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Alfalfa silage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30447979/development-of-a-mathematical-model-to-predict-pool-sizes-and-rates-of-digestion-of-2-pools-of-digestible-neutral-detergent-fiber-and-an-undigested-neutral-detergent-fiber-fraction-within-various-forages
#1
E Raffrenato, C F Nicholson, M E Van Amburgh
The digestion of neutral detergent fiber treated with amylase and sodium sulfite and ash corrected (aNDFom) has been described as a single digestible pool and a fraction undigested in ruminants. Further, most models that predict rate and extent of digestion of aNDFom in the rumen assume first-order processes, in which the rates of digestion and passage are proportional to the pool size of aNDFom consumed and digested. Data exist demonstrating that the undigested fraction of aNDFom is not well described by a fixed coefficient and varies by maturity and agronomic growing conditions of the plant...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443821/fermentative-profile-and-lactic-acid-bacterial-dynamics-in-non-wilted-and-wilted-alfalfa-silage-in-tropical-conditions
#2
Mariele Cristina Nascimento Agarussi, Odilon Gomes Pereira, Vanessa Paula da Silva, Eliana Santos Leandro, Karina Guimarães Ribeiro, Stefanie Alvarenga Santos
This study was conducted to evaluate the fermentative profile and microbial populations of wilted and non-wilted alfalfa silages ensiled with or without inoculant and the population dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of wilted alfalfa plant and theirs silage. A 2 × 2 × 6 factorial arrangement was used, with the absence or presence of wilting (W), with and without bacterial inoculant (I) and six fermentation periods (P) (1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days), in a completely randomized design, with three replicates...
November 15, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391180/validating-and-optimizing-spot-sampling-of-urine-to-estimate-urine-output-with-creatinine-as-a-marker-in-dairy-cows
#3
C Lee, D L Morris, P A Dieter
An experiment was conducted to validate and optimize the procedure of spot urine sampling with urinary creatinine as a marker to estimate urine outputs of dairy cows. Twelve lactating cows were used in a randomized complete block design. Cows were grouped and randomly assigned to 2 experimental diets: a corn silage-based diet and an alfalfa silage-based diet with supplemental potassium. The experiment lasted for 21 d and total collection (TC) of urine was conducted for the last 3 d. Twelve spot samples of urine from individual cows were collected over a 3-d period during TC to represent every 2-h sampling in a 24-h cycle...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324694/structural-and-quantitative-changes-of-saponins-in-fresh-alfalfa-compared-to-alfalfa-silage
#4
Malgorzata Szumacher-Strabel, Anna Stochmal, Adam Cieslak, Martyna Kozłowska, Dawid Kuznicki, Mariusz Kowalczyk, Wieslaw Oleszek
BACKGROUND: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important legume used in animal feed. The primary objective in this study was to analyze and trace the individual saponins in fresh and ensiled alfalfa of ten varieties, with the aim of evaluating the structural changes undergone by saponins during ensiling. A secondary objective was to examine whether any of the changes in saponin content were associated with changes in the basic nutrient composition of the ensiled alfalfa. RESULTS: The total saponin concentration increased when the fresh alfalfa was processed into silage...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318832/nutritive-evaluation-of-spent-green-and-black-tea-leaf-silages-by-in-vitro-gas-production-characteristics-ruminal-degradability-and-post-ruminal-digestibility-assessed-with-inhibitory-activity-of-their-tannins
#5
Makoto Kondo, Yoshiaki Hirano, Kazumi Kita, Anuraga Jayanegara, Hiro-Omi Yokota
Spent tea leaf contains high levels of crude protein, suggesting that it may be used as an alternative source for ruminant feeding. We assessed the nutritive characteristics of spent green tea leaf silage (GTS) and black tea leaf silages (BTS) in comparison with soybean meal (SBM) and alfalfa hay cube (AHC) using in vitro assay. The effects of tannin on the nutritive characteristics were also evaluated by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a tannin-binding agent. The amount of gas production was greater for SBM, followed by AHC, GTS, and BTS...
October 14, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298699/ensiling-characteristics-in-vitro-rumen-fermentation-and-microbial-communities-and-aerobic-stability-of-low-dry-matter-silages-produced-with-sweet-sorghum-and-alfalfa-mixtures
#6
Lei Chen, Zhihao Dong, Junfeng Li, Tao Shao
BACKGROUND: Silages produced with grass and legume mixtures may have positive associative effects on silage quality, and animal performance when ruminants are fed the silages. The objective of this study was to determine the preservation characteristics, in vitro rumen fermentation profile and microbial abundance of silages, produced with mixtures of sweet sorghum (SS) and alfalfa (AF) in different ratios: 100: 0 (Control), 75: 25 (SA25), 50: 50 (SA50), 25: 75 (SA75) and 0: 100 (SA100) on a fresh weight basis...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292550/production-of-dairy-cows-fed-distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-in-low-and-high-forage-diets
#7
Sanjeewa D Ranathunga, Kenneth F Kalscheur, Jill L Anderson, Kevin J Herrick
The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary forage and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) concentration on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were blocked by parity and milk production and assigned to replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain low forage [LF; 17% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] or high forage (HF; 24.5% forage NDF) and DDGS at 0 or 18% of diet dry matter...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238794/influences-of-addition-of-malic-acid-or-citric-acid-lactobacillus-plantarum-and-their-mixtures-on-fermentation-quality-proteolysis-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-ensiled-alfalfa
#8
Wencan Ke, Wurong Ding, Dongmei Xu, Mian Nazir Shah, Ping Zhang, Xusheng Guo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two organic acids [malic acid (MA) and citric acid (CA)], Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) and their mixtures on the fermentation of alfalfa silage. The wilted and chopped alfalfa was ensiled in vacuum-sealed plastic bags (200-230 g per bag) with following additives: 0.5% distilled water (control), 0.5% DL-MA, 0.5% CA, LP (1 · 106  cfu/g), 0.5% DL-MA plus LP (MA+LP) or 0.5% CA plus LP (CA+LP) (application rates based on fresh weight). Each treatment had four replicates and was stored at room temperature...
December 2018: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219428/technical-note-comparison-of-dry-matter-measurements-from-handheld-near-infrared-units-with-oven-drying-at-60%C3%A2-c-for-48-hours-and-other-on-farm-methods
#9
D M Donnelly, J R R Dórea, H Yang, D K Combs
This study compared dry matter (DM) predictions of 3 handheld near-infrared spectrophotometer (NIRS) units (Moisture Tracker, Digi-Star Inc., Fort Atkinson, WI) to conventional oven drying at 60°C using 2 alfalfa and 2 corn silages. In addition, on-farm DM methods [microwave, Koster tester (Koster Moisture Tester Inc., Brunswick, OH), and food dehydrator methods] were also compared. Corn and alfalfa silages (1,600 g) obtained from the University of Wisconsin Dairy Cattle Center (DCC) and the Arlington Research Station (ARS) were analyzed for DM daily for 20 d...
November 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219423/technical-note-rapid-mineral-determination-in-forages-by-x-ray-fluorescence
#10
P Berzaghi, A Lotto, M Mancinelli, F Benozzo
A large portion of the cow's ration is composed of forages that can vary greatly in mineral concentrations, which may affect animal performance and health. Current methods for mineral analysis require sample destruction either through wet or dry ashing and complex analytical techniques for individual minerals. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a nondestructive, multi-mineral, spectroscopy technique, which makes mineral quantification simple, direct, and affordable. The study objective was to evaluate the prediction performance of EDXRF of Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in forages...
November 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169710/effects-of-hydrolyzable-tannin-with-or-without-condensed-tannin-on-methane-emissions-nitrogen-use-and-performance-of-beef-cattle-fed-a-high-forage-diet
#11
I A Aboagye, M Oba, A R Castillo, K M Koenig, K A Beauchemin
Sustainability of animal agriculture requires efficient use of energy and nitrogen (N) by ruminants fed high forage diets. Thus, there is a need to decrease methane (CH4) emissions and prevent excessive N release into the environment. Therefore, this experiment examined the long-term effects of feeding hydrolyzable tannin (HT) with or without condensed tannin (CT) on animal performance, rumen fermentation, N use and CH4 production in beef cattle fed a high forage diet. A total of 75 weaned crossbred steers (292 ± 4...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142692/low-quality-rice-straw-forage-increases-the-permeability-of-mammary-epithelial-tight-junctions-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#12
Diming Wang, Jie Cai, Fengqi Zhao, Jianxin Liu
BACKGROUND: It is known that milking frequency and plasma hormones play important roles in regulating mammary permeability. However, whether nutritional factors can influence udder permeability is still unknown. DESIGN: This study was conducted to investigate mammary epithelial tight junction permeability in lactating dairy cows fed different forage-based diets. Twenty mid-lactating dairy cows were allocated into 10 blocks based on their parity and milk yield and then randomly assigned into rice straw-based diet and alfalfa-based diet groups...
August 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30056665/altering-undf-through-additives-applied-in-corn-whole-barley-crop-and-alfalfa-silages-and-its-effect-on-the-yield-and-composition-of-milk-in-lactating-holstein-dairy-cows
#13
Seyed Mohsen Hosseini, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Ali Reza Vakili, Abbas Ali Naserian, Ehsan Khafipour
Objective: We hypothesized that silage additives may alter the undigested NDF (uNDF) content through ensiling. Therefore, urea and formic acid applied to corn, whole barley crop (WBC) and alfalfa in order to change uNDF content of the ensiled forages. Methods: Six experimental diets at two groups of high uNDF (untreated corn and alfalfa silages (CSAS) and untreated whole barley and alfalfa silages (BSAS)) and low uNDF (urea-treated corn silage + untreated alfalfa silage (CSUAS), urea-treated whole barley silage + untreated alfalfa silage (BSUAS), untreated corn silage + formic acid-treated alfalfa silage (CSASF) and untreated whole barley silage + formic acid-treated alfalfa silage (BSASF)), were allocated to thirty-six multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows...
July 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031582/effects-of-mixing-red-clover-with-alfalfa-at-different-ratios-on-dynamics-of-proteolysis-and-protease-activities-during-ensiling
#14
Xujiao Li, Jipeng Tian, Qing Zhang, Yun Jiang, Zhe Wu, Zhu Yu
This study was conducted to study the effects of ensiled alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and red clover (Trifolium pretense) at different ratios on dynamics of fermentation parameters, N distribution, protein fractions, and protease activities during ensiling. Alfalfa and red clover were harvested and wilted to 35 and 25% dry matter, respectively, chopped to 1 cm, mixed, weighed into 1.0-L buckets at a density of 700 g/L, and ensiled for 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 d at 30°C. The treatments were mixing ratio of alfalfa to red clover at 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100 (R0, R30, R50, R70, and R100, respectively; fresh weight)...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025046/implications-of-observed-and-simulated-soil-carbon-sequestration-for-management-options-in-corn-based-rotations
#15
Curtis J Dell, Hero T Gollany, Paul R Adler, R Howard Skinner, Robert W Polumsky
Managing cropping systems to sequester soil organic C (SOC) improves soil health and resilience to changing climate. Perennial crops, no-till planting, manure, and cover crops can add SOC; however, their impacts have not been well documented in the northeastern United States. Our objectives were (i) to monitor SOC from a bioenergy cropping study in Pennsylvania that included a corn ( L.)-soybean [ (L.) Merr.]-alfalfa ( L.) rotation, switchgrass ( L.), and reed canarygrass ( L.); (ii) to use the CQESTR model to predict SOC sequestration in the bioenergy crops (with and without projected climate change); and (iii) to use CQESTR to simulate influence of tillage, manure, cover cropping, and corn stover removal in typical dairy forage (silage corn-alfalfa) or grain corn-soybean rotations...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007807/validating-intrinsic-markers-and-optimizing-spot-sampling-frequency-to-estimate-fecal-outputs
#16
D L Morris, L R Rebelo, P A Dieter, C Lee
Indirect methods of spot sampling with intrinsic markers to estimate fecal output and nutrient digestibility often have been used in dairy nutrition research as alternatives to total collection of feces (TC) because of labor and expense. However, fecal output and nutrient digestibility estimated from the indirect method must be accurate regardless of altering dietary conditions. This experiment was designed to validate the accuracy of using indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) or acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as intrinsic markers to estimate fecal outputs and nutrient digestibility compared with TC and to determine the optimal number of spot sampling events to accurately determine fecal output and then nutrient excretion...
September 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908813/the-influence-of-fat-and-hemicellulose-on-methane-production-and-energy-utilization-in-lactating-jersey-cattle
#17
O R Drehmel, T M Brown-Brandl, J V Judy, S C Fernando, P S Miller, K E Hales, P J Kononoff
Feeding fat to lactating dairy cows may reduce methane production. Relative to cellulose, fermentation of hemicellulose is believed to result in less methane; however, these factors have not been studied simultaneously. Eight multiparous, lactating Jersey cows averaging (±SD) 98 ± 30.8 d in milk and body weight of 439.3 ± 56.7 kg were used in a twice-replicated 4 × 4 Latin square to determine the effects of fat and hemicellulose on energy utilization and methane production using a headbox-type indirect calorimetry method...
September 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908810/effects-of-overstocking-at-the-feedbunk-on-the-growth-performance-and-sorting-characteristics-of-a-forage-based-diet-offered-for-ad-libitum-intake-to-replacement-holstein-dairy-heifers
#18
W K Coblentz, M S Akins, N M Esser, R K Ogden, S L Gelsinger
Various forms of overcrowding are common in heifer-rearing operations. Our objectives for this study were to evaluate the effects of overstocking at the feedbunk (100, 133, 160, or 200% of capacity) on the growth performance, feedbunk sorting behaviors, and hygiene of 128 gravid Holstein heifers (475 ± 55.3 kg) consuming an alfalfa haylage and corn silage diet diluted with processed wheat straw at an inclusion rate of 25.2% (DM basis). In this study, heifers were overstocked only at the feedbunk, and not with respect to available freestalls or pen area...
September 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877003/effects-of-different-forage-combinations-in-total-mixed-rations-on-in-vitro-gas-production-kinetics-ruminal-and-milk-fatty-acid-profiles-of-lactating-cows
#19
Sarvvl Bai, Zhi-Jun Cao, Bin-Bin Cao, Hong-Jian Yang, Sheng-Li Li, Jian-Xin Liu
This study aimed to determine the effects of different forage combinations on in vitro gas production (GP) kinetics, ruminal and milk fatty acid profiles. Forty-five lactating cows were randomly arranged into three groups and fed three total mixed rations (TMRs) with different forage combinations: TMR1, 23% alfalfa hay, 7% Chinese wild ryegrass hay and 15% whole corn silage; TMR2, 30% corn stover plus 15% whole corn silage; TMR3, 30% rice straw plus 15% whole corn silage. In vitro dry matter disappearance ranked: TMR1 > TMR2 > TMR3, and highest cumulative GP and asymptotic GP occurred in TMR1 while no difference occurred between TMR2 and TMR3...
September 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845704/effects-of-inoculants-and-environmental-temperature-on-fermentation-quality-and-bacterial-diversity-of-alfalfa-silage
#20
Qing Zhang, Zhu Yu, Xianguo Wang, Jipeng Tian
To investigate the effects of inoculants and environmental temperature on fermentation quality and bacterial diversity of alfalfa silage, first-cut alfalfa was ensiled with or without two screened lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, LP, and Lactobacillus casei, LC. Each treatment was divided into three parts and stored at 20°C, 30°C, 40°C, respectively. After 60 days ensiling, fermentation characteristics were measured and bacterial diversity was investigated by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing using Illumina MiSeq platform...
August 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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