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Polyphenol oxidase

Hesham A Yousef, Eman A Abdelfattah, Maria Augustyniak
The response of antioxidant enzymes to oxidative environmental stress was determined in 5th instar nymphs of Aiolopus thalassinus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) collected from sites with different level of pollution with heavy metals, PO4 3- , and SO4 2- . The high polluted site induced higher DNA damage to individuals compared to the control site. The highest values of tail length (TL), tail moment (TM), and percent of DNA in tail (TDNA) were found in the gut of 5th instar nymphs from a high polluted site. Also, protein carbonyls and lipid peroxide levels were significantly higher in insects collected from polluted sites compared to those from the control site...
December 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hong Liu, Yifang Wan, Yuxin Wang, Yue Zhao, Yue Zhang, Ao Zhang, Qiang Weng, Meiyu Xu
Fenitrothion (FNT), an organophosphate pesticide, exerts an immunotoxic effect on splenocytes. Dietary polyphenol compounds exert antioxidant, anticancer and antihypertensive effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of walnut polyphenol extract (WPE) on FNT-induced immunotoxicity in splenic lymphocytes in vitro. Treatment with WPE significantly increased the proliferation of FNT-exposed splenocytes, as evidenced by increases in the proportions of splenic T lymphocytes (CD3⁺ T cells) and T-cell subsets (CD8⁺ T cells), as well as the secretion of the T-cell-related cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-γ, IL-4 and granzyme B...
November 30, 2018: Nutrients
Martina Reutzel, Rekha Grewal, Carmina Silaidos, Jens Zotzel, Stefan Marx, Joachim Tretzel, Gunter P Eckert
Aging represents a major risk factor for developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). As components of the Mediterranean diet, olive polyphenols may play a crucial role in the prevention of AD. Since mitochondrial dysfunction acts as a final pathway in both brain aging and AD, respectively, the effects of a mixture of highly purified olive secoiridoids were tested on cognition and ATP levels in a commonly used mouse model for brain aging. Over 6 months, female NMRI mice (12 months of age) were fed with a blend containing highly purified olive secoiridoids (POS) including oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and oleurosid standardized for 50 mg oleuropein/kg diet (equivalent to 13...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Hui Ouyang, Kun Hou, Wanxi Peng, Zhenling Liu, Heping Deng
Onions ( Allium cepa L.) comprise a valuable vegetable crop in many countries. Modern scientific research has shown that onions possess many biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antiplatelet aggregation, and antioxidant activities. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of total onion polyphenols on antioxidant and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities. Total onion polyphenols showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, FRAP, and OH-assays (IC50 [µg/mL]), 43...
November 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Haiyan Gao, Qing Zeng, Zhengnan Ren, Peizhong Li, Xinxing Xu
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) treatment on the enzymatic browning of fresh-cut potatoes. The browning index and activities of browning and defense-related enzymes were analyzed after 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 days of storage at 4 °C. The results showed that the treatment with 20 g/L GABA for 10 min significantly retarded the browning of fresh-cut potatoes. GABA inhibited the browning of fresh-cut potatoes by enhancing the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, and decreasing the activities of polyphenol oxidase and reactive oxygen species...
December 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yuan Yuan Song, Ming Xia, Yi Bin Lin, Xian Hui Lin, Chao Hui Ding, Jie Wang, Lin Hu, Ren Sen Zeng
Insect herbivore feeding causes mechanical damage to plants, which can activate plant defense responses. Whether symbiosis with beneficial microorganisms can enhance the responses of plants to mechanical damage is of importance for plant anti-herbivore resistance. In this study, defense responses of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants to mechanical wounding was investigated after the tomato roots being infected by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae. The results showed that in response to leaf mechanical wounding, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and catalase (CAT) in the leaves of tomato pre-inoculated with AMF (FD), as well as transcript levels of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and β-1,3-glucanase (PR2) in the leaves and roots were significantly higher in relative to sole mechanical wounding (D), sole mycorrhizal inoculation (F), and control without mechanical wounding and mycorrhizal inoculation (CK)...
November 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ying Wang, Mei Zhang, Lifang Zhao, Wei Zhang, Ting Zhao, Jingxuan Chu, Yanhao Qiu, Hangyuan Gong, Ruijin Li
TetrabromobisphenolA (TBBPA) is the most widely used brominated flame retardant, and it has the characteristics of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), attracting considerable attention. Many studies mainly focus on TBBPA toxicological effects in aquatic animals and rodents, but the ecotoxicology data of TBBPA on plant-soil system are limited so far. In this study, we assessed the impacts of TBBPA on maize (Zea mays L.) physiological indexes, soil enzyme activity, and soil microbial biomass at different concentrations of TBBPA (0, 0...
November 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Qing-Wen Wang, Lin-Yun Jia, Dai-Long Shi, Rong-Fang Wang, Li-Na Lu, Jia-Jia Xie, Kun Sun, Han-Qing Feng, Xin Li
Wounding increased the extracellular Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (eATP) level of kidney bean leaves. Treatment with wounding or exogenous ATP increased the hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) content, activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase, and malondialdehyde content in both the treated and systemic leaves. Pre-treatment with ATP-degrading enzyme, apyrase, to the wounded leaves reduced the wound-induced local and systemic increases in H2 O2 content, activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase, and malondialdehyde content...
November 20, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Wenguang Fan, Haiwei Ren, Yonggang Wang, Cheng Peng, Xiaofeng Lian, Yingying Cao
BACKGROUND: In order to develop active packaging of lily products, we for the first time investigated the effects of phenyllatic acid (PLA) incorporated into a sodium alginate (SA)-based coating on the quality of minimally processed lily bulbs stored at 4 °C for 15d. RESULTS: L9 (34 ) orthogonal array design was showed that the optimal concentrations of PLA, SA and glycerinum were 0.03 mol L-1 , 0.03mol L-1 and 0.05 mol L-1 to prepare blend coating. It was noticed that PLA/SA blend coating treatment could inhibit browning and maintain the firmness and ascorbic acid of minimally processed lily bulbs...
November 17, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Shan Chen, Qiang Wang, Haoliang Lu, Junwei Li, Dan Yang, Jingchun Liu, Chongling Yan
In the present study, a set of pot culture experiments was conducted to reveal how the metabolism process of phenolic compounds was affected by cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) and to further uncover heavy metal tolerance mechanisms in Kandelia obovata. After 60d of treatment, the biomass and chlorophyll a content in the leaves were suppressed, but total phenolic compounds in roots and leaves were improved by the increasing gradient of Cd or Zn concentrations; Total phenolic compounds significantly increased by 3...
November 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Roghieh Hajiboland, Narges Moradtalab, Nasser Aliasgharzad, Zarrin Eshaghi, Javad Feizy
Effect of silicon (Si) on the response of strawberry ( Fragaria  ×  ananassa var. Parus) plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) was studied under growth chamber conditions. Plants were grown in perlite irrigated with nutrient solution without (- Si) or with (+ Si) 3 mmol L-1 Si (~ 84 mg L-1 Si as Na2 SiO3 ) in the absence (- AMF) or presence (+ AMF) of fungus. Dry matter production, root colonization rate, photosynthesis rate and water relation parameters were all improved by both Si and AMF, and the highest amounts were achieved by + Si + AMF treatment...
November 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Amna Shoaib, Sidra Meraj, Nafisa, Kashif Ali Khan, Muhammad Azhar Javaid
Occurrence of salt stress with the soil borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (FOC) are potential threat to the crop yield. This investigation reports effect of the concurrent stresses (salinity and FOC) on morpho-physiological and yield attributes in onion. In vitro growth tests revealed proliferation of FOC biomass at different levels of salinity (2-8 dS m-1 ). A greenhouse pot experiment with the proposed levels of salinity (2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 dS m-1 ) in combination with FOC inoculation showed more drastic effect of combined stress on disease severity, plant growth and bulb as compared to the individual stress...
November 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Qixian Wu, Zhengke Zhang, Hong Zhu, Taotao Li, Xiangrong Zhu, Huijun Gao, Ze Yun, Yueming Jiang
BACKGROUND: Ozone treatment can effectively inhibit fruit decay in many fruits during postharvest storage. However, little information was available for pitaya fruit. RESULTS: Ozone treatment significantly reduced decay rate, and induced enzyme activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species. A total of 103 metabolites were detected and changed the content after ozone treatment, including 54 primary metabolites and 49 aromatic compounds...
November 11, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Weixing Wang, Hong Tan, Hua Liu, Huabao Peng, Xiaoyan Li, Xiqiang Dang, Xiaojie He
Preglomerular arteriopathy (PA) induced by hyperuricemia contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) are antioxidant ingredients thought to assist in preventing hyperuricemia. However, the underlying mechanism by which GTPs affect renal function remains unclear. Both normal and remnant kidney (RK) rats were administrated oxonic acid (OX) to induce hyperuricemia. The hyperuricemia RK rats were concomitantly treated with GTPs. Hematoxlyin-eosin (H&E) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining methods were used to examine renal function and arterial morphology...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Milad Hadidi, Albert Ibarz, Josep Conde, Jordi Pagan
The use of alfalfa protein in human food is limited by its low quality. Response Surface Methodology was employed to optimise the combined effects of different steam blanching conditions on the enzymatic activity, browning and protein degrading which cause undesirable characteristics. The optimum conditions were: steaming time 4.36 min, particle size 23 mm, time from harvesting to steaming 2 h leading to a residual activity of polyphenol oxidase of 1.31% and a completely inactivation of peroxidase. The Browning Index value was 108...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
B Dündar, E Ağçam, A Akyıldız
The optimum thermosonication parameters, temperature and ultrasound energy density (UED), determined by using response surface methodology to inactivate polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and protecting the quality parameters, especially color of strawberry nectar. The PPO inactivation was successfully achieved by thermosonication treatment. Increasing of temperature resulted with decreasing of browning index and increasing of hydroxymethyl furfural. High temperature-low UED combination can be applied to obtain minimum change in ΔE∗ and maximum protection of ascorbic acid...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Arshad Mehmood, Muhammad Ishaq, Lei Zhao, Bushra Safdar, Ashfaq-Ur Rehman, Masooma Munir, Ali Raza, Muhammad Nadeem, Waheed Iqbal, Chengtao Wang
Hyperuricemia (HUA), a disease due to an elevation of BUA (body uric acid) level and responsible for various diseases like gout, cardiovascular disorders, and renal failure, is a major ground debate for the medical science these days. Considering the risk factors linked with allopathic drugs for the treatment of this disease, the debate has now become a special issue. Previously, we critically discussed the role of dietary polyphenols in the treatment of HUA. Besides dietary food plants, many researchers figure out the tremendous effects of medicinal plants derived phytochemicals against HUA...
November 7, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Nour Yahfoufi, Nawal Alsadi, Majed Jambi, Chantal Matar
This review offers a systematic understanding about how polyphenols target multiple inflammatory components and lead to anti-inflammatory mechanisms. It provides a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds. Polyphenols regulate immunity by interfering with immune cell regulation, proinflammatory cytokines' synthesis, and gene expression. They inactivate NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and modulate mitogen-activated protein Kinase (MAPk) and arachidonic acids pathways...
November 2, 2018: Nutrients
Hui Wang, Yihui Chen, Hetong Lin, Junzheng Sun, Yifen Lin, Mengshi Lin
Phomopsis longanae Chi is a major pathogenic fungus that infects harvested longan fruit. This study aimed to investigate the effects of P. longanae on reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and its relation to the pericarp browning and disease development of harvested longan fruit during storage at 28°C and 90% relative humidity. Results showed that compared to the control longans, P. longanae -inoculated longans displayed higher indexes of pericarp browning and fruit disease, higher O2 -. generation rate, higher accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), lower contents of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA), lower 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability and reducing power in pericarp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiaona Li, Yang Song, Fang Wang, Yongrong Bian, Xin Jiang
Whether the rhizodegradation of organic contaminants occurs in biochar- amended soil and its potential mechanisms have rarely been reported. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of root exudates and biochar on the dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and on the microbial community structures in soil. As a major component of the root exudates of ryegrass, oxalic acid (OA) significantly enhanced the dissipation of high- and low-ring PAHs in the studied soil with or without maize straw biochar amendment (p < 0...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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