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sleep-wake disturbance

Ehab Salah Eshak
An important factor for which work and family compete is time. Due to lack of evidence, I investigated the associations between work-family conflict (assessed by the National Study of Midlife Development in the US) and sleep disorders (assessed by the Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study included 1,021 Egyptians aged 18-59 years. Both work-to-family (WFC) and family-to-work (FWC) were associated with reduced sleep quantity. Moreover, high WFC was associated with sleep disorders; the multivariable ORs (95% CIs) were 2...
August 11, 2018: Industrial Health
James M Walker, Caroline Mulatya, Donald Hebert, Steffanie H Wilson, Anne S Lindblad, Lindell K Weaver
STUDY OBJECTIVE: In this exploratory, double-blind, longitudinal sham-controlled trial of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2 ) for military personnel with post concussive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), self-reports and objective measures of sleep-wake disturbances were assessed and compared to normals. METHODS: Self-reports consisting of Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep diary, screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk, restless legs syndrome (RLS), cataplexy, and objective actigraphic measures of sleep-wake were obtained on 71 military personnel with mTBI [baseline, 13 weeks and six months post-randomization (post-intervention)], of which 35 met post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria, and 75 healthy volunteers (baseline)...
June 30, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Saul Flores-Unzueta, Martha Sosa-Macias, Laurence A Marchat, Ismael Lares-Assef, Omar Carrasco-Ortega, Miguel Correa-Ramirez, Fernando Guerrero-Romero, Carlos Galaviz-Hernandez
Background Simvastatin is a widely used drug for dyslipidemia treatment, and the best therapeutic effects are achieved at night time. Simvastatin administration has been associated with the development of myopathy. Some polymorphisms in genes that are involved in the metabolism and transport of simvastatin seem to have an important role in the development of simvastatin-associated myopathy. The administration of 40 mg of simvastatin to 19 hyperlipidemic subjects with regular sleep rhythms (RR) and shift workers (SW) with predominant evening rhythms and sleep-wake disturbances, uncovered two SW volunteers who developed myopathy...
August 11, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
Saurabh S Thosar, Alec M Berman, Maya X Herzig, Sally A Roberts, Michael R Lasarev, Steven A Shea
INTRODUCTION: Adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death occur more frequently in the morning. Prior studies have shown that vascular endothelial function (VEF), a marker of cardiovascular disease, is attenuated during physical inactivity, and declines across the night. We sought to determine whether a morning attenuation in VEF is a result of prior sleep or the inactivity that inevitably accompanies sleep. METHODS: After one week of rigorously controlled sleep-wake schedule and behaviors, 10 healthy participants completed a randomized cross-over protocol in dim-light and constant conditions, incorporating a night of 6-h sleep opportunity and a night of immobility while supine and awake...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Daniel S Whittaker, Dawn H Loh, Huei-Bin Wang, Yu Tahara, Dika Kuljis, Tamara Cutler, Cristina A Ghiani, Shigenobu Shibata, Gene D Block, Christopher S Colwell
Huntington's disease (HD) patients suffer from progressive neurodegeneration that results in cognitive, psychiatric, cardiovascular, and motor dysfunction. Disturbances in sleep-wake cycles are common among HD patients with reports of delayed sleep onset, frequent bedtime awakenings, and excessive fatigue. The BACHD mouse model exhibits many HD core symptoms including circadian dysfunction. Because circadian dysfunction manifests early in the disease in both patients and mouse models, we sought to determine if early interventions that improve circadian rhythmicity could benefit HD symptoms and delay disease progression...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Sarah Hartley, Yves Dauvilliers, Maria-Antonia Quera-Salva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep timing, quantity, and quality are controlled by homeostatic and circadian systems. Circadian clock systems are present in all cells and organs and their timing is determined by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop of circadian genes. Individual cellular clocks are synchronized by the central body clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which communicates with them through humoral and neural signals including melatonin. The circadian system controls both the circadian period: (i...
August 6, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Akiko Hida, Shingo Kitamura, Hiroshi Kadotani, Makoto Uchiyama, Takashi Ebisawa, Yuichi Inoue, Yuichi Kamei, Kazuo Mishima
Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs) are characterized by disturbed sleep-wake patterns. We genotyped a PER3 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in 248 CRSWD individuals and 925 controls and found no significant association between the VNTR and CRSWDs or morningness-eveningness (diurnal) preferences in the Japanese population. Although the VNTR has been associated with circadian and sleep phenotypes in some other populations, the polymorphism may not be a universal genetic marker.
2018: Human Genome Variation
Kate E Hughes, Patrick G Hughes, Mary J Hughes
Context: Duty hours were enacted in 2003 with the intent to improve patient safety and resident well-being. However, limited data exist regarding improvements in residents' well-being since the implementation of these restrictions. Objective: To examine osteopathic emergency medicine (EM) resident characteristics regarding sleep and lifestyle habits and duty hour reporting. Method: A convenience sample of osteopathic EM residents was surveyed at a statewide conference in May 2014...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Julia L Chapman, Maria Comas, Camilla M Hoyos, Delwyn J Bartlett, Ronald R Grunstein, Christopher J Gordon
Background: Insomnia disorder is a highly prevalent health condition, affecting ~10-15% of the adult population worldwide. A central feature of insomnia is hyperarousal characterized as persistent and increased somatic, cognitive and cortical stimulation. Hyperarousal leads to a state of conditioned arousal that disrupts both sleep and daytime function. Research studies have shown increases in body temperature, heart rate, electroencephalographic activity, catecholamines, and oxygen consumption as a measure of metabolic rate...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Dan Kong, Run Liu, Lixiao Song, Jiyong Zheng, Jiandong Zhang, Wei Chen
Objective: To investigate the brain functional organization induced by sleep deprivation (SD) using functional connectivity density (FCD) analysis. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects (12 female, 8 male; mean age, 20.6 ± 1.9 years) participated a 24 h sleep deprivation (SD) design. All subjects underwent the MRI scan and attention network test twice, once during rested wakefulness (RW) status, and the other was after 24 h acute SD. FCD was divided into the shortFCD and longFCD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the discriminating ability of those FCD differences in brain areas during the SD status from the RW status, while Pearson correlations was used to evaluate the relationships between those differences and behavioral performances...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
N N Zybina, O V Tikhomirova
The review presents data on the dependence of endogenous melatonin synthesis on the time of day, age, pineal gland size, lighting conditions, administration of beta-blockers and a number of other medications. The results of studies on parasecretion and efficacy of exogenous melatonin use in sleep-wake cycle disturbances, insomnia, neurodegeneration, diabetes mellitus and oncological diseases are discussed.
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
O V Yakovleva, M G Poluektov, O S Levin, E A Lyashenko
The article reviews the phenomenology of sleep and wakefulness disorders in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Degeneration of sleep and wakefulness centers, secondary effect of other symptoms of diseases and side-effects of drug therapy lead to a widespread prevalence of sleep and wakefulness disturbances in these patients. Along with the review of actual literature concerning mechanisms of development and clinical features of these disorders, the authors discuss principal methods for their treatment...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Lindsay Melhuish Beaupre, Gregory M Brown, James L Kennedy
BACKGROUND: A core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), is sleep disturbance, specifically hypersomnia or insomnia. Sleep is highly regulated by circadian rhythms, controlled by circadian genes, that act through a series of feedback loops to regulate the sleep-wake cycle. OBJECTIVES: To the best of our knowledge, a systematic review regarding the core circadian genes and their role in MDD has not been published recently. More specifically, a review of these genes and their role in sleep disturbances in depressed individuals appears to have never been done...
July 30, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Ariella Bar-Gil Shitrit, Chen Chen-Shuali, Tomer Adar, Benjamin Koslowsky, Shimon Shteingart, Kalman Paz, Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky, Eran Goldin, Gali Epstein Shochet, David Shitrit
BACKGROUND: Poor sleep quality is associated with adverse health consequences. Sleep disturbances can impact the immune function and inflammatory processes. Little is known about sleep disturbances in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), while not in flare, i.e., inactive. AIMS: To prospectively explore the sleep quality of patients with an inactive IBD. METHODS: This pilot study included 36 consecutive patients with IBD and 27 healthy volunteers...
July 19, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Chiara Tesoriero, Federico Del Gallo, Marina Bentivoglio
Sleep is frequently altered in systemic infections as a component of sickness behavior in response to inflammation. Sleepiness in sickness behavior has been extensively investigated. Much less attention has instead been devoted to sleep and wake alterations in brain infections. Most of these, as other neuroinfections, are prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The present overview highlights the importance of this topic from both the clinical and pathogenetic points of view. Vigilance states and their regulation are first summarized, emphasizing that key nodes in this distributed brain system can be targeted by neuroinflammatory signaling...
July 21, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Philipp Ritter, Moritz Brandt, Wiebke Schrempf, Franciska Brezan, Annegret Krupka, Alexander Storch, Cathrin Sauer, Andrea Pfennig, Michael Bauer, Bettina Soltmann
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is a severe mental disorder associated with persistent sleep disturbances and elevated levels of mRNA coding for pro-inflammatory cytokines within peripheral monocytes. The mechanisms causing and sustaining a reduced sleep quality remain elusive. The pro-inflammatory cytokine receptor IL-6R is known to negatively affect sleep quality and architecture. Since elevations in IL-6R have repeatedly been demonstrated in bipolar disorder the association of sleep quality and architecture with levels of mRNA coding for IL-6R in monocytes was to be tested...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Hilde M Wesselius, Eva S van den Ende, Jelmer Alsma, Jan C Ter Maaten, Stephanie C E Schuit, Patricia M Stassen, Oscar J de Vries, Karin H A H Kaasjager, Harm R Haak, Frederiek F van Doormaal, Jacobien J Hoogerwerf, Caroline B Terwee, Peter M van de Ven, Frank H Bosch, Eus J W van Someren, Prabath W B Nanayakkara
Importance: Although inadequate sleep has a proven negative association with health care outcomes, to date, no large-scale studies have examined sleep in general hospital wards. Objectives: To assess the subjective quantity and quality of sleep and to identify the hospital-related factors associated with sleep disturbances in hospitalized patients. Design: For this nationwide, single-day, multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study, which took place on February 22, 2017, all hospitals in the Netherlands were encouraged by word of mouth and conventional and social media to participate in this study...
July 16, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Eli Wallace, Samantha Wright, Barry Schoenike, Avtar Roopra, Jong M Rho, Rama K Maganti
OBJECTIVES: Circadian rhythms are affected in many neurological disorders. Although sleep disturbances are known in epilepsy, data on circadian rhythm disturbances in epilepsy are sparse. Here, we examined diurnal and circadian rest-activity and sleep-wake patterns in Kcna1-null mice, which exhibit spontaneous recurrent seizures and are a model of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Furthermore, we sought to determine whether seizures or aberrant oscillation of core clock genes and a regulator, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), is associated with disrupted rhythms...
July 15, 2018: Epilepsia
Esther Rosenkranz, Andrea Thissen, Sonja Siegel, Marc Piroth, Hans Clusmann, Judith Gebauer, Georg Brabant, Ilonka Kreitschmann-Andermahr
OBJECTIVE: Cranial irradiation for brain tumours or leukaemias has been related to cognitive, endocrine and psychosocial late effects as well as sleep disturbances and increased daytime sleepiness. Studies suggest that cranial irradiation might impact on pineal melatonin secretion. Melatonin is an important regulator in human circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle. The objective of this study was to investigate melatonin secretion, subjective sleep parameters and their interplay in a cohort of cranially irradiated head and brain tumour and leukaemia survivors at least 3 years after radiotherapy...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Xi-Jian Dai, Jian Jiang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Xiao Nie, Bi-Xia Liu, Li Pei, Honghan Gong, Jianping Hu, Guangming Lu, Yang Zhan
Background: Insufficient sleep is common in daily life and can lead to cognitive impairment. Sleep disturbance also exists in neuropsychiatric diseases. However, whether and how acute and chronic sleep loss affect brain morphology remain largely unknown. Methods: We used voxel-based morphology method to study the brain structural changes during sleep deprivation (SD) at six time points of rested wakefulness, 20, 24, 32, 36 h SD, and after one night sleep in 22 healthy subjects, and in 39 patients with chronic primary insomnia relative to 39 status-matched good sleepers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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