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Red clover

Christopher L Elliott, Joan E Edwards, Toby J Wilkinson, Gordon G Allison, Kayleigh McCaffrey, Mark B Scott, Pauline Rees-Stevens, Alison H Kingston-Smith, Sharon A Huws
Understanding rumen plant-microbe interactions is central for development of novel methodologies allowing improvements in ruminant nutrient use efficiency. This study investigated rumen bacterial colonization of fresh plant material and changes in plant chemistry over a period of 24 h period using three different fresh forages: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass; PRG), Lotus corniculatus (bird's foot trefoil; BFT) and Trifolium pratense (red clover; RC). We show using 16S rRNA gene ion torrent sequencing that plant epiphytic populations present pre-incubation (0 h) were substantially different to those attached post incubations in the presence of rumen fluid on all forages...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ebrahim Benyas, Jennifer Owens, Salome Seyedalikhani, Brett Robinson
Cadmium accumulates in soils that receive repeated applications of Cd-rich superphosphate fertilizers. There is evidence that adding clovers to a crop solubilizes soil Cd, increasing the bioavailability of Cd. This can lead to high plant Cd concentrations. This research aimed to test whether liming-induced increases in pH in mixed crops of clovers and ryegrasses reduced forage Cd concentrations. A greenhouse pot trial applied lime at three rates (0, 1, and 2% of soil dry weight) to eight different plant treatments-four as monocultures (perennial ryegrass [ L...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
 Luís, F Domingues, L Pereira
The study aimed to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to access the effects of red clover isoflavones on the blood lipid profile of both perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Cochrane Library were searched for the terms 'red clover', 'Trifolium pratense', and 'randomized controlled trial' during November 2017. Summary measures were reported as weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Fixed or random effects models were used for meta-analyses, according to heterogeneity...
October 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Grażyna Budryn, Joanna Grzelczyk, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez
Actin functions are crucial for the ability of the cell to execute dynamic cytoskeleton reorganization and movement. Nutraceuticals that form complexes with actin and reduce its polymerization can be used in cancer therapy to prevent cell migration and metastasis of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of isoflavones to form complexes with actin. Docking simulation and isothermal titration calorimetry were used for this purpose. The formation of complexes by hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic and π-π interactions was demonstrated...
September 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Maj Rundlöf, Ola Lundin, Riccardo Bommarco
Ecological intensification provides opportunity to increase agricultural productivity while minimizing negative environmental impacts, by supporting ecosystem services such as crop pollination and biological pest control. For this we need to develop targeted management solutions that provide critical resources to service-providing organisms at the right time and place. We tested whether annual strips of early flowering phacelia Phacelia tanacetifolia support pollinators and natural enemies of seed weevils Protapion spp...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jung-Ho Lee, Matthew Dean, Julia R Austin, Joanna E Burdette, Brian T Murphy
The use of botanical dietary supplements is becoming increasingly popular for the alleviation of hormonal-based conditions such as hot flashes, premenstrual syndrome, and fertility. Estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR) play an essential role in these processes. However, despite the fact that many therapies used to alleviate gynecological conditions act through PR-mediated mechanisms, few studies have investigated or identified any herbal natural product components that act on this receptor. In the current study, we used a progesterone response element (PRE)-luciferase (Luc) reporter assay to identify four phytoprogestins present in a standardized red clover ( Trifolium pratense) extract...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Kiwamu Hyodo, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Tetsuro Okuno
Receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is strictly conserved across eukaryotes and acts as a versatile scaffold protein involved in various signaling pathways. Plant RACK1 is known to exert important functions in innate immunity against fungal and bacterial pathogens. However, the role of the RACK1 in plant-virus interactions remains unknown. Here, we addressed the role of RACK1 of Nicotiana benthamiana during infection by red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), a plant positive-stranded RNA virus. NbRACK1 was shown to be recruited by the p27 viral replication protein into endoplasmic reticulum-derived aggregated structures (possible replication sites)...
August 31, 2018: New Phytologist
Igor Koloniuk, Jana Fránová
Using high-throughput sequencing, a novel waikavirus was identified in a mixed virus infection of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Its complete genomic sequence was determined and characterized. The virus, tentatively named red clover associated virus 1 (RCaV1), is phylogenetically related to members of the genus Waikavirus (family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales).
August 29, 2018: Archives of Virology
Yuehui Chao, Lijuan Xie, Jianbo Yuan, Tao Guo, Yinruizhi Li, Fengqi Liu, Liebao Han
Red clover ( Trifolium pratense L.) is an important cool-season legume plant, which is used as forage. Leaf senescence is a critical developmental process that negatively affects plant quality and yield. The regulatory mechanism of leaf senescence has been studied, and genes involved in leaf senescence have been cloned and characterized in many plants. However, those works mainly focused on model plants. Information about regulatory pathways and the genes involved in leaf senescence in red clover is very sparse...
September 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Ondřej Lenz, Tatiana Sarkisová, Igor Koloniuk, Jana Fránová, Jaroslava Přibylová, Josef Špak
This study reports the complete genomic sequence of a novel virus isolated from red clover. According to its genomic organization, its similarity to luteoviruses, and a greater than 10% difference in all genes, this virus isolate likely represents a new luteovirus species. As seen in nectarine stem pitting-associated virus (NSPaV) and NSPaV-South Korea (SK) luteoviruses, it differs from typical luteoviruses through the absence of ORF3a and ORF4 encoding movement proteins. Furthermore, its P5 protein (responsible for aphid transmission) is more similar to the P5 of enamoviruses than that of luteoviruses...
August 24, 2018: Archives of Virology
S Hüser, S Guth, H G Joost, S T Soukup, J Köhrle, L Kreienbrock, P Diel, D W Lachenmeier, G Eisenbrand, G Vollmer, U Nöthlings, D Marko, A Mally, T Grune, L Lehmann, P Steinberg, S E Kulling
Isoflavones are secondary plant constituents of certain foods and feeds such as soy, linseeds, and red clover. Furthermore, isoflavone-containing preparations are marketed as food supplements and so-called dietary food for special medical purposes to alleviate health complaints of peri- and postmenopausal women. Based on the bioactivity of isoflavones, especially their hormonal properties, there is an ongoing discussion regarding their potential adverse effects on human health. This review evaluates and summarises the evidence from interventional and observational studies addressing potential unintended effects of isoflavones on the female breast in healthy women as well as in breast cancer patients and on the thyroid hormone system...
September 2018: Archives of Toxicology
L F S Leandro, S Eggenberger, C Chen, J Williams, G A Beattie, M Liebman
Current management of sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean, caused by Fusarium virguliforme, focuses on planting resistant varieties and improving soil drainage; however, these measures are not completely effective. A 6-year study evaluated the effects of cropping system diversification on SDS and soybean yield. SDS, root health, yield, and F. virguliforme density in soil were assessed in a naturally infested field trial comparing a 2-year cropping system consisting of a corn-soybean rotation and synthetic fertilizer applications with 3- and 4-year cropping systems consisting of corn-soybean-oat + red clover and corn-soybean-oat +alfalfa-alfalfa rotations, respectively, with both manure and low synthetic fertilizer rates...
September 2018: Plant Disease
Arunima Gulati, Norann Galvin, Deirdre Hennessy, Stephen McAuliffe, Michael O'Donovan, Jennifer J McManus, Mark A Fenelon, Timothy P Guinee
This study investigated the effects of 3 dairy cow feeding systems on the composition, yield, and biochemical and physical properties of low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella cheese in mid (ML; May-June) and late (LL; October-November) lactation. Sixty spring-calving cows were assigned to 3 herds, each consisting of 20 cows, and balanced on parity, calving date, and pre-experimental milk yield and milk solids yield. Each herd was allocated to 1 of the following feeding systems: grazing on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Cindy R Preto, Mysore R Sudarshana, Frank G Zalom
Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) currently poses a serious threat to the wine industry. The three-cornered alfalfa hopper (3CAH), Spissistilus festinus (Say) (Hemiptera: Membracidae), was recently shown in a greenhouse study to be a vector of GRBV in grapes. Feeding and reproductive status of 10 weed and 10 cover crop species commonly found in grape vineyards were evaluated in no-choice tests. Species confirmed as reproductive hosts were subsequently evaluated in choice tests to determine S. festinus oviposition preference...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Joaquín Castro-Montoya, Maren Witzig, Mizanur Rahman, Edwin Westreicher-Kristen, Uta Dickhoefer
This study aimed to evaluate in vitro fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis and microbial community composition when replacing maize silage (MS) with red clover silage (RCS) in total mixed rations (TMR) of dairy cows. Treatments included TMR containing forage (MS and RCS) and concentrates (0.75:0.25) with targeted proportions (dry matter (DM) basis) of RCS in TMR of 0.15 (RCS15 ), 0.30 (RCS30 ), 0.45 (RCS45 ), and 0.60 (RCS60 ), in substitution of MS. Samples of the TMR were incubated using the in vitro Ankom RF technique with a mixture of rumen fluid and buffer solution (1:2 v/v) for 8 and 24 hr...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Mäkinen Hanna, Kaseva Janne, Virkajärvi Perttu, Kahiluoto Helena
The within-species diversity in response to weather and the gaps in the response diversity in the modern set of forage crop cultivars were determined using an approach that assessed the adaptive capacity under global climate change. The annual dry matter (DM) yields were recorded in multi-location MTT (Maa- ja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskus) Agrifood Research Official Variety Trials in Finland for modern forage crop cultivars from 2000 to 2012, as a response to agroclimatic variables critical to yield based on the year-round weather data...
2018: Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change
Marijana Tucak, Daniela Horvat, Tihomir Cupic, Goran Krizmanic, Vesna Tomas, Marija Ravlic, Svetislav Popovic
BACKGROUND: Alfalfa and red clover are the most widespread and most important perennial legumes, primarily used as a high quality feed for livestock. Both alfalfa and red clover, as well as some other plant species from Fabaceae family, are a rich natural source of phytoestrogens, nonsteroidal compounds with estrogenic activity whose beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of many diseases are demonstrated in numerous scientific studies. OBJECTIVES: Nowadays, various herbal preparations are present on the world market and their use is constantly increasing, as well as the growing demands of consumers for environmentally sound and health-safe production of plant species used as sources of active substances...
July 30, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Manohar Chakrabarti, Randy D Dinkins, Arthur G Hunt
Studies on prevalence and significance of alternative polyadenylation (APA) in plants have been so far limited mostly to the model plants. Here, a genome-wide analysis of APA was carried out in different tissue types in the non-model forage legume red clover (Trifolium pratense L). A profile of poly(A) sites in different tissue types was generated using so-called 'poly(A)-tag sequencing' (PATseq) approach. Our analysis revealed tissue-wise dynamics of usage of poly(A) sites located at different genomic locations...
July 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xujiao Li, Jipeng Tian, Qing Zhang, Yun Jiang, Zhe Wu, Zhu Yu
This study was conducted to study the effects of ensiled alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and red clover (Trifolium pretense) at different ratios on dynamics of fermentation parameters, N distribution, protein fractions, and protease activities during ensiling. Alfalfa and red clover were harvested and wilted to 35 and 25% dry matter, respectively, chopped to 1 cm, mixed, weighed into 1.0-L buckets at a density of 700 g/L, and ensiled for 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 d at 30°C. The treatments were mixing ratio of alfalfa to red clover at 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100 (R0, R30, R50, R70, and R100, respectively; fresh weight)...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Marek Jarecki, Brian Grant, Ward Smith, Bill Deen, Craig Drury, Andrew VanderZaag, Budong Qian, Jingyi Yang, Claudia Wagner-Riddle
Agricultural practices such as including perennial alfalfa ( L.), winter wheat ( L.), or red clover ( L.) in corn ( L.) rotations can provide higher crop yields and increase soil organic C (SOC) over time. How well process-based biogeochemical models such as DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) capture the beneficial effects of diversified cropping systems is unclear. To calibrate and validate DNDC for simulation of observed trends in corn yield and SOC, we used long-term trials: continuous corn (CC) and corn-oats ( L...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
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