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Simone Riganti, Valentino Coppa, Luigi Aurelio Nasto, Mauro Di Stadio, Maria Grazia Calevo, Antonio Pompilio Gigante, Silvio Boero
BACKGROUND: Treatment of complex foot deformities in growing children and young adult patients is challenging. The traditional approach consists of extensive soft tissues releases, osteotomies and/or arthrodesis. More recently, distraction osteogenesis has been proposed as an alternative strategy. The aim of this study was to describe our treatment strategy and report clinical outcomes of the patients affected from complex foot deformities treated by distraction osteogenesis and hexapod external fixator...
July 9, 2018: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Rita EusÉbio, Alberto Sendra, Henrik Enghoff, Ana Sofia P S Reboleira
A catalogue of type specimens of basal hexapods (Collembola, Protura, Diplura, Archaeognatha, Zygentoma) in the collection of the Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen is presented. The NHMD collection harbours type material of 175 species, and it is composed of 132 holotypes, 4 neotypes, 3 syntypes, 32 lectotypes, and 39 paratypes. For Diplura one neotype is newly designated. The order Protura is represented by 5 families, Collembola by 7 families, Diplura by 6 families, Archaeognatha by 1 family and Zygentoma by 2 families...
August 8, 2018: Zootaxa
Zhuoqiang Jia, Jae-Hyun Kim, Gi-Ra Yi, Stephanie S Lee
Aspherical cubic hematite colloids with cylindrical arms protruding from each face, referred to as "hexapods", were assembled via negative dielectrophoresis and then manipulated using an applied magnetic field. Upon application of an ac electric field, the hexapods aligned in close-packed linear chains parallel to the field direction. The chains then aggregated to the center of the device, with adjacent chains separated by distances approximately equal to twice the arm length. The resulting open packing structure exhibited cmm plane group symmetry due to the obstruction of arms, with a high density of incorporated defects...
October 5, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Mitchell Bernstein, Austin Fragomen, S Robert Rozbruch
Background: Massive bone defects (>8 cm) will not unite without an additional intervention. They require a predictable, durable, and efficient method to regrow bone. The Ilizarov method of tension stress, or distraction osteogenesis, first involves a low-energy osteotomy1-5 . The bone segments are then pulled apart, most often using an external device at a specific rate and rhythm (distraction phase), after which the newly formed bone (the regenerate) requires time for consolidation...
March 28, 2018: JBJS Essential Surgical Techniques
Guido A LaPorta, Alison D'Andelet
Charcot neuroarthropathy is a disabling pathology in the foot and ankle. Midfoot Charcot is most common and results in progressive deformity. We describe a 2-step approach to surgical reconstruction, referred to as the lengthen, alignment, and beam technique. There is an initial surgery involving acute equinus correction through Achilles tendon lengthening and gradual correction with hexapod external fixation to align the deformity, followed by minimally invasive medial and lateral column beaming. This surgical protocol allows for adequate reduction of deformity...
October 2018: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
Alexander M Cherkashin, Mikhail L Samchukov, Franz Birkholts
To provide standardized nomenclature for various hexapod frame configurations for foot and ankle deformity correction, a unique classification of the hexapod external fixators was proposed. This classification is based on number of correction levels, secured anatomic blocks, and direction of the strut attachment. It allows the combination of all different foot and ankle frame assemblies into a few standard hexapod configurations, irrespective of which external fixator is used.
October 2018: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
Carlos A Peña-Solórzano, Matthew R Dimmock, David W Albrecht, David M Paganin, Richard B Bassed, Mitzi Klein, Peter C Harris
External fixation is a common tool in the treatment of complex fractures, correction of limb deformity, and salvage arthrodesis. These devices typically incorporate radio-opaque metal rods/struts connected at varying distances and orientations between rings. Whilst the predominant imaging modality is plain film radiology, computed tomography (CT) may be performed in order for the surgeon to make a more confident clinical decision (e.g. timing of frame removal, assessment of degree of arthrodesis). We used a fractured sheep leg to systematically assess CT imaging performance with a Discovery CT750 HD CT scanner (GE Healthcare) to show how rod coupling in both traditional Ilizarov and hexapod frames distorts images...
September 15, 2018: Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction
Pablo S Corona, Matías Vicente, Kevin Tetsworth, Vaida Glatt
BACKGROUND: Preoperative planning for circular external fixators is considered vital towards achieving the best results for complex post-traumatic tibial deformities, and patient-specific 3D printed (3DP) models were used here as a planning aid. The main goal was to investigate the fidelity of the preoperative planning process, by assessing the potential to reduce operative time and determining the need to adjust pre-constructed frames intra-operatively. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine patients (10 limbs) underwent treatment for post-traumatic tibial complications using circular external fixation...
September 2018: Injury
Hendrik Langeloh, Hannah Wasser, Nicole Richter, Gerd Bicker, Michael Stern
Background: The neuromuscular junction is the chemical synapse where motor neurons communicate with skeletal muscle fibers. Whereas vertebrates and many invertebrates use acetylcholine as transmitter at the neuromuscular junction, in those arthropods examined up to now, glutamate and GABA are used instead. With respect to taxon sampling in a phylogenetic context, there is, however, only a limited amount of data available, focusing mainly on crustaceans and hexapods, and neglecting other, arthropod groups...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Céline Klein, Yassine Bulaid, François Deroussen, Marie-Christine Plancq, Camille Printemps, Richard Gouron
Congenital knee dislocation (CDK) is a rare condition, and its treatment is subject to debate. Here, we report on a new treatment for CDK (using a hexapod-type external fixator, HEF) in a three-year-old child with Larsen syndrome and grade III anterior dislocations of both knees. The left knee was treated with serial splints, whereas an HEF was used to treat an irreducible dislocation of the right knee. Two HEF aluminium rings were applied surgically. The procedure involved a distraction of the knee, then tibial posterior translation, and lastly progressive flexion...
October 2018: Knee
Lucas Freitas, Beatriz Mello, Carlos G Schrago
The multispecies coalescent (MSC) has been increasingly used in phylogenomic analyses due to the accommodation of gene tree topological heterogeneity by taking into account population-level processes, such as incomplete lineage sorting. In this sense, the phylogeny of insect species, which are characterized by their large effective population sizes, is suitable for a coalescent-based analysis. Furthermore, studies so far recovered short internal branches at early divergences of the insect tree of life, indicating fast evolutionary radiations that increase the probability of incomplete lineage sorting in deep time...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
G K Perkins, M Kustov, E Lovell, M V Pettifer, L F Cohen
We demonstrate a six-axis scanning imaging apparatus using piezo bending actuators with a large scan range. The six axes of motion of the bending actuators together with the coupling mechanism to the translation stage allow complete control of the sensor position and orientation over the scanning surface, which is ideal for the use of planar sensors such as Hall devices. In particular, the design allows for in situ correction of the probe tilt angle so that the sensor distance to sample surface can be minimized...
June 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jae-Hyun Kim, Hye Jeong Hwang, Joon Suk Oh, Stefano Sacanna, Gi-Ra Yi
A simple yet versatile solution-based process to produce colloidal silica hexapods is developed in which various shapes of silica rods are grown on the faces of cubes in a controlled manner. In the presence of hematite cubic particles, water droplets nucleate on the surface of hematite by phase separation in pentanol. By adjusting the water concentration, six droplets can form on each face of the hematite cube. A silica precursor is then administered into the system, which gradually diffuses into the water droplets through the oil phase...
July 25, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Marcus Yung, Liana M Tennant, Stephan Milosavljevic, Catherine Trask
Background: Exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) is common in construction, agriculture, mining, and transportation. There is strong epidemiological evidence linking WBV with adverse health outcomes in the long-term, including low back pain. Fortunately, WBV exposure guidelines to prevent long-term musculoskeletal disorders and discomfort exist. In the shorter-term, it has been speculated that occupational levels of WBV may lead to increased risk of vehicle accidents and falls during egress; however, the acute effects of different vibration intensities remain poorly understood and it is uncertain whether established standards protect the worker from injurious short-term effects...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Michael J Assayag, Noam Bor, Guy Rubin, S Robert Rozbruch
A poor soft tissue envelope often accompanies periprosthetic tibia fracture around a well-fixed total knee arthroplasty and the tibial stem leaves little room for screw fixation. This article describes the practicability and effectiveness of a novel surgical technique using circular hexapod external fixation, in patients with this clinical scenario. It was applied for fixation of periprosthetic tibia fracture in 2 patients. Contact between the external fixation pins and the prosthesis was avoided. Using a web-based software program, a gradual reduction in all planes was achieved...
June 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Maketo Molepo, Annette-Christi Barnard, Franz Birkholtz, Kevin Tetsworth, Vaida Glatt, Erik Hohmann
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes of failed plate fixation in distal tibia fractures salvaged with hexapod circular fixators. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The database of a specialized limb reconstruction center was searched for all patients with failed plate fixation undergoing limb reconstruction with a circular external fixator between 2008 and 2017. Patients between the ages of 18-65 years, with a symptomatic distal tibia malunion or non-union following plate and screw fixation were included...
May 24, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Nan Zhao, Jonathan C Papa, Kyle Fuerschbach, Yanfeng Qiao, Kevin P Thompson, Jannick P Rolland
Nodal aberration theory (NAT) describes the aberration properties of optical systems without symmetry. NAT was fully described mathematically and investigated through real-ray tracing software, but an experimental investigation is yet to be realized. In this study, a two-mirror Ritchey-Chrétien telescope was designed and built, including testing of the mirrors in null configurations, for experimental investigation of NAT. A feature of this custom telescope is a high-precision hexapod that controls the secondary mirror of the telescope to purposely introduce system misalignments and quantify the introduced aberrations interferometrically...
April 2, 2018: Optics Express
J Wright, R A Hill, D M Eastwood, A Hashemi-Nejad, P Calder, S Tennant
Purpose: To review the initial deformity and subsequent remodelling in posteromedial bowing of the tibia and the outcome of limb reconstruction in this condition. Patients and Methods: In all, 38 patients with posteromedial bowing of the tibia presenting between 2000 and 2016 were identified. Mean follow-up from presentation was 78 months. A total of 17 patients underwent lengthening and deformity correction surgery, whilst three further patients are awaiting lengthening and deformity correction procedures...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
Zheng Li, George P Tiley, Sally R Galuska, Chris R Reardon, Thomas I Kidder, Rebecca J Rundell, Michael S Barker
Polyploidy or whole genome duplication (WGD) is a major contributor to genome evolution and diversity. Although polyploidy is recognized as an important component of plant evolution, it is generally considered to play a relatively minor role in animal evolution. Ancient polyploidy is found in the ancestry of some animals, especially fishes, but there is little evidence for ancient WGDs in other metazoan lineages. Here we use recently published transcriptomes and genomes from more than 150 species across the insect phylogeny to investigate whether ancient WGDs occurred during the evolution of Hexapoda, the most diverse clade of animals...
May 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Immacolata Iovinella, Alison McAfee, Guido Mastrobuoni, Stefan Kempa, Leonard J Foster, Paolo Pelosi, Francesca Romana Dani
We have performed a proteomic analysis on chemosensory organs of Varroa destructor, the honey bee mite, in order to identify putative soluble carriers for pheromones and other olfactory cues emitted by the host. In particular, we have analysed forelegs, mouthparts (palps, chelicera and hypostome) and the second pair of legs (as control tissue) in reproductive and phoretic stages of the Varroa life cycle. We identified 958 Varroa proteins, most of them common to the different organs and stages. Sequence analysis shows that four proteins can be assigned to the odorant-binding protein (OBP)-like class, which bear some similarity to insect OBPs, but so far have only been reported in some Chelicerata...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
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