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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161267/sugar-industry-sponsorship-of-germ-free-rodent-studies-linking-sucrose-to-hyperlipidemia-and-cancer-an-historical-analysis-of-internal-documents
#1
Cristin E Kearns, Dorie Apollonio, Stanton A Glantz
In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD). SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose's CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled "Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats," led by Dr. W...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153075/is-whole-colon-investigation-by-colonoscopy-computerised-tomography-colonography-or-barium-enema-necessary-for-all-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-symptoms-and-for-which-patients-would-flexible-sigmoidoscopy-suffice-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Wendy Atkin, Kate Wooldrage, Urvi Shah, Kate Skinner, Jeremy P Brown, Willie Hamilton, Ines Kralj-Hans, Michael R Thompson, Karen G Flashman, Steve Halligan, Siwan Thomas-Gibson, Margaret Vance, Amanda J Cross
BACKGROUND: For patients referred to hospital with suspected colorectal cancer (CRC), it is current standard clinical practice to conduct an examination of the whole colon and rectum. However, studies have shown that an examination of the distal colorectum using flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) can be a safe and clinically effective investigation for some patients. These findings require validation in a multicentre study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the links between patient symptoms at presentation and CRC risk by subsite, and to provide evidence of whether or not FS is an effective alternative to whole-colon investigation (WCI) in patients whose symptoms do not suggest proximal or obstructive disease...
November 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149153/analysis-of-reporting-bias-in-vertebral-augmentation
#3
Douglas P Beall, Sean M Tutton, Kieran Murphy, Wayne Olan, Christopher Warner, Jack B Test
Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide, with estimates of 750,000 to 1.5 million occurring annually. As the elderly population continues to increase, the incidence of OVCFs will continue to rise, as will the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. Vertebral augmentation (VA) was almost universally accepted as the appropriate treatment modality prior to 2 sham trials published in 2009 by the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM)...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101129/dissemination-of-2014-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-dapt-trial-results-a-systematic-review-of-scholarly-and-media-attention-over-7-months
#4
Melissa K Sharp, Romana Haneef, Philippe Ravaud, Isabelle Boutron
OBJECTIVE: To explore how the results from the 2014 dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) trial were disseminated to the scientific community and online media. DESIGN: A a systematic review of scholarly and public attention surrounding the DAPT study. SETTINGS: Data were collected from the ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, PubMed Commons, EurekAlert, the DAPT study website (www.daptstudy.org) and the New England Journal of Medicine website (for scholarly attention) and Altmetric Explorer, Snap Bird, YouTube (for public attention) citing DAPT study results appearing from 16 November 2014 to 10 June 2015...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100609/economic-evaluations-of-alcohol-prevention-interventions-is-the-evidence-sufficient-a-review-of-methodological-challenges
#5
REVIEW
Sarah R Hill, Luke Vale, David Hunter, Emily Henderson, Yemi Oluboyede
Public health interventions have unique characteristics compared to health technologies, which present additional challenges for economic evaluation (EE). High quality EEs that are able to address the particular methodological challenges are important for public health decision-makers. In England, they are even more pertinent given the transition of public health responsibilities in 2013 from the National Health Service to local government authorities where new agents are shaping policy decisions. Addressing alcohol misuse is a globally prioritised public health issue...
October 27, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070642/exploring-the-theory-barriers-and-enablers-for-patient-and-public-involvement-across-health-social-care-and-patient-safety-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#6
Josephine Ocloo, Sarah Garfield, Shoba Dawson, Bryony Dean Franklin
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of patient and public involvement (PPI) in healthcare in the UK can be traced as far back as the 1970s. More recently, campaigns by harmed patients and their relatives have emerged as a result of clinical failings in the NHS, challenging paternalistic healthcare, which have led to a new focus on PPI in quality and safety, nationally and internationally. Evidence suggests that PPI within patient safety is often atheoretical and located within a biomedical discourse...
October 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064366/spot-protein-creatinine-ratio-and-spot-albumin-creatinine-ratio-in-the-assessment-of-pre-eclampsia-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study-with-decision-analytic-model-based-economic-evaluation-and-acceptability-analysis
#7
Jason Waugh, Richard Hooper, Edmund Lamb, Stephen Robson, Andrew Shennan, Fiona Milne, Christopher Price, Shakila Thangaratinam, Vladislav Berdunov, Jenn Bingham
BACKGROUND: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines highlighted the need for 'large, high-quality prospective studies comparing the various methods of measuring proteinuria in women with new-onset hypertensive disorders during pregnancy'. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to evaluate quantitative assessments of spot protein-creatinine ratio (SPCR) and spot albumin-creatinine ratio (SACR) in predicting severe pre-eclampsia (PE) compared with 24-hour urine protein measurement...
October 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058806/an-epidemic-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-falling-infection-rates-reflecting-on-comparisons-made-and-the-rising-ms-incidence-in-bach-s-nejm-2002-figure
#8
Helen Tremlett, Robyn Lucas
Myths are common in science and research. Findings from a publication in a high impact, influential journal, can be accepted as fact, with an assumption that the peer review process ensures study validity. Repeated presentation of graphical representations or summary statements at scientific meetings and through citation in publications can cement the findings such that they guide 'understanding' of science and future research directions. Such may be the case with the multiple sclerosis (MS) related epidemiology presented within a wider review article published in 2002 in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM)...
October 23, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993088/hip-and-knee-arthroplasty-orthopedic-literature-in-medical-journals-is-it-negatively-biased
#9
Ronald E Delanois, Chukwuweike U Gwam, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Morad Chughtai, Arthur L Malkani, Peter M Bonutti, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: Healthcare policy is often determined by well-designed studies most often published in high-impact medical journals. However, concern about the presence of publication bias against lower-extremity arthroplasty-related studies has called into question some of the validity of certain reports. There are only a few studies investigating the presence of the bias in high-impact medical journals against lower-extremity arthroplasty intervention, particularly in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA), New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), and the Lancet...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967862/provision-of-information-about-newborn-screening-antenatally-a-sequential-exploratory-mixed-methods-project
#10
Fiona Ulph, Stuart Wright, Nimarta Dharni, Katherine Payne, Rebecca Bennett, Stephen Roberts, Kieran Walshe, Tina Lavender
BACKGROUND: Participation in the UK Newborn Bloodspot Screening Programme (NBSP) requires parental consent but concerns exist about whether or not this happens in practice and the best methods and timing to obtain consent at reasonable cost. OBJECTIVES: To collate all possible modes of prescreening communication and consent for newborn (neonatal) screening (NBS); examine midwives', screening professionals' and users' views about the feasibility, efficiency and impact on understanding of each; measure midwives' and parents' preferences for information provision; and identify key drivers of cost-effectiveness for alternative modes of information provision...
October 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954803/temporal-trends-in-use-of-composite-end-points-in-major-cardiovascular-randomized-clinical-trials-in-prominent-medical-journals
#11
Nigel S Tan, Sammy H Ali, Gerald Lebovic, Muhammad Mamdani, Andreas Laupacis, Andrew T Yan
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular mortality has decreased over the past 5 decades, making it increasingly difficult to demonstrate significant benefits of new therapies in randomized clinical trials. We sought to determine whether the use of composite end points in major cardiovascular trials has changed over time and examine temporal trends in the clinical importance of individual components of these composite end points. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a validated search strategy, we searched MEDLINE for randomized trials of therapies for primary or secondary cardiovascular prevention published in New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, and the Journal of the American Medical Association between 1986 and 2015...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954288/two-by-two-factorial-cancer-treatment-trials-is-sufficient-attention-being-paid-to-possible-interactions
#12
REVIEW
Boris Freidlin, Edward L Korn
Factorial 2 × 2 designs can be used to combine evaluation of two treatments in a single study. The standard analysis approach is based on a factorial analysis that evaluates each treatment by pooling data over the other treatment. This approach relies on the assumption that the effect of each treatment is not substantially affected by the other treatment. In many oncology settings, this no-interaction assumption cannot be adequately supported at the time the trial is designed. In this Commentary, we consider current practices for the design and analysis of factorial trials by performing a survey of factorial treatment trials published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Journal of Clinical Oncology, and the New England Journal of Medicine (2007-2016)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901340/sticking-to-principles-and-anticipating-outcomes
#13
Tom Jefferson
Riassunto La pubblicazione di Unanticipated outcomes, la storia personale di Jerome P. Kassirer, ex direttore del New England Journal of Medicine, offre l'opportunità di considerare i principi etici dell'editoria biomedica e scientifica. Il conflitto di interessi, le dichiarazioni e la frode influenzano la credibilità della comunicazione medica, che poggia sulla robustezza e sulla trasparenza dei suoi processi. Non tutto è ancora perduto, ma dobbiamo essere guidati da forti principi morali e da un quadro coerente di valori...
September 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894852/top-100-cited-classic-articles-in-breast-cancer-research
#14
Erdal Uysal
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze 100 most cited articles in breast cancer research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data in this study were obtained by a search conducted on the Web of Science (WOS). In brief, the term "breast cancer" was typed in the search box of WOS basic research including all the years and the data. The analysis was carried out by compiling the top 100 cited articles in the shortlist as sorted by the journals, categories of the studies, the countries, the centers, the authors and the publication date...
July 2017: Eur J Breast Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780744/advances-in-transgenic-animal-models-and-techniques
#15
Séverine Ménoret, Laurent Tesson, Séverine Remy, Claire Usal, Laure-Hélène Ouisse, Lucas Brusselle, Vanessa Chenouard, Ignacio Anegon
On May 11th and 12th 2017 was held in Nantes, France, the international meeting "Advances in transgenic animal models and techniques" ( http://www.trm.univ-nantes.fr/ ). This biennial meeting is the fifth one of its kind to be organized by the Transgenic Rats ImmunoPhenomic (TRIP) Nantes facility ( http://www.tgr.nantes.inserm.fr/ ). The meeting was supported by private companies (SONIDEL, Scionics computer innovation, New England Biolabs, MERCK, genOway, Journal Disease Models and Mechanisms) and by public institutions (International Society for Transgenic Technology, University of Nantes, INSERM UMR 1064, SFR François Bonamy, CNRS, Région Pays de la Loire, Biogenouest, TEFOR infrastructure, ITUN, IHU-CESTI and DHU-Oncogeffe and Labex IGO)...
October 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757260/comparison-between-publicly-accessible-publications-registries-and%C3%A2-protocols-of-phase-iii-trials-indicated-persistence-of-selective-outcome%C3%A2-reporting
#16
Sheng Zhang, Fei Liang, Wenfeng Li
OBJECTIVES: The decision to make protocols of phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) publicly accessible by leading journals was a landmark event in clinical trial reporting. Here, we compared primary outcomes defined in protocols with those in publications describing the trials and in trial registration. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We identified phase III RCTs published between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015, in The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, The Journal of the American Medical Association, and The BMJ with available protocols...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749016/trends-in-study-design-and-the-statistical-methods-employed-in-a-leading-general-medicine-journal
#17
M Gosho, Y Sato, K Nagashima, S Takahashi
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Study design and statistical methods have become core components of medical research, and the methodology has become more multifaceted and complicated over time. The study of the comprehensive details and current trends of study design and statistical methods is required to support the future implementation of well-planned clinical studies providing information about evidence-based medicine. Our purpose was to illustrate study design and statistical methods employed in recent medical literature...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744998/science-or-popular-media-what-drives-breast-cancer-online-activity
#18
Ryan Sugrue, Erica Carthy, M E Kelly, Karl J Sweeney
Google Trends is reflective of international awareness. Since its launch in 2004, there have been several landmark publications, international awareness campaigns, and mainstream-media events that involve breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of landmark academic publications vs mainstream-media announcements in driving online breast cancer activity via Google Trends. Ten breast cancer-related themes or landmark publications (five academic publications and five media-related events) were used to compare the impact of online search activity...
July 26, 2017: Breast Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720618/interpretation-of-cis-in-clinical-trials-with-non-significant-results-systematic-review-and-recommendations
#19
Jennifer S Gewandter, Michael P McDermott, Rachel A Kitt, Jenna Chaudari, James G Koch, Scott R Evans, Robert A Gross, John D Markman, Dennis C Turk, Robert H Dworkin
OBJECTIVES: Interpretation of CIs in randomised clinical trials (RCTs) with treatment effects that are not statistically significant can distinguish between results that are 'negative' (the data are not consistent with a clinically meaningful treatment effect) or 'inconclusive' (the data remain consistent with the possibility of a clinically meaningful treatment effect). This interpretation is important to ensure that potentially beneficial treatments are not prematurely abandoned in future research or clinical practice based on invalid conclusions...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718304/the-role-of-surgery-in-low-grade-gliomas-do-timing-and-extent-of-resection-matter
#20
Hugues Duffau
Hugues Duffau is a Professor and Chairman of the Neurosurgery Department in the Montpellier University Medical Center and Head of the INSERM 1051 Team "plasticity of the central nervous system, human stem cells and glial tumors" at the Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier (France). He is an expert in the awake cognitive neurosurgery of slow-growing brain tumors, such as low-grade gliomas, a routine which he has developed since 20 years. His fundamental approach is centered on the concepts of the brain connectomics and neuroplasticity, breaking with the traditional localizationist view of cerebral processing...
July 18, 2017: CNS Oncology
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