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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786769/do-fatal-infectious-diseases-eradicate-host-species
#1
Alex P Farrell, James P Collins, Amy L Greer, Horst R Thieme
In simple SI epidemic and endemic models, three classes of incidence functions are identified for their potential to be associated with host extinction: weakly upper density-dependent incidences are never associated with host extinction. Power incidences that depend on the number of susceptibles and infectives by powers strictly between 0 and 1 are associated with initial-constellation-dependent host extinction for all parameter values. Homogeneous incidences, of which frequency-dependent incidence is a very particular case, and power incidences are associated with global host extinction for certain parameter constellations and with host survival for others...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786601/heterogeneous-photocatalysis-and-its-potential-applications-in-water-and-wastewater-treatment-a-review
#2
Syed N Ahmed, Waseem Haider
There has been a considerable amount of research in the development of sustainable water treatment techniques capable of improving the quality of water. Unavailability of drinkable water is a crucial issue especially in regions where conventional drinking water treatment systems fail to eradicate aquatic pathogens, toxic metal ions and industrial waste. The research and development in this area have given rise to a new class of processes called Advanced Oxidation Processes, particularly in the form of heterogeneous photocatalysis, which converts photon energy into chemical energy...
May 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786523/decision-support-beyond-total-savings-eligibility-and-potential-savings-for-individual-participants-from-changes-in-the-national-surveillance-strategy-for-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-bvd-in-ireland
#3
Jamie A Tratalos, Hans-Hermann Thulke, David A Graham, Maria Guelbenzu Gonzalo, Simon J More
Surveillance and management of livestock diseases is often evaluated with reference to expected sector-wide costs. In contrast, we calculate losses or savings for individual herd owners of a change in monitoring strategy during a national cattle disease eradication programme: bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in Ireland. The alternative strategy differs in how the disease is identified; by its sample- rather than census-based approach; and by its greater cost per test. We examined the costs faced by each breeding herd if testing were conducted using serology on a sample of young stock, in contrast to the current method of tissue-tag testing of all newborn calves...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786110/multi%C3%A2-layered-prevention-and-treatment-of-chronic-inflammation-organ-fibrosis-and-cancer-associated-with-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-signaling-activation-review
#4
Masaru Katoh
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785616/tracking-toxoplasma-gondii-in-freshwater-ecosystems-interaction-with-the-invasive-american-mink-neovison-vison-in-spain
#5
Maria P Ribas, Sonia Almería, Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Gabriel De Pedro, Patricia Lizarraga, Olga Alarcia-Alejos, Rafael Molina-López, Elena Obón, Hojjat Gholipour, Consuelo Temiño, Jitender P Dubey, Oscar Cabezón
Water-borne transmission may play an important role in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii. Mammals closely related to freshwater ecosystems, such as the American mink (Neovison vison), are potentially valuable sentinels for T. gondii. To assess the importance of freshwater ecosystems in T. gondii epidemiology, sera of 678 American minks collected during the 2010 to 2015 Spanish national eradication campaigns were tested for the presence of T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25)...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785584/interferon-free-therapy-in-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-monoinfected-and-hcv-hiv-coinfected-patients-effect-on-cognitive-function-fatigue-and-mental-health
#6
Felix Kleefeld, Sophie Heller, Patrick Ingiliz, Heiko Jessen, Anders Petersen, Ute Kopp, Antje Kraft, Katrin Hahn
The efficacy and safety of interferon-free therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been reported. Considering the accumulating evidence for a direct central nervous system infection by HCV, we aim to evaluate the effect of direct acting antivirals (DAA) therapy on cognitive function in HCV patients. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the cognitive performance of 22 patients (8 HCV+, 14 HCV+/HIV+) who completed neuropsychological testing at baseline and at week 12 after DAA therapy. In 20 patients, we analyzed specific attention parameters derived from an experimental testing based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785564/helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-pediatric-patients-update-on-diagnosis-and-eradication-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Kallirroi Kotilea, Nicolas Kalach, Matjaž Homan, Patrick Bontems
Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired mainly in childhood and remains an essential cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This article provides commentary on the last ESPGHAN/NASPGHAN guidelines and on publications made after the consensus conference of 2015. The majority of infected children are asymptomatic and pediatric studies do not support a role for H. pylori in functional disorders such as recurrent abdominal pain. The role of H. pylori infection in failure to thrive, children's growth, type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and celiac disease remains controversial...
May 22, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785484/challenges-in-malaria-management-and-a-glimpse-at-some-nanotechnological-approaches
#8
Adrian Najer, Cornelia G Palivan, Hans-Peter Beck, Wolfgang Meier
Malaria is a devastating infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes, affecting millions of people and killing about half a million children each year. Despite tremendous progress in the control and elimination of malaria within the past years, there are still considerable challenges to be solved. To name a few, drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes and the difficulty to formulate a potent malaria vaccine need to be addressed with new strategies to achieve the final goal of malaria eradication...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785476/vaccinia-virus-protein-c6-a-multifunctional-interferon-antagonist
#9
Geoffrey L Smith
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic member of the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae. It is also the live vaccine that was used to eradicate smallpox. Like other poxviruses, VACV replicates in the cytoplasm and has a large double-stranded (ds)DNA genome and a complex virion. Approximately, half of the VACV genes are nonessential for virus replication in cell culture but encode a remarkable array of immunomodulators that antagonise the innate immune response to virus infection. This short review concerns one such protein, C6, that is a multifunctional inhibitor of interferon...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785265/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-a-topical-gentamicin-collagen-sponge-in-diabetic-patients-with-a-mild-foot-ulcer-infection
#10
Ilker Uçkay, Benjamin Kressmann, Sébastien Di Tommaso, Marina Portela, Heba Alwan, Hubert Vuagnat, Sophie Maître, Christophe Paoli, Benjamin A Lipsky
Objectives: The initial phase of infection of a foot ulcer in a person with diabetes is often categorized as mild. Clinicians usually treat these infections with antimicrobial therapy, often applied topically. Some experts, however, believe that mild diabetic foot ulcer infections will usually heal with local wound care alone, without antimicrobial therapy or dressings. Methods: To evaluate the potential benefit of treatment with a topical antibiotic, we performed a single-center, investigator-blinded pilot study, randomizing (1:1) adult patients with a mild diabetic foot ulcer infection to treatment with a gentamicin-collagen sponge with local care versus local care alone...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785215/mycobacteriosis-and-tuberculosis-laboratory-diagnosis
#11
REVIEW
Davood Azadi, Tahereh Motallebirad, Kazem Ghaffari, Hasan Shojaei
Background: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases that has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. With Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent of the disease, his sanitary and hygienic measures, which were based on his discovery and the development of a vaccine against tuberculosis by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin in 1921, an attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain, bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and the discovery of the first antibiotic against tuberculosis, streptomycin by Selman Waksman in 1943, soon led to the opinion that appropriate control measures had become available for tuberculosis and it had been assumed that the disease could ultimately be eradicated...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784879/er-resident-protein-46-erp46-triggers-the-mannose-trimming-activity-of-er-degradation-enhancing-%C3%AE-mannosidase-like-protein-3-edem3
#12
Shangyu Yu, Shinji Ito, Ikuo Wada, Nobuko Hosokawa
Protein folding in the cell is regulated by several quality-control mechanisms. Correct folding of glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is tightly monitored by the recognition of glycan signals by lectins in the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. In mammals, mannose trimming from N-glycans is crucial for disposal of misfolded glycoproteins. The mannosidases responsible for this process are ER mannosidase I and ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs). However, the molecular mechanism of mannose removal by EDEMs remains unclear, partly owing to the difficulty of reconstituting mannosidase activity in vitro Here, our analysis of EDEM3-mediated mannose-trimming activity on a misfolded glycoprotein revealed that ERp46, an ER-resident oxidoreductase, associates stably with EDEM3...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784849/evaluation-of-telavancin-alone-and-combined-with-ceftaroline-or-rifampin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-in-an-in-vitro-biofilm-model
#13
Seyedehameneh Jahanbakhsh, Nivedita B Singh, Juwon Yim, Warren E Rose, Michael J Rybak
Biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are challenging due to increasing antibiotic resistance. Synergistic activity of lipopeptides and lipoglycopeptides with β-lactams has been demonstrated for MRSA, but little is known about biofilm-embedded organisms. Our objective was to evaluate two telavancin (TLV) dosage regimens (7.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg q 24h)alone and in combination with ceftaroline (CPT) (600 mg q 8 h) or rifampin (RIF) (450 mg q 12h) against two biofilm-producing MRSA (494 and N315)...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784838/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-effects-of-a-clpp-activating-antibiotic-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#14
Autumn Brown Gandt, Elizabeth C Griffith, Ida M Lister, Lisa L Billings, Angel Han, Rajendra Tangallapally, Ying Zhao, Aman P Singh, Richard E Lee, Michael D LaFleur
Antibiotics with novel bactericidal mechanisms of action are urgently needed. The antibiotic acyldepsipeptide 4 (ADEP4) activates the ClpP protease and causes cells to self-digest. The effects of ADEP4 and ClpP activation have not been sufficiently characterized for the enterococci, which are important pathogens known for high levels of acquired and intrinsic antibiotic resistance. In the present study, ADEP4 was found to be potently active against both Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium with an MIC90 of 0...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783927/length-of-barrett-s-segment-predicts-failure-of-eradication-in-radiofrequency-ablation-for-barrett-s-esophagus-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Tyler Luckett, Chaitanya Allamneni, Kevin Cowley, John Eick, Allison Gullick, Shajan Peter
BACKGROUND: We aim to investigate factors that may contribute to failure of eradication of dysplastic Barrett's Esophagus among patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation treatment. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for treatment of Barrett's Esophagus was performed. Data analyzed included patient demographics, medical history, length of Barrett's Esophagus, number of radiofrequency ablation sessions, and histopathology...
May 21, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783756/pre-clinical-and-clinical-efficiency-of-complexes-of-oligoribonucleotides-with-d-mannitol-against-respiratory-viruses
#16
Nataliia Melnichuk, Vladimir Zarubaev, Iaryna Iosyk, Mychaylo Andreychyn, Larisa Semernikova, Zenoviy Tkachuk
Oligoribonucleotides-D-mannitol (ORNs-D-M) complexes possess antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory actions. The aim of the present study was to evaluated an antiviral effect of ORNs-D-M against parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3); influenza CA709, PR834; avian influenza virus H5N2 (AIV) in vitro by a TCID50 ; hemadsorption and neuraminidase activity assays; and clinical efficiency of ORNs-D-M in patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) of various etiologies by PCR assay and AmpliSens test systems...
May 19, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783722/the-occurrence-of-a-commercial-n-pro-and-e-rns-double-mutant-bvdv-1-live-vaccine-strain-in-newborn-calves
#17
Kerstin Wernike, Anna Michelitsch, Andrea Aebischer, Uwe Schaarschmidt, Andrea Konrath, Hermann Nieper, Julia Sehl, Jens P Teifke, Martin Beer
The major source for the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are in-utero infected, immunotolerant, persistently infected (PI) animals since they shed enormous amounts of viruses throughout their lives. During the sequence-based virus typing of diagnostic ear notch samples performed in the context of the obligatory German BVDV eradication program, the commercial Npro and Erns double mutant BVDV-1 live-vaccine strain KE-9 was detected in seven newborn calves; their mothers were immunized in the first trimester of gestation...
May 19, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783020/immune-modulation-of-a-novel-lipid-soluble-extract-of-pinellia-pedatisecta-schott-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-of-an-hpv-tumor-burdened-mouse-model
#18
Haixia Huang, Mingxing Zhang, Meng Zhang, Jing Peng, Guiling Li, Congjian Xu, Suiqi Gui
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pinellia pedatisecta Schott extract (PE), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to reduce swelling, dry dampness and suppress cervical tumors. AIMS: To evaluate the roles of PE in the regulation of anti-tumor effects and the cellular immune response in the tumor microenvironment. METHODS: The immune microenvironment of HPV+ TC-1 tumors was examined by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and flow cytometry...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781606/rapid-diagnostic-for-point-of-care-malaria-screening
#19
Samantha E McBirney, Dongyu Chen, Alexis Scholtz, Hossein Ameri, Andrea M Armani
Despite significant success in therapeutic development, malaria remains a widespread and deadly infectious disease in the developing world. Given the nearly 100% efficacy of current malaria therapeutics, the primary barrier to eradication is lack of early diagnosis of the infected population. However, there are multiple strains of malaria. Although significant efforts and resources have been invested in developing antibody-based diagnostic methods for Plasmodium falciparum, a rapid and easy to use screening method capable of detecting all malaria strains has not been realized...
May 21, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781552/topical-rifampin-powder-for-orthopaedic-trauma-part-i-rifampin-powder-reduces-recalcitrant-infection-in-a-delayed-treatment-musculoskeletal-trauma-model
#20
Stefanie M Shiels, David J Tennent, Joseph C Wenke
Open fractures become infected despite meticulous debridement and care. Locally applied antibiotics, commonly embedded in polymethylmethacrylate, deliver high doses of drug directly to the fracture site. Direct application of antibiotic powder, which is being applied prophylactically in spine surgery, is a recent interest in the trauma sector, where bacterial biofilms are more prevalent. Traditional antibiotics, such as vancomycin, are poor performers against bacterial biofilms thus are ineffective in delayed treatment...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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