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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719950/isolation-and-characterization-of-vaccine-candidate-genes-including-csp-and-msp1-in-plasmodium-yoelii
#1
Seon-Hee Kim, Young-An Bae, Ju-Young Seoh, Hyun-Jong Yang
Malaria is an infectious disease affecting humans, which is transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes harboring sporozoites of parasitic protozoans belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Despite past achievements to control the protozoan disease, malaria still remains a significant health threat up to now. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-unit Plasmodium yoelii genes encoding merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), circumsporozoite protein (CSP), and Duffy-binding protein (DBP), each of which can be applied for investigations to obtain potent protective vaccines in the rodent malaria model, due to their specific expression patterns during the parasite life cycle...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719855/high-fat-diet-and-aging-interact-to-produce-neuroinflammation-and-impair-hippocampal-and-amygdalar-dependent-memory
#2
Sarah J Spencer, Heather D'Angelo, Alita Soch, Linda R Watkins, Steven F Maier, Ruth M Barrientos
More Americans are consuming diets higher in saturated fats and refined sugars than ever before, and based on increasing obesity rates, this is a growing trend among older adults as well. While high saturated fat diet (HFD) consumption has been shown to sensitize the inflammatory response to a subsequent immune challenge in young adult rats, the inflammatory effect of HFD in the already-vulnerable aging brain has not yet been assessed. Here, we explored whether short-term (3 days) consumption of HFD would serve as a neuroinflammatory trigger in aging animals, leading to cognitive deficits...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719821/bcg-old-workhorse-new-skills
#3
REVIEW
M Gengenbacher, N E Nieuwenhuizen, She Kaufmann
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only tuberculosis (TB) vaccine in clinical practice, has limitations in efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Much current TB vaccine research focuses on engineering live mycobacteria to interfere with phagosome biology and host intracellular pathways including apoptosis and autophagy, with candidates such as BCG Δzmp1, BCG ΔureC::hly, BCG::ESX-1(Mmar), Mtb ΔphoP ΔfadD26, Mtb ΔRD1 ΔpanCD and M. smegmatis Δesx-3::esx-3(Mtb) in the development pipeline. Correlates of protection in preclinical studies include increased central memory CD4(+) T cells and recruitment of antigen-specific T cells to the lungs, with mucosal vaccination found to be superior to parenteral vaccination...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719808/activated-neuro-oxidative-and-neuro-nitrosative-pathways-at-the-end-of-term-are-associated-with-inflammation-and-physio-somatic-and-depression-symptoms-while-predicting-outcome-characteristics-in-mother-and-baby
#4
Chutima Roomruangwong, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Andressa Keiko Matsumoto, André de Souza Nogueira, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Sebastien Duleu, Michel Geffard, Estefania Gastaldello Moreira, Michael Maes
OBJECTIVES: To examine oxidative & nitrosative stress (O&NS) biomarkers at the end of term in relation to perinatal affective symptoms, neuro-immune biomarkers and pregnancy-related outcome variables. METHODS: We measured plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), -sulfhydryl (-SH), peroxides (LOOH) and paraoxonase (PON)1 activity in pregnant women with and without prenatal depression and non-pregnant controls...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719799/mesencephalic-astrocyte-derived-neurotrophic-factor-manf-a-new-player-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-diseases-structure-biology-and-therapeutic-roles
#5
REVIEW
Yeawon Kim, Sun-Ji Park, Ying Maggie Chen
Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), a newly identified 18-kDa soluble protein, localizes to the luminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whose stress can stimulate MANF expression and secretion. In Drosophila and zebrafish, MANF regulates dopaminergic neuron development. In contrast, in mice, MANF deficiency leads to diabetes and activation of the unfolded protein response. Recent studies in rodent models have demonstrated that MANF mitigates diabetes, exerts neurotrophic function in neurodegenerative disease, protects cardiomyocytes and neurons in myocardial infarction and cerebral ischemia, respectively, and promotes immune cell phenotype switch from proinflammatory macrophages to prorepair anti-inflammatory macrophages...
June 29, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719793/twenty-years-of-progress-on-maternal-and-child-health-in-the-philippines-an-equity-lens
#6
Caryn Bredenkamp, Leander R Buisman
This article assesses trends and inequalities in maternal and child health in the Philippines between 1993 and 2013, using 6 national household surveys, and also compares the Philippines' performance to 15 other Asia-Pacific countries. Thirteen indicators of child health outcomes and maternal and child health interventions are examined. Two measures of inequality are used: the absolute difference between the poorest and wealthiest quintile, and the concentration index. Coverage of all indicators has improved, both on average and among the poorest quintile; however, increases are very small for child health interventions (especially immunization coverage)...
July 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719764/surgical-anatomy-does-not-affect-the-progression-of-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-neonatal-piglets
#7
Celeste M Lavallee, Pamela R Wizzard, Marihan Lansing, Donna F Vine, Patrick N Nation, Jason Y Yap, Benjamin P Willing, Paul W Wales, Justine M Turner
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) causes significant morbidity in neonates with short bowel syndrome (SBS) dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN). Resected ileum, with loss of the ileocecal valve (ICV), is the most common anatomy in SBS, yet its impact on IFALD has not been adequately studied. METHODS: Neonatal piglets were randomized to 75% intestinal resection with jejunocolic anastomosis (JC, n = 12), 75% resection with jejunoileal anastomosis and intact ICV (JI, n = 13), PN-fed sham (sham, n = 14), or sow-fed control (SF, n = 8)...
July 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719665/risk-factors-for-hospital-acquired-infections-in-teaching-hospitals-of-amhara-regional-state-ethiopia-a-matched-case-control-study
#8
Walelegn Worku Yallew, Abera Kumie, Feleke Moges Yehuala
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infection affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. It is a major global issue for patient safety. Understanding the potential risk factors is important to appreciate the local context. A matched case control study design, which is the first of its kind in the study region, was undertaken to identify risk factors in teaching hospitals of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. METHOD: A matched case control study design matched with age and hospital type was used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719655/protein-analysis-and-gene-expression-indicate-differential-vulnerability-of-iberian-fish-species-under-a-climate-change-scenario
#9
Tiago F Jesus, João M Moreno, Tiago Repolho, Alekos Athanasiadis, Rui Rosa, Vera M F Almeida-Val, Maria M Coelho
Current knowledge on the biological responses of freshwater fish under projected scenarios of climate change remains limited. Here, we examine differences in the protein configuration of two endemic Iberian freshwater fish species, Squalius carolitertii and the critically endangered S. torgalensis that inhabit in the Atlantic-type northern and in the Mediterranean-type southwestern regions, respectively. We performed protein structure modeling of fourteen genes linked to protein folding, energy metabolism, circadian rhythms and immune responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719652/long-term-follow-up-of-human-t-cell-responses-to-conserved-hiv-1-regions-elicited-by-dna-simian-adenovirus-mva-vaccine-regimens
#10
Nathifa Moyo, Nicola J Borthwick, Edmund G Wee, Silvia Capucci, Alison Crook, Lucy Dorrell, Tomáš Hanke
BACKGROUND: Durability of vaccine-elicited immune responses is one of the key determinants for vaccine success. Our aim is to develop a vaccination strategy against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which induces protective and durable CD8+ T-cell responses. The central theorem of our approach is to focus T cells on highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome and this is achieved through the use of the first-generation conserved vaccine immunogen HIVconsv. This immunogen vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and poxvirus MVA was tested in healthy, HIV-1-negative adults in UK and induced high magnitudes of HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional CD8+ T cells capable of in vitro HIV-1 inhibition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719632/viscum-album-neutralizes-tumor-induced-immunosuppression-in-a-human-in-vitro-cell-model
#11
Carmen Steinborn, Amy Marisa Klemd, Ann-Sophie Sanchez-Campillo, Sophie Rieger, Marieke Scheffen, Barbara Sauer, Manuel Garcia-Käufer, Konrad Urech, Marie Follo, Annekathrin Ücker, Gunver Sophia Kienle, Roman Huber, Carsten Gründemann
Tumor cells have the capacity to secrete immunosuppressive substances in order to diminish dendritic cell (DC) activity and thereby escape from immune responses. The impact of mistletoe (Viscum album) extracts (VAE), which are frequently used as an additive anti-cancer therapy to stimulate the immune response, is still unknown. Using a human cellular system, the impact of two different VAE (VAEA + VAEI) on the maturation of human dendritic cells and on T cell function has been investigated using flow cytometry, automated fluorescence microscopy and cytokine bead array assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719625/differences-of-immune-disorders-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-breast-cancer-based-on-transcriptional-regulation
#12
Wei Kong, Xiaoyang Mou, Jin Deng, Benteng Di, Ruxing Zhong, Shuaiqun Wang, Yang Yang, Weiming Zeng
Although chronic inflammation and immune disorders are of great importance to the pathogenesis of both dementia and cancer, the pathophysiological mechanisms are not clearly understood. In recent years, growing epidemiological evidence and meta-analysis data suggest an inverse association between Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the most common form of dementia, and cancer. It has been revealed that some common genes and biological processes play opposite roles in AD and cancer; however, the biological immune mechanism for the inverse association is not clearly defined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719615/a-human-tissue-based-functional-assay-platform-to-evaluate-the-immune-function-impact-of-small-molecule-inhibitors-that-target-the-immune-system
#13
Cristina St Pierre, Jane Guo, John D Shin, Laura W Engstrom, Hyun-Hee Lee, Alan Herbert, Laura Surdi, James Baker, Michael Salmon, Sanjiv Shah, J Michael Ellis, Hani Houshyar, Michael A Crackower, Melanie A Kleinschek, Dallas C Jones, Alexandra Hicks, Dennis M Zaller, Stephen E Alves, Ravisankar A Ramadas
While the immune system is essential for the maintenance of the homeostasis, health and survival of humans, aberrant immune responses can lead to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Pharmacological modulation of drug targets in the immune system to ameliorate disease also carry a risk of immunosuppression that could lead to adverse outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the 'immune fingerprint' of novel therapeutics as they relate to current and, clinically used immunological therapies to better understand their potential therapeutic benefit as well as immunosuppressive ability that might lead to adverse events such as infection risks and cancer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719602/prehospital-immune-responses-and-development-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-following-traumatic-injury-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Jon Hazeldine, David N Naumann, Emma Toman, David Davies, Jonathan R B Bishop, Zhangjie Su, Peter Hampson, Robert J Dinsdale, Nicholas Crombie, Niharika Arora Duggal, Paul Harrison, Antonio Belli, Janet M Lord
BACKGROUND: Almost all studies that have investigated the immune response to trauma have analysed blood samples acquired post-hospital admission. Thus, we know little of the immune status of patients in the immediate postinjury phase and how this might influence patient outcomes. The objective of this study was therefore to comprehensively assess the ultra-early, within 1-hour, immune response to trauma and perform an exploratory analysis of its relationship with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719573/crystalline-metamaterials-for-topological-properties-at-subwavelength-scales
#15
Simon Yves, Romain Fleury, Thomas Berthelot, Mathias Fink, Fabrice Lemoult, Geoffroy Lerosey
The exciting discovery of topological condensed matter systems has lately triggered a search for their photonic analogues, motivated by the possibility of robust backscattering-immune light transport. However, topological photonic phases have so far only been observed in photonic crystals and waveguide arrays, which are inherently physically wavelength scaled, hindering their application in compact subwavelength systems. In this letter, we tackle this problem by patterning the deep subwavelength resonant elements of metamaterials onto specific lattices, and create crystalline metamaterials that can develop complex nonlocal properties due to multiple scattering, despite their very subwavelength spatial scale that usually implies to disregard their structure...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719552/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-organ-transplant-patients
#16
Adam S Kittai, Hayden Oldham, Jeremy Cetnar, Matthew Taylor
Modulation of T-cell activity through blockade of coinhibitory molecules has revolutionized the treatment of various malignancies. Several immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently Food and Drug Administration approved which target various coinhibitory pathways including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand-1. Clinical trials that lead to the Food and Drug Administration approval of these agents often excluded patients with an organ transplant...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719512/a-pediatric-case-of-persistent-thrombocytopenia-in-a-patient-who-developed-all
#17
Haroon Shaukat, Jessica O'Mara, Michelle Neier
Inherited thrombocytopenia is a topic that was expanded greatly over the last decade and many new genes are being identified. However, inheritance patterns are not always easy to identify because sporadic cases from de novo mutations may in fact be more common. Few studies have assessed the relationship between thrombocytopenia and malignancies, specifically acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Here we present a pediatric case of persistent thrombocytopenia associated with T-cell ALL. Our patient was initially diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenic purpura with no evidence of malignancy on bone marrow biopsy but presented shortly after with ALL...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719500/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-for-primary-and-booster-vaccinations-of-healthy-infants-and-toddlers-in-latin-america
#18
Pío López, Adriano Arguedas Mohs, Arturo Abdelnour Vásquez, Maria Consuelo-Miranda, Emmanuel Feroldi, Fernando Noriega, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Betzana Zambrano
BACKGROUND: Hexavalent diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. METHODS: Infants (N=1375) received HB vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of three batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4-6 months of age, co-administered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months)...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719496/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-children-aged-6-to-17-years-in-india-an-open-label-trial
#19
Sharad Agarkhedkar, Christine Juergens, Krishnamurthy Balasundaram, Shalaka Agarkhedkar, Vani Sundaraiyer, Natacha Le Dren-Narayanin, Mark W Cutler, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Beate Schmoele-Thoma
In an open-label study in India, 200 healthy participants aged 6-17 years received 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). PCV13 elicited robust functional antibody immune responses. No adverse events were reported by caregivers at the 1-month follow-up visit. The immunogenicity results together with the known favorable risk-benefit profile of PCV13 support extension of the indication to this age group in India.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02034877.
July 15, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719435/leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-and-dermal-perivascular-hemophagocytosis-associated-with-adalimumab-therapy-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#20
Jun Muto, Jun Usami, Daisuke Watanabe
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors target TNF-α to effectively treat autoimmune inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, many cases of cutaneous and systemic vasculitis related to TNF-α inhibitors have been reported in the literature. Here, the authors report the first case of a 61-year-old Japanese woman who developed leukocytoclastic vasculitis with cutaneous perivascular hemophagocytosis, which was related to elevated cytokines and immune complexes after initiating adalimumab for rheumatoid arthritis without evidence of hemophagocytic syndrome and rarely encountered in the skin...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
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