancy M Bennett
Use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines among children in the U.S. since 2000 has dramatically reduced pneumococcal disease burden among adults. Significant vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal infections still remains, especially among older adults. The U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recently recommended the routine use of both pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) and polysaccharide vaccines (PPSV23) for adults ≥65 years. These recommendations were based on the remaining burden of illness among adults and the importance of non-bacteremic pneumonia prevention in light of new evidence confirming the efficacy of PCV13 to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia among older adults...
December 2015: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26291238/use-of-pneumococcal-disease-epidemiology-to-set-policy-and-prevent-disease-during-20-years-of-the-emerging-infections-program
#15
Matthew R Moore, Cynthia G Whitney
Two decades ago, the Emerging Infections Program of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented what seemed like a simple yet novel idea: a population- and laboratory-based surveillance system designed to identify and characterize invasive bacterial infections, including those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. This system, known as Active Bacterial Core surveillance, has since served as a flexible platform for following trends in invasive pneumococcal disease and studying vaccination as the most effective method for prevention...
September 2015: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26116257/pneumococcal-disease-prevention-among-adults-strategies-for-the-use-of-pneumococcal-vaccines
#16
REVIEW
Tamara Pilishvili, Nancy M Bennett
Use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines among children in the US since 2000 has dramatically reduced pneumococcal disease burden among adults. Significant vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal infections still remains, especially among older adults. The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recently recommended the routine use of both pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) and polysaccharide vaccines (PPSV23) for adults ≥65 years. These recommendations were based on the remaining burden of illness among adults and the importance of non-bacteremic pneumonia prevention in light of new evidence confirming the efficacy of PCV13 to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia among older adults...
November 27, 2015: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26032932/estimated-human-and-economic-burden-of-four-major-adult-vaccine-preventable-diseases-in-the-united-states-2013
#17
John M McLaughlin, Justin J McGinnis, Litjen Tan, Annette Mercatante, Joseph Fortuna
Low uptake of routinely recommended adult immunizations is a public health concern. Using data from the peer-reviewed literature, government disease-surveillance programs, and the US Census, we developed a customizable model to estimate human and economic burden caused by four major adult vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in 2013 in the United States, and for each US state individually. To estimate the number of cases for each adult VPD for a given population, we multiplied age-specific incidence rates obtained from the literature by age-specific 2013 Census population data...
August 2015: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25952557/long-term-population-impact-of-seven-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-with-a-3-0%C3%A2-schedule-how-do-2-1%C3%A2-and-3-1%C3%A2-schedules-compare
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Christopher Lowbridge, Peter B McIntyre, Robin Gilmour, Clayton Chiu, Holly Seale, Mark J Ferson, Gwendolyn L Gilbert
INTRODUCTION: Significant reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) following 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) are well documented, but population-level data comparing different schedules are sparse. We compared data from long-term stable surveillance in one Australian region (3 primary doses (3+0) schedule) with similar data from England and Wales (2+1 schedule) and the United States (3+1 schedule). METHODS: Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for all, vaccine type, and non-vaccine type IPD were calculated by age-group, using comparable case definitions and time periods post 7vPCV introduction...
June 22, 2015: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25775050/community-acquired-pneumonia
#19
REVIEW
Ricardo J José, Jimstan N Periselneris, Jeremy S Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common infectious disease cause of death. We summarize recent findings regarding the epidemiology of CAP in adults, efficacy of vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae, diagnostics, and discuss the current controversy between CAP and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). RECENT FINDINGS: The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and the avian influenza A strain H7N9 are of concern but still these are infrequent causes of CAP...
May 2015: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25648240/multicenter-surveillance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-middle-ear-and-mastoid-cultures-in-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sheldon L Kaplan, Kimberly J Center, William J Barson, Philana Ling-Lin, José R Romero, John S Bradley, Tina Q Tan, Jill A Hoffman, Timothy R Peters, Alejandra Gurtman, Daniel A Scott, James Trammel, William C Gruber, Kristina G Hulten, Edward O Mason
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of otitis media (OM) in children; mastoiditis remains an important complication of OM. Limited data are available on the impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on pneumococcal otitis. METHODS: Investigators from 8 children's hospitals in the United States prospectively collected pneumococcal isolates from middle ear or mastoid cultures from children from 2011 to 2013. Serotype and antibiotic susceptibilities were determined and PCV13 doses for children documented...
May 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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