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Fawaz Abo-Alhassan, Fatemah Faras, Yousef M Malek, Munish Joneja, Piyaray M Dhar
BACKGROUND: Appendicular schistosomiasis is an unusual etiology of acute appendicitis, which has been reported in countries endemic in schistosomiasis, such as sub-saharan Africa and South America. Nowadays, due to globalization, this disease has been diagnosed in non-endemic countries. Kuwait is a country possessing a larger percentage of foreigners than national citizens. Therefore, several cases of schistosomal appendicitis were found. METHOD: The clinicopathological records of all patients that underwent appendectomy during January 2007 and December 2011 were recorded from the archives of Al-Adan Hospital in Kuwait...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Campana Raffaella, Luca Casettari, Laura Fagioli, Marco Cespi, Giulia Bonacucina, Wally Baffone
Food safety is a fundamental concern for both consumers and the food industry, especially as the numbers of reported cases of food-associated infections continue to increase. Industrial surfaces can provide a suitable substrate for the development and persistence of bacterial organized in biofilms that represent a potential source of food contamination. The negative consumer perception of chemical disinfectants has shifted the attention to natural substances, such as plant extracts. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using the essential oils (EOs) in the fight against S...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
K Holstein, A Batorova, M Carvalho, K Fijnvandraat, P Holme, K Kavakli, T Lambert, A Rocino, V Jiménez-Yuste, J Astermark
INTRODUCTION: Inhibitor development in people with haemophilia is a serious complication that may require intensive and costly interventions. The goal of inhibitor management should be permanent inhibitor eradication through immune tolerance induction (ITI), but well-designed studies are lacking and the management of patients is therefore defined by the experience and views of the clinician. OBJECTIVES: To explore the current clinical practice and outcome of ITI therapy in Europe and how this may have changed over the last decade, as well as to provide consensus recommendations to guide clinicians in their clinical practice...
October 15, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Emeli Torsson, Tebogo Kgotlele, Mikael Berg, Niwael Mtui-Malamsha, Emanuel S Swai, Jonas Johansson Wensman, Gerald Misinzo
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in Tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. Morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80-100% in naïve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and species of infected animal determine severity of outcome...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Robert N Goldstone, Shirin R Hasan, Steven Drury, Teresa M Darragh, Annemieke van Zante, Stephen E Goldstone
PURPOSE: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) effectively treats esophageal high-grade dysplasia, but its efficacy in treating anal canal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) is unsubstantiated. This prospective study assessed the safety and efficacy of applying hemi-circumferential RFA to anal canal HSIL. METHODS: Twenty-one HIV-negative participants with HSIL occupying ≤ half the anal canal circumference were treated with hemi-circumferential anal canal RFA...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Daisuke Yamada, Kensuke Takahashi, Kohichi Kawahara, Maeda Takehiko
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) exist in tumor tissues composed of heterogeneous cell population and are characterized by their self-renewal capacity and tumorigenicity. Many studies demonstrate that eradication of CSCs prevents development and recurrences of tumor; yet, molecules critical for the maintenance of CSCs have not been completely understood. We previously reported that Semaphorin3A (Sema3a) knockdown suppressed the tumorigenicity and proliferative capacity of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. Therefore, we identified Sema3a as an essential factor for the establishment or maintenance of CSCs derived from LLC (LLC-stem cell)...
October 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jyh-Ming Liou, Yu-Jen Fang, Chieh-Chang Chen, Ming-Jong Bair, Chi-Yang Chang, Yi-Chia Lee, Mei-Jyh Chen, Chien-Chuan Chen, Cheng-Hao Tseng, Yao-Chun Hsu, Ji-Yuh Lee, Tsung-Hua Yang, Jiing-Chyuan Luo, Chun-Chao Chang, Chi-Yi Chen, Po-Yueh Chen, Chia-Tung Shun, Wen-Feng Hsu, Wen-Hao Hu, Yen-Nien Chen, Bor-Shyang Sheu, Jaw-Town Lin, Jeng-Yih Wu, Emad M El-Omar, Ming-Shiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Whether concomitant therapy is superior to bismuth quadruple therapy or 14-day triple therapy for the first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection remains poorly understood. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of 10-day concomitant therapy, 10-day bismuth quadruple therapy, and 14-day triple therapy in the first-line treatment of H pylori. METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, randomised trial, we recruited adult patients (aged >20 years) with H pylori infection from nine medical centres in Taiwan...
October 18, 2016: Lancet
Francis Megraud, Javier P Gisbert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Lancet
Zahra Afghah, Brett Webb, Xiang-Jin Meng, Sheela Ramamoorthy
More than two decades after its emergence, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) remains an economically important swine pathogen. Commercial vaccines which were first introduced to the U.S in 2006, have been highly effective in reducing clinical signs and improving production. Recent studies have indicated a declining level of PCV2 prevalence and viremia in the field. However, reports on the emergence of new viral variants have also continued to increase. This article reviews topics of current interest in the field of PCV2 vaccines; including the comparative efficacy of the available commercial products, efficacy of current vaccines against new and emerging strains, findings on the differences between immunity in natural infection versus vaccination, limitations of current experimental models for PCV2 vaccine studies, and new developments in novel experimental vaccines...
October 13, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Zhujun Ao, Rong Zhu, Xiaoli Tan, Lisa Liu, Liyu Chen, Shuiping Liu, XiaoJian Yao
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 latency is a major obstacle for HIV-1 eradication. Extensive efforts are being directed toward the reactivation of latent HIV reservoirs with the aim of eliminating latently infected cells via the host immune system and/or virus-mediated cell lysis. RESULTS: We screened over 1,500 small molecules and kinase inhibitors and found that a small molecule, PKC412 (midostaurin, a broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor), can stimulate viral transcription and expression from the HIV-1 latently infected ACH2 cell line and primary resting CD4+ T cells...
October 21, 2016: Virology Journal
Margarida Ferreira-Teixeira, Daniela Paiva-Oliveira, Belmiro Parada, Vera Alves, Vitor Sousa, Obinna Chijioke, Christian Münz, Flávio Reis, Paulo Rodrigues-Santos, Célia Gomes
BACKGROUND: High-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a high risk of recurrence and progression to muscle-invasive forms, which seems to be largely related to the presence of tumorigenic stem-like cell populations that are refractory to conventional therapies. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of Natural Killer (NK) cell-based adoptive immunotherapy against chemoresistant bladder cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in a pre-clinical relevant model, using NK cells from healthy donors and NMIBC patients...
October 21, 2016: BMC Medicine
Alan F Cowman, Julie Healer, Danushka Marapana, Kevin Marsh
Malaria has been a major global health problem of humans through history and is a leading cause of death and disease across many tropical and subtropical countries. Over the last fifteen years renewed efforts at control have reduced the prevalence of malaria by over half, raising the prospect that elimination and perhaps eradication may be a long-term possibility. Achievement of this goal requires the development of new tools including novel antimalarial drugs and more efficacious vaccines as well as an increased understanding of the disease and biology of the parasite...
October 20, 2016: Cell
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Cell
Gaia Palmini, Roberto Zonefrati, Carmelo Mavilia, Alessandra Aldinucci, Ettore Luzi, Francesca Marini, Alessandro Franchi, Rodolfo Capanna, Annalisa Tanini, Maria Luisa Brandi
The current improvements in therapy against osteosarcoma (OS) have prolonged the lives of cancer patients, but the survival rate of five years remains poor when metastasis has occurred. The Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) theory holds that there is a subset of tumor cells within the tumor that have stem-like characteristics, including the capacity to maintain the tumor and to resist multidrug chemotherapy. Therefore, a better understanding of OS biology and pathogenesis is needed in order to advance the development of targeted therapies to eradicate this particular subset and to reduce morbidity and mortality among patients...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mikkel Staberg, Signe Regner Michaelsen, Rikke Darling Rasmussen, Mette Villingshøj, Hans Skovgaard Poulsen, Petra Hamerlik
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) ranks among the deadliest solid cancers worldwide and its prognosis has remained dismal, despite the use of aggressive chemo-irradiation treatment regimens. Limited drug delivery into the brain parenchyma and frequent resistance to currently available therapies are problems that call for a prompt development of novel therapeutic strategies. While only displaying modest efficacies as mono-therapy in pre-clinical settings, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown promising sensitizing effects to a number of cytotoxic agents...
October 20, 2016: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Giuliana Giardino, Vera Gallo, Rosaria Prencipe, Giovanni Gaudino, Roberta Romano, Marco De Cataldis, Paola Lorello, Loredana Palamaro, Chiara Di Giacomo, Donatella Capalbo, Emilia Cirillo, Roberta D'Assante, Claudio Pignata
Increased risk of developing autoimmune manifestations has been identified in different primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). In such conditions, autoimmunity and immune deficiency represent intertwined phenomena that reflect inadequate immune function. Autoimmunity in PIDs may be caused by different mechanisms, including defects of tolerance to self-antigens and persistent stimulation as a result of the inability to eradicate antigens. This general immune dysregulation leads to compensatory and exaggerated chronic inflammatory responses that lead to tissue damage and autoimmunity...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Karolina Niska, Narcyz Knap, Anna Kędzia, Maciej Jaskiewicz, Wojciech Kamysz, Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak
Objectives: In dentistry, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have drawn particular attention because of their wide antimicrobial activity spectrum. However, controversial information on AgNPs toxicity limited their use in oral infections. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities against a panel of oral pathogenic bacteria and bacterial biofilms together with potential cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblasts of 10 nm AgNPs: non-functionalized - uncapped (AgNPs-UC) as well as surface-functionalized with capping agent: lipoic acid (AgNPs-LA), polyethylene glycol (AgNPs-PEG) or tannic acid (AgNPs-TA) using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as control...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Reza Fotouhi-Ardakani, Shahriar Dabiri, Soheila Ajdari, Mohammad Hossein Alimohammadian, Elnaz AlaeeNovin, Neda Taleshi, Parviz Parvizi
The polymorphism and genetic diversity of Leishmania genus has status under discussion depending on many items such as nuclear and/or mitochondrial genes, molecular tools, Leishmania species, geographical origin, condition of micro-environment of Leishmania parasites and isolation of Leishmania from clinical samples, reservoir host and vectors. The genetic variation of Leishmania species (L. major, L. tropica, L. tarentolae, L. mexicana, L. infantum) were analyzed and compared using mitochondrial (COII and Cyt b) and nuclear (nagt, ITS-rDNA and HSP70) genes...
October 17, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
A Tofiño-Rivera, M Ortega-Cuadros, D Galvis-Pareja, H Jiménez-Rios, L J Merini, M C Martínez-Pabón
BACKGROUND: Caries is a public health problem, given that it prevails in 60 to 90% of the school-age global population. Multiple factors interact in its etiology, among them dental plaque is necessary to have lactic acid producing microorganisms like Streptococcus from he Mutans group. Existing prevention and treatment measures are not totally effective and generate adverse effects, which is why it is necessary to search for complementary strategies for their management. AIM: The study sought to evaluate the eradication capacity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the toxicity on eukaryotic cells of Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils METHODOLOGY: Essential oils were extracted from plant material through steam distillation and then its chemical composition was determined...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Marco A O Magalhaes, Gino R Somers, Paula Sikorski, Vito Forte, Moustafa Abouzgia, Edward Barrett, Grace Bradley
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is extremely rare in patients younger than 20 years of age. We present here a case of OSCC of the maxillary alveolar ridge in an otherwise healthy 8-year-old patient. The clinicohistologic presentation was not typical for mucosal SCC, and the possibility of an intrabony origin from the odontogenic epithelium was considered. The patient was treated with surgical resection, and treatment decisions were made with consideration of the need for eradication of tumor as well as tissue preservation to allow normal growth and development...
November 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
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