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Ocular Infectious

Arash Salmaninejad, Mohammad Reza Zamani, Arezoo Gowhari Shabgah, Seyedmojtaba Hosseini, Fatemeh Mollaei, Nayyerehalsadat Hosseini, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic and rare multisystemic disorder defined by autoimmunity and inflammatory characteristics, manifested by ocular lesions, recurrent genital and oral ulcers, skin symptoms and arthritis as well as neurological, intestinal, and vascular involvement. Despite the unknown cause of BD, there is some strong documentation for immunological, genetic, environmental, and infectious factors playing a role in the pathogenesis of BD. While the nature of the genetic variants remains unidentified, many genetic risk factors are considered to contribute to BD susceptibility...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
M R Pennington, J A Capriotti, G R Van de Walle
Infectious ocular disease, such as conjunctivitis, is common in cats and can be caused by several viruses and bacteria, either as a single infection or as co-infections. In this study, povidone-iodine (PVP-I), alone or compounded with hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), was investigated for its efficacy against these pathogens in vitro. Whilst PVP-I alone was effective at inhibiting feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), Chlamydia felis, and Mycoplasma felis, PVP-I with HEC exerted a synergistic inhibitory effect against FHV-1 and C...
November 2018: Veterinary Journal
Rebecca Low, Elizabeth J Chen, Muhammad Amir Bin Ismail, Helen Mi, Ho Su Ling, Wee Kiak Lim, Stephen C Teoh, Rupesh Agrawal
PURPOSE: To analyze the pattern of laboratory investigations of uveitis at a tertiary referral eye care center in Singapore. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 2040 uveitis cases from the Ocular Autoimmune Systemic Inflammatory Infectious Study (OASIS) database over a 12-year period (2004 - 2015). RESULTS: Patients with retinal vasculitis (RV) had the most tests utilized per patient (6.79), followed by intermediate uveitis (IU) (5.25), panuveitis (Pan) (5...
October 18, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Zohar Habot-Wilner, Liran Tiosano, Juan M Sanchez, Shiri Shulman, Dana Barequet, Ori Rahat, Gil Amarilyo, Radgonde Amer
PURPOSE: To report the epidemiology, etiology, ocular characteristics, treatment and visual outcome of pediatric uveitis in Israel. METHODS: Retrospective study from two tertiary uveitis centers. RESULTS: Included were 107 patients (182 eyes), 55% females. Mean age at diagnosis 8.8 years. Uveitis was predominantly anterior, idiopathic, bilateral, and chronic. Systemic associations were seen in 36% of patients of which the most common disease was juvenile idiopathic arthritis...
October 17, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Ann-Marie Lobo, Alex M Agelidis, Deepak Shukla
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) keratitis is a leading cause of infectious blindness. Clinical disease occurs variably throughout the cornea from epithelium to endothelium and recurrent HSV stromal keratitis is associated with corneal scarring and neovascularization. HSV keratitis can be associated with ocular pain and subsequent neutrophic keratopathy. Host cell interactions with HSV trigger an inflammatory cascade responsible not only for clearance of virus but also for progressive corneal opacification due to inflammatory cell infiltrate, angiogenesis, and corneal nerve loss...
October 11, 2018: Ocular Surface
Aniruddha Agarwal, Kanika Aggarwal, Vishali Gupta
Several intraocular infections can present with protean manifestations posing major diagnostic and management challenges. Infections such as tuberculosis, dengue and chikungunya fever have continued to remain major endemic diseases that are associated with uveitis in the Asia Pacific region. These entities often require a high index of clinical suspicion and laboratory analysis including assays of ocular fluids and/or tissues for confirmation of the diagnosis. Infectious uveitis caused by tuberculosis, dengue and chikungunya can present with characteristic clinical features and imaging findings on ancillary investigations; that may provide clue to the early diagnosis...
October 12, 2018: Eye
Matthew R Starr, Wendy M Smith
PURPOSE: Histoplasmosis is a known complication of systemic immunosuppressive therapy, particularly among patients receiving tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitors. There is limited data on the development of disseminated or pulmonary histoplasmosis among patients receiving systemic immunosuppressive medication for non-infectious ocular inflammation. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: We reviewed all patients with uveitis or scleritis who subsequently developed pulmonary or disseminated histoplasmosis at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN from September 1994 through July 1st , 2017 with a 3:1 age- and sex-matched control cohort who did not develop histoplasmosis...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Joveeta Joseph, Savitri Sharma, Vivek Pravin Dave
BACKGROUND: To report microbiological diagnostic dilemma posed by observation of unusual morphology of bacteria in the vitreous sample of a series of three cases of bacterial endophthalmitis. RESULTS: A non-comparative, descriptive case series is described. All three cases presented to the retina-vitreous clinic with a clinical diagnosis of acute endophthalmitis between January and April 2018. Two patients had a past history of cataract surgery, and one had antecedent trauma within 1-2 days of presentation...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Dhanshree Deshmukh, Moumita Chakrabarti, Rajagopalaboopathi Jayasudha, Mohammed Hasnat Ali, Mudit Tyagi, Savitri Sharma, Joveeta Joseph
PURPOSE: To investigate the immunopathogenesis of endophthalmitis, and determine if cytokine profiles could serve as biomarkers of disease severity in infectious endophthalmitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vitreous samples of 46 patients clinically diagnosed as endophthalmitis (of which 25 were culture positive) and 20 non-infectious controls from patients with Retinal Detachment (RD) or diabetic retinopathy were included in the study. The cytokine and chemokine expression patterns of 40 immune mediators including 6 antiinflammatory cytokines, 15 proinflammatory cytokines, 9 Growth factors and 10 proinflammatory chemokines in the vitreous were were analyzed by multiplex cytokine immunoassay...
2018: PloS One
Thomas M Lietman, Michael S Deiner, Catherine E Oldenburg, Scott D Nash, Jeremy D Keenan, Travis C Porco
BACKGROUND: In many infectious diseases, a core group of individuals plays a disproportionate role in transmission. If these individuals were effectively prevented from transmitting infection, for example with a perfect vaccine, then the disease would disappear in the remainder of the community. No vaccine has yet proven effective against the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma. However, repeated treatment with oral azithromycin may be able to prevent individuals from effectively transmitting trachoma...
October 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jitender Jinagal, Aniruddha Agarwal, Avinash Negi, Gaurav Gupta, Vikas Sharma, Parul Chawla Gupta, Jagat Ram
A 19-year-old Nepalese male presented with complaints of bilateral ocular discomfort, photophobia, watering, and redness for 1 week. Visual acuity was 6/12 and 6/60 in the right and left eye, respectively. On biomicroscopic examination, presence of peripheral stromal infiltrates with conjunctival follicles was noted; infiltrates progressed to involve central cornea with further decrease in vision over next few days. After ruling out infectious keratitis, detailed systemic examination and laboratory investigations were diagnostic of neuro-Behçet's disease...
October 7, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
H Heidari, M Hadadi, H Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, A Mirzaei, A Taji, S R Hosseini, M Motamedifar
INTRODUCTION: Infectious keratitis is a serious ocular infection that can lead to severe visual impairment and blindness. Bacterial pathogens are responsible for nearly half of infectious keratitis cases. This study was performed to determine the virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and biofilm formation ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus spp. strains isolated from corneal infections. METHODS: A total of 56 corneal scraping samples were collected over 8 months...
October 3, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Morteza Izadi, Mohsen Pourazizi, Mahmoud Babaei, Ali Saffaei, Mohammad-Hasan Alemzadeh-Ansari
International travel is rising quickly worldwide. Many people travel to tropical and subtropical areas, where there has been increasing exposure of travelers to infectious pathogens. Ocular parasitic infections are more prevalent in these geographical areas and they can lead to morbidity and mortality, often due to late or misdiagnosis due to the unfamiliarity of health staff with these diseases. This is an up-to-date comprehensive review article that familiarizes physicians with ocular signs and symptoms, treatment, prevention, and geographic distribution of some parasites associated with travel...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
KangJu Lee, Hyun Beom Song, Wonwoo Cho, Jin Hyoung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, WonHyoung Ryu
There are increasing demands for long-term and controlled corneal drug delivery to treat various ocular diseases. Although biodegradable ocular inserts or contact lenses have been developed, the invasiveness and inefficiency of the approaches still need to be improved. Microneedle (MN) technology can deliver therapeutic molecules to the eye in a minimally invasive manner. However, the current ocular MN technology is limited to either short-term corneal drug delivery or retinal drug delivery by suprachoroidal injection...
September 26, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Maximiliano A Hawkes, Sara E Hocker, A Arturo Leis
West Nile virus (WNV) infection has been reported to promote myasthenia gravis (MG) and various other diseases that have a presumed autoimmune pathogenesis. Molecular mimicry between WNV proteins and host proteins has been postulated as the major mechanism for WNV-triggered breaking of immunological self-tolerance. We present a patient with stable ocular MG and positive anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies who progressed to myasthenic crisis after WNV neuroinvasive disease. In this case of stable autoimmune disease with proven auto-antibodies, transformation to generalized disease cannot be attributed to molecular mimicry, which requires that an immune response first be generated against an infectious agent...
September 13, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
J S Pelletier, S B Barone, J A Capriotii
The Boston Type I Keratoprosthesis has been improving in both design and safety since its inception. Due to particular features inherent in the Boston Type I Keratoprosthesis eye and certain aspects of the ocular surface, special attention is required to maintain these implanted devices. There is currently a prominent role for keratoprosthesis prophylaxis; it is designed to prevent infectious complications like keratitis and endophthalmitis. This standard-of-care therapy has anecdotally been shown to improve outcomes; however, it has not been examined in the setting of controlled clinical trials...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Sho Ishikawa, Kouichiro Murayama, Naoko Kato
Purpose: Various ocular surface disorders, such as dry eye, infectious and non-infectious inflammation, anatomical anomalies in lid structure, and/or obstruction of the tear outflow tract, can cause epiphora. However, few reports have described the proportions of causative diseases in patients with epiphora. Therefore, we investigated the frequent causes of epiphora in older adult patients. Materials and methods: We enrolled 220 patients (70 men, 150 women) who visited a primary eye care clinic from January 2016 to August 2017 with lacrimation as a chief complaint...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Ashi Khurana, Ajit Kumar
We report a case of a 46-year-old female who developed infectious crystalline keratopathy (ICK) after Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). She underwent DSEK for pseudophakic corneal edema in her left eye. Ten weeks after the procedure, the patient presented with complaints of blurred vision, redness in eye, and ocular pain. Slit lamp examination revealed white nonsuppurative branching deep stromal infiltrate. Microscopic examination of the Gram-stained smear showed gram-positive cocci. Streptococcus viridans was isolated on cultures...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Shwathy Ramesan, Amgad R Rezk, Leslie Y Yeo
The majority of infectious diseases enter the body through mucosal membranes that line the ocular, nasal, oral, vaginal and rectal surfaces. As infections can be effectively prevented by instigating a local immune response in the immunocyte-rich regions of the mucosa, an efficacious route of vaccine administration is to directly target their delivery to these surfaces. It is nevertheless challenging to provide sufficient driving force to penetrate both the mucus lining as well as the epithelial barrier of the mucosal surfaces, which are designed to effectively keep foreign entities out, but not excessively such that the therapeutic agent penetrates deeper into the vascularised submucosal regions where they are mostly taken up by the systemic circulation, thus resulting in a far weaker immune response...
September 18, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Szilárd Kiss, Pravin U Dugel, Arshad M Khanani, Michael S Broder, Eunice Chang, Gordon H Sun, Adam Turpcu
Purpose: Intravitreal (IVT) injections of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab are commonly prescribed to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Studies comparing inflammation rates in large populations of patients receiving these agents and the treatment of ocular inflammation post-IVT anti-VEGF injections are scarce. In this study, we compared rates of endophthalmitis claims (sterile and infectious) following IVT anti-VEGF injections to determine the risk factors associated with developing endophthalmitis, and examined the claims for subsequent treatment...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
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