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Ocular Infectious

Angela H Benton, Mary E Marquart
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic pathogen that can cause severe infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and middle ear infections. It is also one of the top pathogens contributing to bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis. Though two pneumococcal vaccines exist for the prevention of nonocular diseases, they do little to fully prevent ocular infections. This pathogen has several virulence factors that wreak havoc on the conjunctiva, cornea, and intraocular system...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Mojtaba Mikaniki, Neda Babaee, Ebrahim Mikaniki, Mohammad Reza Hasanjani Roushan, Ali Bijani
Background: Behcet's syndrome is a disease with different aspects in its clinical manifestations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous presence of oral mucosal and ophthalmologic lesions in patients with Behcet's syndrome. Methods: From April 2012 to December 2014, 50 cases of Behcet's syndrome who referred to the Departments of Ophtalmology, Oral Diseases and Infectious Diseases of Babol University Medical Sciences were entered into the study...
2018: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Ahmed B Sallam, Kyle A Kirkland, Richard Barry, Mohamed Kamel Soliman, Tayyeba K Ali, Sue Lightman
Treatment of infectious posterior uveitis represents a therapeutic challenge for ophthalmologists. The eye is a privileged site, maintained by blood ocular barriers, which limits penetration of systemic antimicrobials into the posterior segment. In addition, topical and subconjunctival therapies are incapable of producing sufficient drug concentrations, intraocularly. Posterior infectious uveitis can be caused by bacteria, virus, fungi, or protozoa. Mode of treatment varies greatly based on the infectious etiology...
2018: Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology
Darin Sakiyalak, Yuwared Chattagoon
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for secondary ocular hypertension (OHT) in patients with moderate to severe infectious ulcerative keratitis and to evaluate the long-term outcome of patients with secondary OHT. Patients and methods: A retrospective chart review of 346 patients with moderate to severe infectious keratitis admitted to Siriraj Hospital during the period from 1 January 2005 to 31 May 2008 was conducted...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Jeremy A Lavine, Arun D Singh, Kimberly Baynes, Sunil K Srivastava
PURPOSE: To report the multimodal imaging findings of immune recovery uveitis mimicking recurrent T-cell lymphoma after autologous bone marrow transplant therapy. METHODS: A 71-year-old man presented with posterior uveitis 6 weeks after chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplant for angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Multimodal imaging included fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography. Diagnostic testing included ocular polymerase chain reaction and diagnostic vitrectomy...
November 26, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Courtney McCracken, Steven Yeh, Kirsten Jenkins, Curtis Travers, Daneka Stryker, Steven Tommasello, Kelly A Rouster-Stevens, Scott R Lambert, Sampath Prahalad, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Sheila T Angeles-Han
AIMS: Methotrexate (MTX) is standard treatment in pediatric chronic anterior uveitis (CAU). Addition of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFi) is often needed. We describe the timing and risk factors for TNFi use in children with CAU on MTX. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed 51 records, and 46 met inclusion criteria. Primary outcome was the addition of TNFi due to active CAU per Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature criteria. Time to TNFi and factors associated with their addition were assessed using survival analysis models...
November 28, 2018: Eye
Hawa Vahed, Anshu Agrawal, Ruchi Srivastava, Swayam Prakash, Pierre-Gregoire A Coulon, Soumyabrata Roy, Lbachir BenMohamed
A large proportion of the world population harbors herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) a major cause of infectious corneal blindness. HSV-specific CD8+ T cells protect from herpes infection and disease. However, the genomic, phenotypic and functional characteristics of CD8+ T cells associated with the protection seen in asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals, who despite being infected, never experienced any recurrent herpetic disease, remains to be fully elucidated. In this investigation, we compared the phenotype, function, and level of expression of a comprehensive panel of 579 immune genes of memory CD8+ T cells, sharing the same HSV-1 epitope-specificities, and freshly isolated peripheral blood from well-characterized cohorts of protected ASYMP and non-protected symptomatic (SYMP) individuals, with a history of numerous episodes of recurrent herpetic disease using high throughput digital NanoString nCounter™ system and Flow Cytometry...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Hande Celiker, Haluk Kazokoglu
PURPOSE: To identify the causative microorganism of fungal endogenous endophthalmitis in our tertiary referral uveitis center and review the therapeutic role of pars plana vitrectomy in patients with fungal endogenous endophthalmitis. METHODS: Seven eyes of six cases were identified as fungal endogenous endophthalmitis through positive cultures of ocular fluids and clinical presentations. The final anatomical and functional results were evaluated. RESULTS: Four women (66...
November 26, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Paul L Wood, Michelle N Donohue, John E Cebak, Taylor G Beckmann, MacKenzie Treece, Jason W Johnson, Lynda M J Miller
Background : Tear film fluid serves as a dynamic barrier that both lubricates the eye and protects against allergens and infectious agents. However, a detailed analysis of a bacteria-induced immune response on the tear film lipidome has not been undertaken. Methods : We undertook a high-resolution mass spectrometry lipidomics analysis of endogenous anti-inflammatory and structural tear film lipids in bovine pink eye. Results : Bovine pink eye resulted in dramatic elevations in tear fluid levels of the anti-inflammatory lipids resolvin E2, cyclic phosphatidic acid 16:0, and cyclic phosphatidic acid 18:0...
November 21, 2018: Metabolites
David L Williams
Vision is essential for amphibians, so a healthy ocular surface is critically important. There are ocular surface abnormalities that occur predominantly in captive animals, such as corneal lipidosis, whereas others, such as UV-induced trauma or infectious and parasitic conditions, may be critical to survival for animals in the wild. It is believed that inherited defects are going to be seen in small captive populations but it may be that confined wild groups of amphibians can be just as severely affected. Anything that blinds an animal severely affects its life changes...
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Angela Griggs
Avian ocular disease may be primary or a manifestation of systemic disease. Various infectious and noninfectious diseases have been reported to cause ocular pathology. Thorough physical examination and diagnostic testing are necessary to determine a treatment plan.
January 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Fleurieke H Verhagen, Sanne Hiddingh, Rianne Rijken, Aridaman Pandit, Emmerik Leijten, Michel Olde Nordkamp, Ninette H Ten Dam-van Loon, Stefan Nierkens, Saskia M Imhof, Joke H de Boer, Timothy R D J Radstake, Jonas J W Kuiper
Background: Non-infectious uveitis (NIU) is a severe intra ocular inflammation, which frequently requires prompt systemic immunosuppressive therapy (IMT) to halt the development of vision-threatening complications. IMT is considered when NIU cannot be treated with corticosteroids alone, which is unpredictable in advance. Previous studies have linked blood cell subsets to glucocorticoid sensitivity, which suggests that the composition of blood leukocytes may early identify patients that will require IMT. Objective: To map the blood leukocyte composition of NIU and identify cell subsets that stratify patients that required IMT during follow-up...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Selina Taylor, Maureen Khan, Shams Zaidi, Umair Alvi, Yaqoot Fatima
Introduction: The clinical and pathological correlation between hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and ocular complications has not yet been established. However, individual case reports indicate a trend that may be the emergence of a new burden of the previous self-limiting virus. This virus is particularly prevalent in childcare centers and poses an infectious disease risk for this workplace. Objectives: The primary objective of this case report is to describe an unusual clinical record of a patient who developed central serous retinopathy while unwell with HFMD...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Fahriye Groen-Hakan, Laura Eurelings, Jan van Laar, Aniki Rothova
PURPOSE: To relate erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) values to different uveitis entisties. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with a first episode of active uveitis visiting the Erasmus University Medical Center, uveitis clinic, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, was performed. Levels of ESR and CRP were determined within 2 weeks and 1 week after onset of uveitis, respectively. Uveitis had to be of unknown origin at that moment...
November 8, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Daniel Tena, Natividad Rodríguez, Laura Toribio, Alejandro González-Praetorius
Infectious keratitis is a serious ocular infection that can lead to loss of vision. The aim of the study was to investigate the microbiological characteristics of this infection at the University Hospital of Guadalajara (Spain). We retrospectively reviewed all cases diagnosed between January 2010 and December 2016. During the 7-year study period, 297 corneal scrapes corresponding to 298 patients were performed. Antibiotic treatment previous to the culture occurred in 59 cases (19.5%). Contact lens wear was the most common risk factor (33...
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Barbara S Sixt, Carlos Núñez-Otero, Oliver Kepp, Raphael H Valdivia, Guido Kroemer
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial agent responsible for ocular infections and sexually transmitted diseases. It has been postulated that Chlamydia inhibits apoptosis in host cells to maintain an intact replicative niche until sufficient infectious progeny can be generated. Here we report that, while cells infected with C. trachomatis are protected from apoptosis at early and mid-stages of infection, they remain susceptible to the induction of other cell death modalities. By monitoring the fate of infected cells by time-lapse video microscopy and by analyzing host plasma membrane integrity and the activity of caspases, we determined that C...
October 30, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Vahid Karimi, Peyman Mohammadi, Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Masoud Hashemzadeh, Reza Khaltabadi Farahani, Hussein Maghsouldoo, Nima Isakakroudi
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly infectious pathogen, which affects the respiratory tract, reproductive system, and kidney of chickens. Many different genotypes of IBV are recognized which cause different clinical manifestations. According to the antigenic differences, different serotypes of the virus do not cross-protect. Massachusetts serotype induces the best cross-protection against other serotypes. Recently, the IBV QX genotype has been detected in Iran. QX genotype causes permanent damage to the oviduct in layer and breeder flock if it occurs in the early life cycle...
October 29, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Yong Zheng Wai, Lee Min Fiona Chew, Aziz Salowi Mohamad, Chai Liang Ang, Yong Yuin Chong, Tassha Hilda Adnan, Pik-Pin Goh
AIM: To report the incidence, risk factors and visual outcomes for postoperative endophthalmitis (POE) based on 7-year data from the Malaysian Ministry of Health Cataract Surgery Registry (MOH CSR). METHODS: Data was collected from the web-based MOH CSR. All consecutive cataract surgery patients from 1st June 2008 to 31st December 2014 were identified. Exclusion criteria were traumatic cataract or previous ocular surgery. Demographic data, ocular co-morbidities, intraoperative details and postoperative visual acuity (VA) at final ophthalmological follow-up were noted...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Kongnara Papangkorn, Kim R Truett, Albert T Vitale, Chirag Jhaveri, David K Scales, C Stephen Foster, Alyssa Montieth, John W Higuchi, Balbir Brar, William I Higuchi
PURPOSE: Frequent steroid drops represent a challenge in patient compliance. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of 5 minute topical dexamethasone sodium phosphate-Visulex (DSP-Visulex) treatment regimen (two applications on the first week then weekly after) compared to daily prednisolone acetate 1% (PA) for noninfectious anterior uveitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients were randomized to 8% DSP-Visulex with placebo eye drops (8% group, n = 14), 15% DSP-Visulex with placebo eye drops (15% group, n = 15), or Vehicle-Visulex with PA eye drops (PA group, n = 15)...
October 24, 2018: Current Eye Research
Wietse G Wieringa, Wineke Armbrust, G Elizabeth Legger, Leonoor I Los
PURPOSE: To analyze the efficacy of high dose (≥ 15mg/m2/week) methotrexate (MTX) versus low dose (<15mg/m2/week) MTX in relation to time to remission on medication. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of pediatric patients with auto-immune uveitis with or without underlying systemic disease treated with MTX at the University Medical Center Groningen (the Netherlands) between 1990 and 2014. Primary outcome was time to remission on medication, which was defined as an observable inactive disease in the affected eye for longer than 3 months without the use of systemic corticosteroids...
October 22, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
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