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Ocular Infectious

Crystal Sin Yi Cheung, Adam Jekielek, Nupura Bakshi, Rajeev Muni, Filberto Altomare, Louise Giavedoni, Alan Berger, Larissa M Matukas, David Wong, Larissa Derzko-Dzulynsky
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical findings and microbiology investigations in patients with suspected infectious posterior segment uveitis (PSU). DESIGN: Retrospective case study. METHODS: Between January and December 2014, medical records of 270 patients with PSU were reviewed. Baseline ocular examination, presumed and final diagnoses, microbiology investigations from aqueous or vitreous fluid, and peripheral blood were reviewed. RESULTS: Infectious PSU was suspected in 28 patients among 270 PSU cases (10...
August 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Karolien Termote, Aaron W Joe, Andrea L Butler, Martin McCarthy, Joseph M Blondeau, Alfonso Iovieno, Simon P Holland, Sonia N Yeung
OBJECTIVE: To report the epidemiology of culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcers in Vancouver, B.C., Canada. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational case series. METHODS: Predetermined search terms were entered into the hospitals' electronic microbiology databases to create a cohort of patients who had undergone corneal scrapings for ulcers from April 2006 to March 2011. All specimens were plated on culture media. Cultured species were identified, and antimicrobial sensitivities were obtained...
August 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Patimaporn Wongprompitak, Nawarat Pleewan, Wiwit Tantibhedhyangkul, Angkana Chaiprasert, Pinnita Prabhasawat, Naharuthai Inthasin, Pattama Ekpo
BACKGROUND: Pythium insidiosum, a pathogenic oomycete, is a common causative organism of infectious corneal ulcer. Studying the innate immune response at the ocular surface is important for better understanding of the underlying pathogenesis and host defense against P. insidiosum infection. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) in P. insidiosum infection. METHODS: Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells were stimulated with either P...
August 13, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
J Bradford Rice, Alan G White, Lauren M Scarpati, George J Wan, Winnie W Nelson
OBJECTIVE: Non-infectious inflammatory eye diseases (IEDs), although rare, are complex and varied and may result in detrimental effects. A systematic literature review was conducted on the clinical outcome and economic burden of IED. METHODS: The Ovid search platform (Wolters Kluwer) was used to access scientific literature databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane libraries, Health Technology Assessment, and the NHS Economic Evaluation database. The search strategy targeted clinical and economic outcomes research in 2009-2016...
August 16, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Koju Kamoi, Manabu Mochizuki, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
RATIONALE: Dengue fever is a notable emerging infectious disease that is now seen worldwide, with an estimated incidence of approximately 390 million cases per year. Although ocular complications are uncommon among dengue fever-infected patients, caution is needed to prevent vision loss. Here we report a potentially serious sight-threatening complication of dengue fever, dengue fever-associated necrotizing scleritis. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: After being bitten by mosquitoes, a 60-year-old Japanese female exhibited positive serologic tests of immunoglobulin M and G enzyme immunoassays for dengue viral infection along with a decrease of leukocytes and platelets...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Li Wu, Meihong Ye, Jie Zhang
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced keratitis is a progressive infectious ocular disease in which innate inflammatory responses often cause clinical tissue damage and vision loss. In this study, the potential protective effects of vincamine, a plant alkaloid used clinically as a peripheral vasodilator, against LPS induced inflammation and oxidative stress were investigated on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). HCECs were treated with LPS and vincamine at various concentrations. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and the gene expression levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in HCECs, were assessed...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Magdalena Frej-Mądrzak, Dorota Teryks-Wołyniec, Piotr Jankowski, Paulina Krochmal, Jolanta Sarowska, Agnieszka Jama-Kmiecik, Irena Choroszy-Król
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia infection is the most frequently reported infectious, sexually transmitted disease (STD). Generally, Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection of neonates is the result of perinatal exposure to the mother's infected cervix. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of infection caused by C. trachomatis in newborn infants. In this study of C. trachomatis perinatal infection, 107 infants born at the Wroclaw Medical University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Poland) were tested to investigate whether C...
August 9, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Neville Aquilina, Vincent Bugeja, Charmaine Zahra
BACKGROUND: Orbital myositis is an idiopathic, inflammatory, non-infectious condition, typically confined to more than one extraocular muscle and usually targeting young females in their third decade. CASE REPORT: We describe a case of orbital myositis uncommonly afflicting an adult male. He initially presented with a sensation of dizziness when turning his head and mobilising, together with right-sided orbital pain that failed to respond to the vestibular sedative cinnarizine...
July 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Ahmed Ali, Walid H Kilany, Mohamed A Zain El-Abideen, Magdy El Sayed, Magdy Elkady
Vaccination programs against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in Egypt depend on both classical and/or imported variant IBV strain vaccines. However, many IBV outbreaks associated with respiratory distress, nephropathy, and high mortalities were attributed to the circulation of both classical and new nephropathogenic IBV variant 2 strains. In the present study, we report the development of attenuated IBV candidate vaccines using the classic IBV strains (IBM41 and IB2) and a nephropathogenic strain (IBvar2)...
August 6, 2018: Poultry Science
Megan Cann, Athimalaipet V Ramanan, Andrew Crawford, Andrew D Dick, Sarah L N Clarke, Fatima Rashed, Catherine M Guly
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on the ocular outcomes in paediatric non-infectious uveitis since the introduction of the biologic agents. The purpose of this study was to outline the clinical characteristics of children with non-infectious uveitis and determine the visual outcomes and ocular complication rates in the modern era. METHODS: Children with non-infectious uveitis from January 2011 to December 2015 were identified. Data was collected at baseline, 1, 3, 5, and 10 years post diagnosis...
August 6, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Florence Rasquin, Nacima Kisma, Laure Van Bol
BACKGROUND: A 56-year-old Caucasian man presented with a 2-weeks history of decreased vision in the right eye. Vitritis, papillitis, cystoid macular oedema and inferior diffuse retinal infiltration were noticed. Extensive blood work-up, anterior chamber paracentesis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Goldmann-Witmer coefficient, tuberculin skin test (PPD-test), fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography CT scan (FDG-PET/CT), lymph node biopsy and pars plana vitrectomy were performed...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Serena Bergamo, Nicola di Meo, Giuseppe Stinco, Serena Bonin, Sara Trevisini, Giusto Trevisan
Dear Editor, Adamantiades-Behçet's disease (ABD) is an inflammatory disease classified as vasculitis, which was originally diagnosed in patients with aphthous stomatitis, genital ulcerations, and ocular manifestations. However, any organ or system may be involved, particularly the central and peripheral nervous systems, joints, as well as the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology of ABD is still not fully understood, but some evidence indicates that an autoimmune process could be triggered by an infectious or environmental agent specific for the geographic region (1)...
December 2017: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Genevieve Syn, Denise Anderson, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson
Recent interest has focussed on the influence of infectious disease organisms on the host epigenome. Toxoplasma gondii infection acquired congenitally or in early life is associated with severe ocular and brain developmental anomalies, while persistent asymptomatic infection is a proposed risk factor for neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases, and schizophrenia. Genome-wide analysis of the host methylome and transcriptome following T. gondii infection in a retinal cell line identified genes (132, 186 and 128 genes at 2, 6 and 24 h post-infection) concordant for methylation and expression, i...
July 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Yong Woo Ji, Si Yoon Park, Ji Won Jung, Seonghee Choi, Mutlaq Hamad Alotaibi, R Doyle Stulting, David G Hwang, Kyoung Yul Seo
PURPOSE: To report cases of necrotizing scleritis, a sight-threatening complication that can result from cosmetic conjunctivectomy procedures. DESIGN: A retrospective case series. METHOD: The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent eye-whitening conjunctivectomy with mitoycin C (MMC) treatment performed by one surgeon in South Korea and were referred to the authors' clinic between January 2011 and December 2015 were reviewed...
July 24, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Preethi S Ganapathy, Careen Y Lowder, Sruthi Arepalli, Kimberly Baynes, Manshi Li, James Bena, Sunil K Srivastava
PURPOSE: Non-infectious uveitis has been treated historically with corticosteroid therapy in varying doses and routes. Triesence® , a preservative-free sterile formulation of triamcinolone acetonide, has been used in a wide spectrum of ocular pathologies, but there have been few large studies validating its dosing or detailing long-term side-effects in uveitic disease. The primary aim of this study was to describe the relative duration of action and side-effects of two doses of preservative-free intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (PF-IVTA) in uveitis...
July 24, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
DeGaulle I Chigbu, Bisant A Labib
Human adenovirus (HAdV) is a ubiquitous virus that infects the mucosa of the eye. It is the most common cause of infectious conjunctivitis worldwide, affecting people of all ages and demographics. Pharyngoconjunctival fever outbreak is due to HAdV types 3, 4, and 7, whereas outbreaks of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis are usually caused by HAdV types 8, 19, 37, and 54. Primary cellular receptors, such as CAR, CD46, and sialic acid interact with fiber-knob protein to mediate adenoviral attachment to the host cell, whereas adenoviral penton base-integrin interaction mediates internalization of adenovirus...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Yu-Ting Hsiao, Po-Chiung Fang, Jiunn-Liang Chen, Shiuh-Liang Hsu, Tsai-Ling Chao, Hun-Ju Yu, Yu-Hsuan Lai, Yu-Ting Huang, Ming-Tse Kuo
PURPOSE: To elucidate the bioburden of a lens care system in patients with contact lens (CL)-related keratitis. METHODS: In this prospective case-control study, the CL storage case was used as the target of bioburden assessment. Participants were CL wearers with (n = 26) or without (n = 24) keratitis in southern Taiwan. The case fluid sample was consecutively collected and assessed using a dot hybridization assay (DHA) for bioburden assessment. The DHA was composed of 3 universal bacterial probes for detecting all bacteria, genus-specific probes for Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, and 1 probe for Acanthamoeba...
July 23, 2018: Cornea
Subha Nasir-Ahmad, Rachael Cordina, Gerald Liew, Peter McCluskey, David Celermajer
In recent years, there has been a rise in the number patients with CHD surviving into adulthood. Many have complications related to their CHD or its treatments, outside the heart, including ocular abnormalities. The objective of this review is to highlight the ocular abnormalities that occur in adults with CHD, either from their condition or related to the common drugs prescribed to manage it. In particular, we reviewed the effects of cyanosis, coarctation of the aorta, endocarditis, and the side effects of Sildenafil and Amiodarone...
August 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Ja E Claywell, Lea M Matschke, Kyle N Plunkett, Derek J Fisher
Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular Gram negative bacterial pathogens that undergo an essential, but poorly understood, biphasic developmental cycle transitioning between the infectious elementary body and replicative reticulate body. Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation has been increasingly recognized for its role in regulating bacterial physiology. Chlamydia encodes two Hank's-type kinases in addition to a type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C; CppA) and appear capable of global protein phosphorylation. While these findings substantiate the importance of protein phosphorylation in Chlamydia , the physiological impact of protein phosphorylation remains enigmatic...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Juan F Muñoz Gutiérrez, Kerry S Sondgeroth, Elizabeth S Williams, Donald L Montgomery, Terry E Creekmore, Myrna M Miller
We describe the clinicopathologic findings, relative prevalence, and pathogens associated with infectious keratoconjunctivitis in mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) in Wyoming. Seventeen cases with ocular lesions were identified among 1,036 mule deer postmortem submissions (1.6%) in an ~16 y period. Sixteen cases were observed in winter and most were in male (15 cases) and juvenile (13 cases) deer. Blindness was the most commonly reported clinical sign (10 cases). A herpesvirus was detected only in the 4 cases of bilateral necrotizing bulbar conjunctivitis...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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