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Liwen He, Wei Zhou, Yi Wang, Cheng Wang, Xiaoyang Chen, Qing Zhang
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of applying lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus plantarum LP) (0 and 1 × 106  cfu/g fresh matter (FM)) and cellulase (0, 30, 60 and 120 U/g FM) on the ensiling characteristics of N. cadamba leaves. The experimental design was a completely randomized 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. Fermentation parameters, microbial populations, chemical compositions and in vitro digestibility of the silages were measured after 60-day fermentation. LAB inoculation decreased the pH (p < 0...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Dongxia Li, Kuikui Ni, Yingchao Zhang, Yanli Lin, Fuyu Yang
Objective: In tropical regions, as in temperate regions where seasonality of forage production occurs, well-preserved forage is necessary for animal production during periods of forage shortage. However, the unique climate conditions (hot and humid) and forage characteristics (high moisture content and low soluble carbohydrate) in the tropics make forage preservation more difficult. The current study used natural ensiling of tropical forage as a model to evaluate silage characteristics under different temperatures (28°C and 40°C)...
July 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Young Ho Joo, Dong Hyeon Kim, Dimas H V Paradhipta, Hyuk Jun Lee, Sardar M Amanullah, Sang Bum Kim, Jong Soo Chang, Sam Churl Kim
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of homo or hetero fermentative inoculants on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet potato vine (SPV) silage containing Italian ryegrass hay as moisture absorbent. Methods: The SPV was harvested at 15% DM, mixed with Italian ryegrass hay at 1:1 ratio on a fresh weight basis, and chopped to 3-5 cm length. After then, the chopped forage mixture was ensiled into 20-L mini silo in quadruplicate for 7, 48 and 100 days after application of microbial inoculants at 1...
July 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Seyed Mohsen Hosseini, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Ali Reza Vakili, Abbas Ali Naserian, Ehsan Khafipour
Objective: We hypothesized that silage additives may alter the undigested NDF (uNDF) content through ensiling. Therefore, urea and formic acid applied to corn, whole barley crop (WBC) and alfalfa in order to change uNDF content of the ensiled forages. Methods: Six experimental diets at two groups of high uNDF (untreated corn and alfalfa silages (CSAS) and untreated whole barley and alfalfa silages (BSAS)) and low uNDF (urea-treated corn silage + untreated alfalfa silage (CSUAS), urea-treated whole barley silage + untreated alfalfa silage (BSUAS), untreated corn silage + formic acid-treated alfalfa silage (CSASF) and untreated whole barley silage + formic acid-treated alfalfa silage (BSASF)), were allocated to thirty-six multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows...
July 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Xujiao Li, Jipeng Tian, Qing Zhang, Yun Jiang, Zhe Wu, Zhu Yu
This study was conducted to study the effects of ensiled alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and red clover (Trifolium pretense) at different ratios on dynamics of fermentation parameters, N distribution, protein fractions, and protease activities during ensiling. Alfalfa and red clover were harvested and wilted to 35 and 25% dry matter, respectively, chopped to 1 cm, mixed, weighed into 1.0-L buckets at a density of 700 g/L, and ensiled for 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 d at 30°C. The treatments were mixing ratio of alfalfa to red clover at 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100 (R0, R30, R50, R70, and R100, respectively; fresh weight)...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Qinhua Liu, Steven E Lindow, Jianguo Zhang
Enhancing the aerobic stability of silage is very important in silage production. The objective of this study was to compare the roles of a new bacterial strain Lactobacillus parafarraginis ZH1 with Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso-1 (LP) and Lactobacillus buchneri NCIMB 40788 (LB) in improving the aerobic stability of oat silage and identify the anti-yeast substances produced by them. After ensiled for 45 days, either inoculated silages or control silage were of pH values lower than 4.2. The control and LP inoculated silage had poorer aerobic stability than LB and ZH1 inoculated ones (p < 0...
July 15, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
U Tayyab, R G Wilkinson, G L Charlton, C K Reynolds, L A Sinclair
The particle size of the forage has been proposed as a key factor to ensure a healthy rumen function and maintain dairy cow performance, but little work has been conducted on ryegrass silage (GS). To determine the effect of chop length of GS and GS:maize silage (MS) ratio on the performance, reticular pH, metabolism and eating behaviour of dairy cows, 16 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four periods each of 28-days duration. Ryegrass was harvested and ensiled at two mean chop lengths (short and long) and included at two ratios of GS:MS (100:0 or 40:60 dry matter (DM) basis)...
July 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Jie Zhao, Zhihao Dong, Junfeng Li, Lei Chen, Yunfeng Bai, Yushan Jia, Tao Shao
The fermentation characteristics, structural carbohydrate degradation and enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw ensiled with hemicellulase and Lactobacillus plantarum were examined. Fresh rice straw was ensiled in 1-L laboratory silos with no additive control (CK), L. plantarum (L), hemicellulase (HC) and hemicellulase + L. plantarum (HCL) for 6, 15, 30 and 60 days. All additives increased lactic acid concentration, and reduced pH and lignocellulosic content of the resulting silage relative to the control...
October 2018: Bioresource Technology
M Abbasi, Y Rouzbehan, J Rezaei, S E Jacobsen
This study assessed the influence of wilting, lactobacillus (LAB) and / or molasses on the chemical composition, phenolic compounds, in situ degradability and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of amaranth (var. Maria) silage using a randomized complete block design with 6 replicates. Treatments were fresh amaranth forage (FAF), ensiled amaranth without additive (EA), EA inoculated with LAB (EAB), EA + 5% of molasses (EAM), EA inoculated with LAB + 5% of molasses (EABM) and 24-h wilted EA (WEA). The ensiled materials were stored anaerobically for a period of 45 d...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
J R Gandra, C S Takiya, T A Del Valle, E R Oliveira, R H T B de Goes, E R S Gandra, J D O Batista, H M C Araki
Chitosan is a biopolymer derived from chitin deacetylation, present in the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects. Chitosan has been evaluated as rumen modulator and silage additive due to its antimicrobial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of both chitosan and a bacterial additive on microbiological quality, chemical composition, nutrient in vitro degradation, fermentative profile, and total losses of whole-soybean plant silage (SS) harvested at R6 stage. Four treatments in a factorial arrangement were randomly assigned to 40 experimental minisilos as no additives (CON), 8 g/t fresh forage of microbial inoculant (INO; Kera SIL, Kera Nutrição Animal, Bento Gonçalves, Brazil); 5 g/kg of fresh forage chitosan (CHI); and CHI + INO...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Eric Lim Teik Chung, Michael Predith, Frisco Nobilly, Anjas Asmara Samsudin, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Teck Chwen Loh
Brachiaria decumbens is an extremely productive tropical grass due to its aggressive growth habit and its adaptation to a varied range of soil types and environments. As a result of the vast availability, treated B. decumbens demonstrates as a promising local material that could be utilised as an improved diet for sheep and goats. Despite the fact that the grass significantly increases weight gains in grazing farm animals, there were many reports of general ill-thrift and sporadic outbreaks of photosensitivity in livestock due to the toxic compound of steroidal saponin found in B...
June 20, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Hao Guan, Yanhong Yan, Xiaoling Li, Xiaomei Li, Yang Shuai, Guangyan Feng, Qifan Ran, Yimin Cai, Ying Li, Xinquan Zhang
This study analyzed the variation of microbial communities, their achieved fermentation quality, and the association between microbial diversity and environmental factors after ensiling of 96 samples prepared with bunker-silo in Southwest China. Most of natural corn silages achieved good fermentation, e.g., low pH value (<4.2) and high levels of lactic acid (36.26-79.83 mg/g DM). Weissella species were the dominant epiphytic bacteria in raw material, while Lactobacillus and Acetobacter species were prevalent in silages...
October 2018: Bioresource Technology
Shimaa A Mousa, Pradeep K Malik, Atul P Kolte P Kolte, Raghavendra Bhatta, Shigemitsu Kasuga, Yutaka Uyeno
Objective: Ensiling of tannin-rich fruit byproducts (FB) involves quantitative and qualitative changes in the tannins, which would consequently change the rumen fermentation characteristics. This study aimed to evaluate whether ensiled FBs are effective in mitigating methane emission from ruminants by conducting in vitro assessments. Methods: Fruit byproducts (grape pomace, wild grape pomace, and persimmon skin) were collected and subjected to four-week ensiling by Lactobacillus buchneri inoculant...
May 31, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Kuikui Ni, Jingyun Zhao, Baoge Zhu, Rina Su, Yi Pan, Junkui Ma, Guoan Zhou, Yong Tao, Xiaorong Liu, Jin Zhong
The silage quality of forage soybean (FS) rich in protein with crop corn (CN) or sorghum (SG) rich in water soluble carbohydrate was investigated, and microbial community after ensiling was analyzed. Results showed that pH in mixed silages dropped to 3.5-3.8 lower than 100%FS silage (4.5). Microbial analysis indicated that mixed ensiling could influence the microbial community. Although Lactobacillus and Weissella were the dominant genera in all silage samples, Lactobacillus abundance in mixed silages (33-76%) was higher compared with 100%FS silage (27%)...
October 2018: Bioresource Technology
G Q Zhao, Z L Ju, J K Chai, T Jiao, Z F Jia, D P Casper, L Zeng, J P Wu
Oat is a main feed crop in high altitude areas of western China, but few studies have been done on its silage making. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silage additives on fermentation, aerobic stability and nutritive value of different oat varieties grown in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau of China. Two oat varieties (Avena sativa L. cv. Longyan No.1 (OVL1) and Avena sativa L. cv. Longyan No.3 (OVL3)) were planted in a randomized complete block design, harvested at early dough stage with 32.6% and 34...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Qing Zhang, Zhu Yu, Xianguo Wang, Jipeng Tian
To investigate the effects of inoculants and environmental temperature on fermentation quality and bacterial diversity of alfalfa silage, first-cut alfalfa was ensiled with or without two screened lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, LP, and Lactobacillus casei, LC. Each treatment was divided into three parts and stored at 20°C, 30°C, 40°C, respectively. After 60 days ensiling, fermentation characteristics were measured and bacterial diversity was investigated by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing using Illumina MiSeq platform...
May 29, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Veronica Lolli, Angela Marseglia, Gerardo Palla, Emanuela Zanardi, Augusta Caligiani
Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFAs) are unusual fatty acids of microbial origin, recently detected in milk and dairy products. CPFAs have been demonstrated to be interesting molecular markers for authentication of dairy products obtained without ensiled feeds. Moreover, they can also be recognized as a new secondary component of human diet. Information is lacking on the presence of cyclic fatty acids in other food sources. Cyclopropane fatty acids have been detected by GC-MS analysis in cheese and other animal fats in concentration ranging from 200 to 1000 mg/kg fat, but in some cases, the complex fatty acid profile and the possible presence of interfering peaks make the separation not straightforward and the quantification uneasy...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Daniella Gallagher, David Parker, Damian J Allen, Nicolas Tsesmetzis
Significant low-cost biofuel production volumes could be achieved from commercial-scale silage by redirecting lactic acid fermentation to ethanol production. A temporal metagenomic analysis on ensiled sweet sorghum inoculated with an ethanologenic yeast has been conducted to understand the underlying microbial processes during bioethanol production. Individual silage buckets approximating silage piles were prepared with freshly harvested material and supplemented with ethanologenic yeast, sulfuric acid or both...
September 2018: Bioresource Technology
Junfeng Li, Xianjun Yuan, Zhihao Dong, Wazha Mugabe, Tao Shao
Biological inoculants were tested on Pennisetum sinese for their effects on fermentation characteristics, structural carbohydrates degradation, and enzymatic conversion yields. Pennisetum sinese was ensiled without additive, Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp), Trichoderma reesei (Tr), fibrolytic enzymes (E), and Enterococcus faecium (Y83) for 90 days. Y83 silages had higher LA and lower AA, ammonia-N and DM loss as compared to E and Tr silages. Tr and E had superior effects for degrading lignocellulose while Y83 had intermediate effects...
September 2018: Bioresource Technology
Haiwei Ren, Cong Wang, Wenguang Fan, Bingyun Zhang, Zhizhong Li, Dong Li
A mixture of air-dried corn stover and cabbage waste was ensiled to preserve lignocellulosic biomass for use as biofuel. Furthermore, the effects of different fresh mass fractions (0.3 and 0.6%) of formic or acetic acid on the mixed silage quality were evaluated to guarantee its quality. The application of formic or acetic acid prior to mixing the silage led to higher water-soluble carbohydrate fractions than the negative control, indicating that both acids contributed to preservation of water-soluble carbohydrates during storage for 170 days...
March 2018: Food Technology and Biotechnology
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