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Pathogenesis Guillain Barre

Matthew J Elrick, Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Thomas O Crawford, Keith Van Haren, Kevin Messacar, Nicole Thornton, Elizabeth Dee, Annie Voskertchian, Jessica R Nance, Laura S Muñoz, Mark P Gorman, Leslie A Benson, David L Thomas, Carlos A Pardo, Aaron M Milstone, Priya Duggal
Importance: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is an emerging poliolike illness of children whose clinical spectrum and associated pathogens are only partially described. The case definition is intentionally encompassing for epidemiologic surveillance to capture all potential AFM cases. Defining a restrictive, homogenous subpopulation may aid our understanding of this emerging disease. Objective: To evaluate the extent to which the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition of AFM incorporates possible alternative diagnoses and to assess the plausibility of a case definition that enriches the biological homogeneity of AFM for inclusion in research studies...
November 30, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Maria Del Pilar Martinez Viedma, Brett E Pickett
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a neuropathic virus that causes serious neurological abnormalities such as Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) in fetuses, which makes it an important concern for global human health. A catalogue of cells that support ZIKV replication, pathogenesis, and/or the persistence of the virus still remains unknown. Here, we studied the behavior of the virus in human placenta (JEG-3) and human microglia (HMC3) cell lines in order to better understand how different host tissues respond during infection...
November 18, 2018: Viruses
Ginés Ávila-Pérez, Aitor Nogales, Verónica Martín, Fernando Almazán, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emergent mosquito-borne member of the Flaviviridae family that was responsible for a recent epidemic in the Americas. ZIKV has been associated with severe clinical complications, including neurological disorder such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and severe fetal abnormalities and microcephaly in newborn infants. Given the significance of these clinical manifestations, the development of tools and reagents to study the pathogenesis of ZIKV and to develop new therapeutic options are urgently needed...
October 31, 2018: Viruses
Fodé Diop, Thomas Vial, Pauline Ferraris, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Michèle Bengue, Rodolphe Hamel, Loïc Talignani, Florian Liegeois, Julien Pompon, Hans Yssel, Guillaume Marti, Dorothée Missé
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Although infection with ZIKV generally leads to mild disease, its recent emergence in the Americas has been associated with an increase in the development of the Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, as well as with neurological complications, in particular congenital microcephaly, in new-borns. To date, little information is available on neuroinflammation induced by ZIKV, notably in microglial cells in the context of their metabolic activity, a series of chemical transformations that are essential for their growth, reproduction, structural maintenance and environmental responses...
2018: PloS One
Yu-Hsuan Wu, Chin-Kai Tseng, Chun-Kuang Lin, Chih-Ku Wei, Jin-Ching Lee, Kung-Chia Young
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes diseases ranging from acute self-limiting febrile illness to life-threatening Guillain-Barré Syndrome and other neurological disorders in adults. Cumulative evidence suggests an association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly in newborn infants. Given the host-range restrictions of the virus, a susceptible animal model infected by ZIKV must be developed for evaluation of vaccines and antivirals. In this study, we propose a convenient mouse model for analysis of neurological disorders caused by ZIKV...
October 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Liang Zhang, Lijun Liu, Hong Li, Lei Guo, Qing Yu, Jijun Teng
CD1 and immunoglobulin G Fc receptor (FcγR) genes have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). However, results of different studies are conflicting. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically examine the association between CD1 and FcγR gene polymorphisms and GBS. A comprehensive literature search through PubMed, EmBase, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library was performed to identify all eligible studies. The strength of association was assessed by pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) in allelic, dominant, recessive, homozygous and heterozygous genetic models...
September 19, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Danyang Gong, Tian-Hao Zhang, Dawei Zhao, Yushen Du, Travis J Chapa, Yuan Shi, Laurie Wang, Deisy Contreras, Gang Zeng, Pei-Yong Shi, Ting-Ting Wu, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami, Ren Sun
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes Guillain-Barré syndrome and severe birth defects. ZIKV envelope (E) protein is the major viral protein involved in cell receptor binding and entry and is therefore considered one of the major determinants in ZIKV pathogenesis. Here we report a gene-wide mapping of functional residues of ZIKV E protein using a mutant library, with changes covering every nucleotide position. By comparing the replication fitness of every viral mutant between mosquito and human cells, we identified that mutations affecting glycosylation display the most divergence...
March 23, 2018: iScience
Ricardo Erazo Torricelli
Autoimmune diseases of the peripheral nervous system are common in pediatrics. Guillain-Barré syndrome, juvenile myasthenia gravis, and juvenile dermatomyositis are the most important. Their common pathogenesis involves the action of specific autoantibodies which are frequently triggered by viral or bacterial infection. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is the most frequent pathological feature. There is also a motor axonal form. Both have a progressive ascending clinical course. The specific treatment is immunoglobulin 2 g/kg...
2018: Medicina
Suzane Ramos da Silva, Fan Cheng, I-Chueh Huang, Jae U Jung, Shou-Jiang Gao
After recent outbreaks, Zika virus (ZIKV) was linked to severe neurological diseases including Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and microcephaly in newborns. The severities of pathological manifestations have been associated with different ZIKV strains. To better understand the tropism of ZIKV, we infected 10 human and 4 nonhuman cell lines (types) with 2 African (IbH30656 and MR766) and 2 Asian (PRVABC59 and H/FP/2013) ZIKV strains. Cell susceptibility to ZIKV infection was determined by examining viral titers, synthesis of viral proteins, and replication of positive and negative strands of viral genome...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Ronik Khachatoorian, Whitaker Cohn, Anthony Buzzanco, Rana Riahi, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami, Asim Dasgupta, Julian P Whitelegge, Samuel W French
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been identified as a cause of neurologic diseases in infants and Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and currently, no therapeutics or vaccines are approved. In this study, we sought to identify potential host proteins interacting with ZIKV particles to gain better insights into viral infectivity. Viral particles were purified through density-gradient centrifugation and subsequently, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Mass spectrometric analyses revealed viral envelope protein and HSP70 to comigrate in only one SEC fraction...
September 2018: Virology
Fanfan Zhao, Yongfen Xu, Dimitri Lavillette, Jin Zhong, Gang Zou, Gang Long
ZIKV has emerged as a significant human pathogene for the severe neurological complications, including Guillain-Barré(GBS) syndrome in adults and a variety of fetal abnormalities such as microcephaly. A stable and efficient infectious clone of Brazilian ZIKV isolate is required to study pathogenesis of epidemic ZIKV and virus evolution impact on it. Here we successfully constructed infectious cDNA clone on an early Brazilian isolate by eliminating the activity of predicted bacterial promoter in 1-3000 nt of ZIKV genome, leading to a stable infectious cDNA clone (pZL1)...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jinzhu Ma, Harshada Ketkar, Tingting Geng, Emily Lo, Leilei Wang, Juemin Xi, Qiangming Sun, Zhanbo Zhu, Yudong Cui, Long Yang, Penghua Wang
Flaviviruses have evolved complex mechanisms to evade the mammalian host immune systems including the RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) like receptor (RLR) signaling. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging flavivirus that is associated with severe neonatal microcephaly and adult Guillain-Barre syndrome. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ZIKV pathogenesis remain poorly defined. Here we report that ZIKV non-structural protein 4A (NS4A) impairs the RLR-mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) interaction and subsequent induction of antiviral immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shuang Liu, Chaoling Dong, Eroboghene Ekamereno Ubogu
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), the most common cause of acute neuromuscular weakness and paralysis worldwide, encompasses a group of acute immune-mediated disorders restricted to peripheral nerves and roots. Immune-mediated attack of peripheral nervous system myelin, axons or both is presumed to be triggered by molecular mimicry, with both cell- and humoral-dependent mechanisms implicated in disease pathogenesis. Good circumstantial evidence exists for a pathogenic role for molecular mimicry in GBS pathogenesis, especially with its axonal forms, providing insights that could guide future immunotherapy...
June 28, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Murat Özkale, Ilknur Erol, Yasemin Özkale, İlknur Kozanoğlu
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is used in the treatment of neurological, hematological, renal and autoimmune diseases with known or suspected immune pathogenesis. In comparison with neurological diseases of adults, knowledge about the use of TPE in children is incomplete. We report our experience on TPE in children with neurological diseases in a single institution and describe the underlying etiology, clinical course, treatment and outcome. We retrospectively evaluated 22 consecutive children (12 girls, 10 boys, aged 2-16 years) who underwent TPE in the pediatric intensive care unit between January 2010 and January 2017...
September 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Eduardo Nobile-Orazio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Lancet Neurology
Sonoko Misawa, Satoshi Kuwabara, Yasunori Sato, Nobuko Yamaguchi, Kengo Nagashima, Kanako Katayama, Yukari Sekiguchi, Yuta Iwai, Hiroshi Amino, Tomoki Suichi, Takanori Yokota, Yoichiro Nishida, Tadashi Kanouchi, Nobuo Kohara, Michi Kawamoto, Junko Ishii, Motoi Kuwahara, Hidekazu Suzuki, Koichi Hirata, Norito Kokubun, Ray Masuda, Juntaro Kaneko, Ichiro Yabe, Hidenao Sasaki, Ken-Ichi Kaida, Hiroshi Takazaki, Norihiro Suzuki, Shigeaki Suzuki, Hiroyuki Nodera, Naoko Matsui, Shoji Tsuji, Haruki Koike, Ryo Yamasaki, Susumu Kusunoki
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of plasmapheresis and immunoglobulin therapy, many patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome still have an incomplete recovery. Evidence from pathogenesis studies suggests the involvement of complement-mediated peripheral nerve damage. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of eculizumab, a humanised monoclonal antibody against the complement protein C5, in patients with severe Guillain-Barré syndrome. METHODS: This study was a 24 week, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase 2 trial done at 13 hospitals in Japan...
June 2018: Lancet Neurology
Liesel Stassen, Charles W Armitage, David J van der Heide, Kenneth W Beagley, Francesca D Frentiu
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are resurging across the globe. Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused significant concern in recent years because it can lead to congenital malformations in babies and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Unlike other arboviruses, ZIKV can be sexually transmitted and may persist in the male reproductive tract. There is limited information regarding the impact of ZIKV on male reproductive health and fertility. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie persistent ZIKV infections in men is critical to developing effective vaccines and therapies...
April 16, 2018: Viruses
A K Shakaryan, A V Rakhteenko, R I Yagudina, A Yu Kulikov, V G Serpik, I V Mitrofanova
AIM: A pharmacoeconomic analysis of direct costs on treatment with high dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and plasmapheresis (PP) in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature data on the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) were analyzed. The results of pharmacoeconomic analysis of direct costs on treatment of GBS using IVIG and PP are presented. Risks for complications during treatment with IVIG and PP are calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The pharmacoeconomic analysis demonstrates comparable costs of treatment with IVIG or PP in the Russian Federation...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Sagar B Kudchodkar, Hyeree Choi, Emma L Reuschel, Rianne Esquivel, Jackie Jin-Ah Kwon, Moonsup Jeong, Joel N Maslow, Charles C Reed, Scott White, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Pablo Tebas, David B Weiner, Kar Muthumani
Vaccines are considered one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The global burden of numerous infectious diseases has been significantly reduced, and in some cases, effectively eradicated through the deployment of specific vaccines. However, efforts to develop effective new vaccines against infectious pathogens such as influenza, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) have proven challenging. Zika virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus responsible for periodic outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands dating back over 50 years...
March 17, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Nadia A Al-Banna, Farhan Cyprian, M John Albert
Campylobacter jejuni is an important enteric pathogen that causes diarrheas of different degrees of severity and several extra-intestinal manifestations, including Guillain-Barre syndrome. The variability of disease outcomes is thought to be linked to the immune response induced by C. jejuni. The virulence factors of C. jejuni induce a pro-inflammatory response, that is initiated by the intestinal epithelial cells, propagated by innate immune cells and modulated by the cells of the adaptive immune response...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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