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MRI autism

Jacob Levman, Lana Vasung, Patrick MacDonald, Sean Rowley, Natalie Stewart, Ashley Lim, Bryan Ewenson, Albert Galaburda, Emi Takahashi
Autism is a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction, restricted and repetitive behavior. We performed a large-scale retrospective analysis of 1,996 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of the brain from 1,769 autistic and neurologically typically developing patients (aged 0 to 32 years), and extracted regional volumetric measurements distributed across 463 brain regions of each patient. The youngest autistic patients (< 2.5 years) were diagnosed after imaging and identified retrospectively...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Yayuan Geng, Weihua Zhao, Feng Zhou, Xiaole Ma, Shuxia Yao, Rene Hurlemann, Benjamin Becker, Keith M Kendrick
Accumulating evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) can enhance empathy although it is unclear which specific behavioral and neural aspects are influenced, and whether the effects are modulated by culture, sex, and trait autism. Based on previous findings in Caucasian men, we hypothesized that a single intranasal dose of OXT would specifically enhance emotional empathy (EE) via modulatory effects on the amygdala in an Asian (Chinese) population and explored the modulatory role of sex and trait autism on the effects...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hailong Li, Nehal A Parikh, Lili He
Early diagnosis remains a significant challenge for many neurological disorders, especially for rare disorders where studying large cohorts is not possible. A novel solution that investigators have undertaken is combining advanced machine learning algorithms with resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to unveil hidden pathological brain connectome patterns to uncover diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Recently, state-of-the-art deep learning techniques are outperforming traditional machine learning methods and are hailed as a milestone for artificial intelligence...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sara Lariviere, Reinder Vos de Wael, Casey Paquola, Seok-Jun Hong, Bratislav Misic, Neda Bernasconi, Andrea Bernasconi, Leonardo Bonilha, Boris Bernhardt
Rapid advances in neuroimaging and network science have produced powerful tools and measures to appreciate human brain organization at multiple spatial and temporal scales. It is now possible to obtain increasingly meaningful representations of whole-brain structural and functional brain networks and to formally assess macroscale principles of network topology. In addition to its utility in characterizing healthy brain organization, individual variability, and lifespan-related changes, there is high promise of network neuroscience for the conceptualization, and ultimately, management of brain disorders...
August 5, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Niloy Ghosh, Jeremiah H Moon, Jonathan A Henderson, Robert P Kauffman
An 18-year-old virginal woman was referred to the reproductive endocrinology clinic with primary amenorrhoea and secondary sexual development in the absence of pelvic pain. Additionally, she had significant congenital sensorineural hearing loss, autism, bipolar disorder and class III obesity. On physical examination, secondary sexual development was confirmed (Tanner 5 breasts and Tanner 4 pubic hair). She refused further pelvic examination following prior attempts by the referring physicians. Serum leutinizing hormone (LH), follicle sitmulating hormone (FSH)...
July 30, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Steven Kecskemeti, Alexey Samsonov, Julia Velikina, Aaron S Field, Patrick Turski, Howard Rowley, Janet E Lainhart, Andrew L Alexander
Purpose To develop and evaluate a retrospective method to minimize motion artifacts in structural MRI. Materials and Methods The motion-correction strategy was developed for three-dimensional radial data collection and demonstrated with MPnRAGE, a technique that acquires high-resolution volumetric magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo, or MPRAGE, images with multiple tissue contrasts. Forty-four pediatric participants (32 with autism spectrum disorder [mean age ± standard deviation, 13 years ± 3] and 12 age-matched control participants [mean age, 12 years ± 3]) were imaged without sedation...
July 31, 2018: Radiology
Jawad El-Azhari, Naoufal Hjira
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurocutaneous multisystemic syndrome most commonly affecting the skin, the brain, the kidneys, the lungs and the eyes. The diagnosis is based on clinical characteristics; 90% of patients have skin lesions and seizures are the initial symptom in 80% of patients. Patients with STB often show a high incidence of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including mental retardation, autism and learning difficulties. Epilepsy and brain and renal tumors are treated with aggressive therapeutic and surgical approaches...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Eleonora Cavarocchi, Ilde Pieroni, Antonio Serio, Lucio Velluto, Biancamaria Guarnieri, Sandro Sorbi
The use of sedation before a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is a common practice to overcome motion artifacts and anxiety in children. However, this technique has its drawbacks. We retrospectively compared the number of children undergoing a brain MRI scan with or without sedation before and after the introduction of an educational training protocol using a toy scanner (the Philips Kitten Scanner) and we investigated the effectiveness of this training in relation to children's age and gender. We considered 1461 children between 4 years and 14 years...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
Alessandra M Pereira, Brunno M Campos, Ana C Coan, Luiz F Pegoraro, Thiago J R de Rezende, Ignacio Obeso, Paulo Dalgalarrondo, Jaderson C da Costa, Jean-Claude Dreher, Fernando Cendes
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a complex group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by deficits in communication and social behaviors. We examined the functional connectivity (FC) of the default mode network (DMN) and its relation to multimodal morphometry to investigate superregional, system-level alterations in a group of 22 adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism compared to age-, and intelligence quotient-matched 29 healthy controls. The main findings were that ASD patients had gray matter (GM) reduction, decreased cortical thickness and larger cortical surface areas in several brain regions, including the cingulate, temporal lobes, and amygdala, as well as increased gyrification in regions associated with encoding visual memories and areas of the sensorimotor component of the DMN, more pronounced in the left hemisphere...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Heidi Ormstad, Vesna Bryn, Robert Verkerk, Ola H Skjeldal, Bente Halvorsen, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Jorn Isaksen, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that changes in neuro-immune responses coupled with dysfunctions in serotonin metabolism underpin the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to delineate whether ASD subgroups or characteristics show aberrations in tryptophan and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) metabolism. METHODS: 65 individuals with ASD (diagnosed according to ICD criteria) and 30 healthy control patients were included...
July 20, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Kaustubh Supekar, John Kochalka, Marie Schaer, Holly Wakeman, Shaozheng Qin, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Vinod Menon
Lack of interest in social interaction is a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder. Animal studies have implicated the mesolimbic reward pathway in driving and reinforcing social behaviour, but little is known about the integrity of this pathway and its behavioural consequences in children with autism spectrum disorder. Here we test the hypothesis that the structural and functional integrity of the mesolimbic reward pathway is aberrant in children with autism spectrum disorder, and these aberrancies contribute to the social interaction impairments...
July 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Wenjing Yan, D Rangaprakash, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Functional MRI (fMRI) is modeled as a convolution of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) and an unmeasured latent neural signal. However, HRF itself is variable across brain regions and subjects. This variability is induced by both neural and non-neural factors. Aberrations in underlying neurochemical mechanisms, which control HRF shape, have been reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, we hypothesized that this will lead to voxel-specific, yet systematic differences in HRF shape between ASD and healthy controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Kristina Denisova
The search for the brain-basis of atypical development in human infants is challenging because the process of imaging and the generation of the MR signal itself relies on assumptions that reflect biophysical properties of the brain tissue. These assumptions are not inviolate, have been questioned by recent empirical evidence from high risk infant-sibling studies, and to date remain largely underexamined at the between-group level. In particular, I consider recent work showing that infants at High vs. Low familial risk (HR vs...
July 25, 2018: NeuroImage
Qun Yang, Peng Huang, Chen Li, Peng Fang, Ningxia Zhao, Jie Nan, Bingzhao Wang, Wei Gao, Long-Biao Cui
This study aimed to identify the neuroanatomical substrates and white matter connectivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the association between gray matter and structural connectivity. A total of 36 children including patients with ASD and healthy controls between 6 and 15 years of age were enrolled in this study. High-resolution structural MRI and functional MRI were performed and analyzed using voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics. The relationship between gray matter volume and structural connectivity was generated using Pearson correlation analysis...
July 11, 2018: Neuroreport
Xia-An Bi, Yingchao Liu, Qin Jiang, Qing Shu, Qi Sun, Jianhua Dai
As the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable, pervasive and prevalent, the clinical diagnosis of ASD is vital. In the existing literature, a single neural network (NN) is generally used to classify ASD patients from typical controls (TC) based on functional MRI data and the accuracy is not very high. Thus, the new method named as the random NN cluster, which consists of multiple NNs was proposed to classify ASD patients and TC in this article. Fifty ASD patients and 42 TC were selected from autism brain imaging data exchange (ABIDE) database...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Fikret Işık Karahanoğlu, Bengi Baran, Quynh Trang Huong Nguyen, Djalel-Eddine Meskaldji, Anastasia Yendiki, Mark Vangel, Susan L Santangelo, Dara S Manoach
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is thought to reflect disrupted development of brain connectivity characterized by white matter abnormalities and dyscoordination of activity across brain regions that give rise to core features. But there is little consensus about the nature, timing and location of white matter abnormalities as quantified with diffusion-weighted MRI. Inconsistent findings likely reflect small sample sizes, motion confounds and sample heterogeneity, particularly different age ranges across studies...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Fiona M Baumer, Jurriaan M Peters, Sean Clancy, Anna K Prohl, Sanjay P Prabhu, Benoit Scherrer, Floor E Jansen, Kees P J Braun, Mustafa Sahin, Aymeric Stamm, Simon K Warfield
INTRODUCTION: Neurological manifestations in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) are highly variable. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may reflect the neurological disease burden. We analyzed the association of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability (ID) and epilepsy with callosal DTI metrics in subjects with and without TSC. METHODS: 186 children underwent 3T MRI DTI: 51 with TSC (19 with concurrent ASD), 46 with non-syndromic ASD and 89 healthy controls (HC)...
November 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
R C Caylor, L Grote, I Thiffault, E G Farrow, L Willig, S Soden, S M Amudhavalli, A J Nopper, K A Horii, E Fleming, J Jenkins, H Welsh, M Ilyas, K Engleman, A Abdelmoity, C J Saunders
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant neurocutaneous disorder characterized by lesions and benign tumors in multiple organ systems including the brain, skin, heart, eyes, kidneys, and lungs. The phenotype is highly variable, although penetrance is reportedly complete. We report the molecular diagnosis of TSC in individuals exhibiting extreme intra-familial variability, including the incidental diagnosis of asymptomatic family members. Exome sequencing was performed in three families, with probands referred for epilepsy, autism, and absent speech (Family 1); epileptic spasms (Family 2); and connective tissue disorders (Family 3...
August 2018: Neurogenetics
Valerio Zerbi, Giovanna D Ielacqua, Marija Markicevic, Matthias Georg Haberl, Mark H Ellisman, Arjun A-Bhaskaran, Andreas Frick, Markus Rudin, Nicole Wenderoth
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a set of complex neurodevelopmental disorders for which there is currently no targeted therapeutic approach. It is thought that alterations of genes regulating migration and synapse formation during development affect neural circuit formation and result in aberrant connectivity within distinct circuits that underlie abnormal behaviors. However, it is unknown whether deviant developmental trajectories are circuit-specific for a given autism risk-gene. We used MRI to probe changes in functional and structural connectivity from childhood to adulthood in Fragile-X (Fmr1-/y) and contactin-associated (CNTNAP2-/-) knockout mice...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Caitlin C Clements, Alisa R Zoltowski, Lisa D Yankowitz, Benjamin E Yerys, Robert T Schultz, John D Herrington
Importance: The social motivation hypothesis posits that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) find social stimuli less rewarding than do people with neurotypical activity. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of reward processing have yielded mixed results. Objectives: To examine whether individuals with ASD process rewarding stimuli differently than typically developing individuals (controls), whether differences are limited to social rewards, and whether contradictory findings in the literature might be due to sample characteristics...
June 13, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
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