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Aliakbar Haghdoost, Milad Ahmadi Gohari, Ali Mirzazadeh, Farzaneh Zolala, Mohammad Reza Baneshi
Purpose: Network Scale Up (NSU) is an indirect size estimation method, where participants are questioned on sensitive behaviors of their social network members. Therefore the visibility of the behavior affects the replies and estimates. Many attempts to estimate the visibility are made. The aims of this manuscript are to review main methods to address the visibility, and to provide a summary of reported Visibility Factor (VF) across populations. Methods: We systematically searched relevant data bases and Google...
August 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Natasha Campling, Amanda Cummings, Michelle Myall, Susi Lund, Carl R May, Neil W Pearce, Alison Richardson
AIM: To describe how decision making inter-relates with the sequence of events in individuals who die during admission and identify situations where formal treatment escalation plans (TEPs) may have utility. DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective case note review using stratified sampling. Two data analysis methods were applied concurrently: directed content analysis and care management process mapping via annotated timelines for each case. Analysis was followed by expert clinician review (n=7), contributing to data interpretation...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Martin Paul Evison
Forensic science policy has been the subject of a series of judicial and parliamentary enquiries in the United Kingdom in recent decades. Forensic science research has been a recurrent theme in their reports, which have included recommendations for research into the economics of forensic service provision; for the development of expertise and centres of excellence; and for research to establish the validity of the forensic sciences. These recommendations reflect similar concerns expressed internationally-particularly in the United States...
August 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
Rong Chen, Zhigang Chen, Mengxia Ji, Hanxiang Chen, Yiling Liu, Jiexiang Xia, Huaming Li
Novel Carbon quantum dots modified Bi5 O7 I (CQDs/Bi5 O7 I) nanorod composites were prepared via an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide ([Emim]I) assisted solvothermal method for the first time. Series of characterization methods were used to explore the structural composition, morphology and optical properties of as-prepared CQDs/Bi5 O7 I photocatalysts. Compared with pure Bi5 O7 I nanorod, CQDs/Bi5 O7 I composites exhibited the increased the specific surface area and visible light capture capability so as to expose more active sites and make full use of sunlight...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
R M Fernández-Domene, R Sánchez-Tovar, B Lucas-Granados, M J Muñoz-Portero, R Ramírez-Grau, J García-Antón
The degradation of pesticide diuron has been explored by photoelectrocatalysis (PEC) under visible light illumination using two different WO3 nanostructures, obtained by anodization of tungsten. The highest degradation efficiency (73%) was obtained for WO3 nanosheets synthesized in the presence of small amounts of hydrogen peroxide (0.05 M). For that nanostructure, the kinetic coefficient for diuron degradation was 133% higher than that for the other nanostructure (anodized in the presence of fluoride anions)...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
R de Jong, M de Puit
Lanthanide-based (Eu and Tb) metal organic frameworks (MOFs) synthesized in this work are highly fluorescent crystalline structures that form through a self-assembly process in an aqueous environment. Various bio-organic molecules, including proteins and amino acids, can act as inducing agents for this process. The fact that these components are present in fingermark secretions, in combination with the excellent luminescent properties of the MOFs, create a visualisation method for (latent) fingermarks. The aqueous MOF precursor solutions are not ideal for the visualisation of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces, such as aluminium foil and glass...
August 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
Martina Quaretti, Marina Porchia, Francesco Tisato, Angela Trapananti, Giuliana Aquilanti, Marko Damjanović, Luciano Marchiò, Marco Giorgetti, Matteo Tegoni
The chemistry of copper(I) with water-soluble phosphines is an emergent area of study which has the objective of finding ligands that stabilize copper in its lower oxidation state. Cu(I) has been found relevant in the mechanism of copper transports into cells, and the accessibility of this oxidation state has implications in oxidative stress processes. For these reasons the possibility to deal with stable, water soluble copper(I) is an attractive approach for devising new biologically relevant metal-based drugs and chelating agents...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Stephen P Sharp, Robert A Malizia, Travis Walrath, Shanti D'Souza, Carmen J Booth, Brittany J Kartchner, Edward C Lee, Steven C Stain, William O'Connor
Chronic intestinal inflammation predisposes patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) to Colitis-Associated Cancer (CAC). In the setting of chronic inflammation, microsatellite instability (MSI) results from early loss of DNA damage response (DDR) genes, ultimately leading to tumor formation. Despite continued efforts to improve early detection of high risk, pre-dysplastic regions in IBD patients, current macroscopic and genetic surveillance modalities remain limited. Therefore, understanding the regulation of key DDR genes in the progression from colitis to cancer may improve molecular surveillance of CAC...
August 16, 2018: Gene
H H El-Maghrabi, A A Al-Kahlawy, Amr A Nada, T Zaki
Ternary nanocomposite Ag2 CO3 @Fe2 O3 /TiO2 -NT (AFT), compared with binary Fe2 O3 /TiO2 -NT (FTNT) and TiO2 nanotube (TNT), showed remarkably enhanced performance for catalytic photodegradation of phenol compounds in the presence of solar irradiation. AFT nanocomposite performed high degradation efficiency (96.5%) and high degree of sustainability. The unique catalytic properties of the nanocomposite such as synergetic light absorption, efficient charge separation-transfer and resistance toward photocorrosion suggested three possible alternative mechanisms for transferring photogenerated electrons...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Zhenning Li, Cong Chen, Yusheng Ci, Guohui Zhang, Qiong Wu, Cathy Liu, Zhen Sean Qian
Traffic crashes are more likely to occur at intersections where the traffic environment is complicated. In this study, a hybrid approach combining cluster analysis and hierarchical Bayesian models is developed to examine driver injury severity patterns in intersection-related crashes based on two-year crash data in New Mexico. Three clusters are defined by K-means cluster analysis based on weather and roadway environmental conditions in order to reveal drivers' risk compensation instability under diverse external environment...
August 15, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Simran Sinsinwar, Monaj Kumar Sarkar, Karmegam Rohit Suriya, Paramasivam Nithyanand, Vellingiri Vadivel
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is environmentally satisfactory because of their low cost and safe to nature. In the present study, extract of an agricultural waste, coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell is used to synthesize AgNPs and their antibacterial effect was investigated against selected human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium. The AgNPs synthesized using coconut shell extract (CSE-AgNPs) were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy (absorption peak at 432 nm), Transmission Electron Microscopy (spherical shaped particles size of 14...
August 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Chang Young Lee, Harley Chan, Hideki Ujiie, Kosuke Fujino, Tomonari Kinoshita, Jonathan C Irish, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: We developed thoracoscopic surgical navigation system with real-time augmented image guidance to assess the potential benefits for minimally invasive resection of chest wall tumors. The accuracy of localization of tumor and resection margin, and the effect on task workload and confidence were evaluated in a chest wall tumor phantom. METHODS: After scanning a realistic tumor phantom by cone beam computed tomography and registering CT data into the system, three-dimensional contoured tumor and resection margin was displayed...
August 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Linling He, Bo Liu, Jiewei Tian, Fengjuan Lu, Xiaoguang Li, Yongqiang Tian
The development of insecticide resistance is attributed to evolutionary changes in pest insect genomes, such as alteration of drug target sites, upregulation of degrading enzymes, and enhancement of drug excretion. Beyond these well-known mechanisms, symbiotic bacteria may confer insecticide resistance to host crickets. The current study was designed to screen all possible culturable bacterial groups found living in and on the bodies of Teleogryllus occipitalis crickets. We recovered 263 visible bacterial colonies and cultured them individually...
August 17, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Ziyan Luan, Astrid M G Poorthuis, Roos Hutteman, Jaap J A Denissen, Jens B Asendorpf, Marcel A G van Aken
OBJECTIVE: What is gained by having others report on one's personality? Research on adult samples has suggested that informant reports are especially informative regarding traits that are highly visible and evaluative (i.e., socially desirable/undesirable instead of neutral), such as Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. This 18-year longitudinal study aims to demonstrate the unique predictive power of other-rated personality in adolescence, using life outcomes and personality in adulthood as trait criteria...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Personality
Rui Prado-Costa, João Rebelo, João Monteiro-Barroso, Ana Sofia Preto
Ultrasound elastography (USE) is a recent technology that has experienced major developments in the past two decades. The assessment of the main mechanical properties of tissues can be made with this technology by characterisation of their response to stress. This article reviews the two major techniques used in musculoskeletal elastography, compression elastography (CE) and shear-wave elastography (SWE), and evaluates the studies published on major electronic databases that use both techniques in the context of tendon pathology...
August 17, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
E V Shah, V Kumar, B K Sharma, K Rajput, V P Chaudhary, D R Roy
A detailed investigation of the structure, electronic, spectroscopic, and optical properties of a series of transition metal-doped tetraphenylporphyrins (TM-TPP; TM = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) is performed under density functional framework. The structure and stability of tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and TM-TPPs are understood with HOMO-LUMO gap, chemical hardness, and binding energies of the transition metals to the compound. Optical properties of TPP and TM-TPP series are assessed with relevant optical absorption spectra...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Prabhat K Agnihotri, Viney Ghai, Harpreet Singh
Near perfect absorbers find application in many areas including solar cells, energy harvesting and antireflection coatings for space applications. Here we report the use of optical gradation concept to fabricate a near perfect absorber on etched Si wafer. As a proof of concept, 99.4% absorption is achieved in the broad range of 300 nm to 2000 nm. Moreover, absorption capacity of optically graded surface remains higher than 99% up to beam incident angle of 50°. While carbon nanotubes (index ~1.1) are used as top layer, subsequent layers with increasing optical index across the thickness are chosen so as to satisfy zero reflection condition on multilayered assembly...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dasol Lee, Sung Yong Han, Yeonggyo Jeong, Duc Minh Nguyen, Gwanho Yoon, Jungho Mun, Jeonghoon Chae, Jae Hyuk Lee, Jong G Ok, Gun Young Jung, Hui Joon Park, Kyunghoon Kim, Junsuk Rho
A broadband tunable absorber is designed and fabricated. The tunable absorber is comprised of a dielectric-metal-dielectric multilayer and plasmonic grating. A large size of tunable absorber device is fabricated by nano-imprinting method. The experimental results show that over 90% absorption can be achieved within visible and near-infrared regimes. Moreover, the high absorption can be controlled by changing the polarization of incident light. This polarization-sensitive tunable absorber can have practical applications such as high-efficiency polarization detectors and transmissive polarizer...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Patrycja Delong, Máté Aller, Anette S Giani, Tim Rohe, Verena Conrad, Masataka Watanabe, Uta Noppeney
Information integration across the senses is fundamental for effective interactions with our environment. The extent to which signals from different senses can interact in the absence of awareness is controversial. Combining the spatial ventriloquist illusion and dynamic continuous flash suppression (dCFS), we investigated in a series of two experiments whether visual signals that observers do not consciously perceive can influence spatial perception of sounds. Importantly, dCFS obliterated visual awareness only on a fraction of trials allowing us to compare spatial ventriloquism for physically identical flashes that were judged as visible or invisible...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
A Vysakh, Kuriakose Jayesh, Lal Raisa Helen, Mathew Jyothis, M S Latha
BACKGROUND: The plant Rotula aquatica Lour. was traditionally well known due to its large number of pharmacological action and medicinal uses. The plant is a necessary component of many Ayurvedic drug preparations since historical times. It is widely used as a crucial ancient drug for kidney and bladder stones. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity and anti inflammatory efficacy of methanolic extract of R.aquatica Lour. in in vivo models...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
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