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Shobini Jayaraman, Donald L Gantz, Christian Haupt, Marcus Fändrich, Olga Gursky
Serum amyloid A action in immune response and deposition in inflammation-linked amyloidosis involve SAA-lipid interactions. We show that SAA sequesters neutral and anionic phospholipids and their hydrolytic products to form nanoparticles, suggesting a synergy with phospholipase A2. The lipid charge and shape affect SAA protection from proteolysis, aggregation and fibrillogenesis.
March 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Bo Zhu, Jeremiah Z Liu, Stephen F Cauley, Bruce R Rosen, Matthew S Rosen
Image reconstruction is essential for imaging applications across the physical and life sciences, including optical and radar systems, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray computed tomography, positron emission tomography, ultrasound imaging and radio astronomy. During image acquisition, the sensor encodes an intermediate representation of an object in the sensor domain, which is subsequently reconstructed into an image by an inversion of the encoding function. Image reconstruction is challenging because analytic knowledge of the exact inverse transform may not exist a priori, especially in the presence of sensor non-idealities and noise...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Anne-Cécile Boulay, Alice Gilbert, Vanessa Oliveira Moreira, Corinne Blugeon, Sandrine Perrin, Juliette Pouch, Stéphane Le Crom, Bertrand Ducos, Martine Cohen-Salmon
Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cells of the central nervous system and have recently been recognized as crucial in the regulation of brain immunity. In most neuropathological conditions, astrocytes are prone to a radical phenotypical change called reactivity, which plays a key role in astrocyte contribution to neuroinflammation. However, how astrocytes regulate brain immunity in healthy conditions is an understudied question. One of the astroglial molecule involved in these regulations might be Connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein highly enriched in astrocyte perivascular endfeet-terminated processes forming the glia limitans...
March 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
Na Huang, Fanpu Ji, Shu Zhang, Yansong Pu, An Jiang, Rui Zhou, Yuanyuan Ji, Wei Wei, Jun Yang, Zongfang Li
Emerging evidences showed the promoting role of spleen in the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, in the context of portal hypertension and hypersplenism due to hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. In this study, we tried to explore the precise mechanism of how spleen regulates this process from the serum cytokines profile level. Compared with the 16 healthy subjects, the RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array identified 136 cytokines differentially expressed in 36 cirrhotic patients. Splenectomy resulted in significant changes in 28 cytokines...
March 22, 2018: Viral Immunology
Khalea Hayward, Abigail Cline, Angela Stephens, Linda Street
An infection with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella and herpes zoster (HZ). Although rare, the development of HZ does occur during pregnancy. Maternal HZ does not result in increased foetal mortality, and the passage of VZV to the foetus rarely occurs. However, HZ does increase maternal morbidity. Upon infection with HZ, patients typically present with a viral prodrome preceding the appearance of the characteristic zoster rash. HZ is usually diagnosed clinically by the zoster rash, but can also be confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Peter Mancuso, Jeffrey L Curtis, Christine M Freeman, Marc Peters-Golden, Jason B Weinberg, Martin G Myers
Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone produced by white adipose tissue that regulates appetite and many physiologic functions including the immune response to infection. Genetic leptin deficiency in humans and mice impairs host defenses against respiratory tract infections. Since leptin deficiency is associated with obesity and other metabolic abnormalities, we generated mice that lack the leptin receptor (LepRb) in cells of the myeloid linage (LysM-LepRb-KO) to evaluate its impact in lean metabolically normal mice in a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
María Fabiana Pirán Arce, Laura Rosana Aballay, Jorge Leandro Leporati, Alicia Navarro, Myriam Forneris
INTRODUCTION: Celiac disease (CD) causes intestinal damage, inability to absorb nutrients, and progressive malnutrition. Iron deficiency is one of the predominant nutritional problems. A strict gluten-free diet (GF) allows for an optimal quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the nutritional situation of iron in school-aged celiac children by determining biochemical parameters, their relation to the consumption of the mineral and adherence to gluten-free diets in San Luis...
October 27, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Guangbao Yang, Ligeng Xu, Jun Xu, Rui Zhang, Guosheng Song, Yu Chao, Liangzhu Feng, Fengxuan Han, Ziliang Dong, Bin Li, Zhuang Liu
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an oxygen-dependent light-triggered non-invasive therapeutic method showing many promising aspects in cancer treatment. For effective PDT, nanoscale carriers are often needed to realize tumor-targeted delivery of photosensitizers, which ideally should further target specific cell organelles that are most vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Secondly, as oxygen is critical for PDT-induced cancer destruction, overcoming hypoxia existing in majority of solid tumors is important for optimizing PDT efficacy...
March 22, 2018: Nano Letters
Ingridi Souza Sene, Vladimir Costa Silva, Gisele Elias Nunes Pauli, Ivan Helmuth Bechtold, Livio Cesar Cunha Nunes, Carla Eiras, Carlos Henrique Nery Costa
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays a crucial role not only in the immune system, but also in numerous biological processes. Elevated IL-6 levels have been observed in many types of cancer and inflammatory diseases. Among the techniques that have been used to quantify IL-6, a Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) is one of the most promising. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a technological and scientific exploration of the development of a LFA for IL-6...
March 20, 2018: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Shazia Shah, Arshia, Nida Siraj Kazmi, Almas Jabeen, Aisha Faheem, Nida Dastagir, Tariq Ahmed, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Shakil Ahmed, Abeer Raza, Shahnaz Perveen
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is defined as the response of immune system cells to damaged or injured tissues The major symptoms of inflammation include increased blood flow, cellular influx, edema, elevated cellular metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) nitric oxide (NO) and vasodilation. This normally protective mechanism against harmful agents when this normal mechanism becomes dysregulated that can cause serious illnesses including ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, sepsis, and chronic pulmonary inflammation ...
March 21, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Yu-Yan Li, Guang Zheng, Liang Liu
OBJECTIVE: To decipher the possible mechanisms of Sinomenium Acutum (SA) in treating diseases by a bioinformatics method. METHODS: SA ingredients were searched according to Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Chinese Medicine Dictionary and Traditional Chinese Medicines Database (TCMD). Active compounds and target proteins of SA were acquired through the Pubchem platform. Pathway, network and function analyses of SA were performed with ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA), a bioinformatics analysis platform...
March 21, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Anita Tewari, Jasbir Bedi, Baljit Singh, Jatinder Paul Singh Gill
The deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, is used worldwide and has been linked with several type of acute toxicity. However, effect of low level of deltamethrin alone or in combination with the microbial antigen on pulmonary system is not understood. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used as antigen which is a key inflammatory component of gram-negative bacteria, which induces a distinctive pattern of cytokine release that regulates inflammation. The aim was to determine whether chronic exposure to a low level of deltamethrin alone or in combination with LPS impair the lung response in adult male Swiss albino mice...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shin Nishiumi, Yoshihiro Izumi, Masaru Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intestinal disorder, involving chronic and relapsing inflammation of the digestive tract. Dysregulation of the immune system based on genetic, environmental, and other factors seems to be involved in the onset of IBD, but its exact pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, radical treatments for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease remain to be found, and IBD is considered to be a refractory disease. AIMS: The aim of this study is to obtain novel insights into IBD via metabolite profiling of interleukin (IL)-10 knockout mice (an IBD animal model that exhibits a dysregulated immune system)...
March 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Takaya Handa, Hiroko Kakita, Yu Tateishi, Tomomi Endo, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Toshiro Katayama, Tatsuo Tsukamoto, Eri Muso
BACKGROUND: IgA-dominant infection-related glomerulonephritis (IgA-IRGN) is a unique form of IRGN, which needs to be distinguished from IgA nephropathy (IgAN). METHODS: Thirteen patients with IgA-IRGN (IgA-IRGN group) and 122 with IgAN (IgAN group) were selected from 1788 patients who underwent kidney biopsy between 2000 and 2015 in Kitano Hospital. Data selected included clinical and serological parameters; light and electron microscope findings; immunofluorescence findings; and prognostic parameters like renal and overall survival and creatinine increase by > 50%...
March 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Yuanli Luo, Daiwen Dong, Yu Su, Xuyi Wang, Yumei Peng, Jiang Peng, Changyong Zhou
Mustard clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a serious disease that affects Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen, a mustard plant that is the raw material for a traditional fermented food manufactured in Chongqing, China. In our laboratory, we screened the antagonistic bacteria Zhihengliuella aestuarii against P. brassicae. To better understand the biocontrol mechanism, three transcriptome analyses of B. juncea var. tumida Tsen were conducted using Illumina HiSeq 4000, one from B. juncea only inoculated with P...
March 22, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Ozlem Colak, Kadri Ozer, Adile Dikmen, Hilal Ozakinci, Ozay Ozkaya
PURPOSE: The toll-like receptors (TLRs) stand at the interface of innate immune activation. We hypothesize to decrease the response of innate immunity activated by TLR4 by a safe, short-term, systemic immunosuppression. METHODS: Two silicone block implants were placed into two dorsal subcutaneous pockets in 32 rats that were subdivided into four groups: The two study groups were the IV DEX group (single intravenous injection of dexamethasone 1 h before surgery) and the IV DEX + IP DEX group (in addition to a single intravenous injection of dexamethasone 1 h before surgery, intraperitoneal dexamethasone was administered for 10 days after surgery), and the two control groups were the untreated control group and the saline-treated control group...
March 21, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Eric H Jung, David J Meyers, Jürgen Bosch, Arturo Casadevall
Similarities in fungal and animal cells make antifungal discovery efforts more difficult than those for other classes of antimicrobial drugs. Currently, there are only three major classes of antifungal drugs used for the treatment of systemic fungal diseases: polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins. Even in situations where the offending fungal organism is susceptible to the available drugs, treatment courses can be lengthy and unsatisfactory, since eradication of infection is often very difficult, especially in individuals with impaired immunity...
March 2018: MSphere
P Martijn den Reijer, Mehri Tavakol, Nicole Lemmens-den Toom, Dikra Allouch, Sheila Thomas, Vannakambadi K Ganesh, Ya-Ping Ko, Henri A Verbrugh, Willem J B van Wamel
The fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) is a cell surface-associated protein of Staphylococcus aureus which mediates adherence to the host extracellular matrix and is important for bacterial virulence. Previously, substantial sequence diversity was found among strains in the fibrinogen-binding A domain of this protein, and 7 different isotypes were described. The effect of this sequence diversity on the human antibody response, in terms of both antibody production and antibody function, remains unclear. In this study, we identify five different FnBPA A domain isotypes based on the sequence results of 22 clinical S...
March 2018: MSphere
Sophia Lazar, Lawrence E Goldfinger
Platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) have long been known to increase in circulation in the presence of cancer, and have been considered to be cancer promoting by multiple mechanisms including shrouding of circulating tumor cells allowing immune evasion, inducing a procoagulant state associated with increased risk for venous thromboembolic events in cancer patients, and supporting metastatic dissemination by establishment of niches for anchorage of circulating tumor cells. These modes of PMP-enhanced progression of late stage cancer are generally based on the adhesive and procoagulant surfaces of PMPs...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Fumihiro Sanada, Yoshiaki Taniyama, Jun Muratsu, Rei Otsu, Hideo Shimizu, Hiromi Rakugi, Ryuichi Morishita
Aging is a complex process that results from a combination of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. A chronic pro-inflammatory status is a pervasive feature of aging. This chronic low-grade inflammation occurring in the absence of overt infection has been defined as "inflammaging" and represents a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The low-grade inflammation persists even after reversing pro-inflammatory stimuli such as LDL cholesterol and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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