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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088129/in-vitro-eye-irritation-testing-using-the-open-source-reconstructed-hemicornea-a-ring-trial
#1
Karsten R Mewes, Maria Engelke, Michaela Zorn-Kruppa, Melinda Bartok, Rashmi Tandon, Johanna M Brandner, Dirk Petersohn
Aim of the present ring trial was to prove whether two new methodological approaches for the in vitro classification of eye irritating chemicals can be reliably transferred from the developers' laboratories to other sites.Both test methods are based on the well-established open source reconstructed 3D hemicornea models. In the first approach, the initial depth of injury in the hemicornea model after chemical treatment is derived from the quantitative analysis of histological sections. In the second approach tissue viability, as a measure for corneal damage after chemical treatment, is analyzed separately for epithelium and stroma of the hemicornea model...
January 14, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088124/nipah-virus-transmission-of-a-zoonotic-paramyxovirus
#2
REVIEW
Bronwyn Anne Clayton
Nipah virus is a recently-recognised, zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease and high fatality rates in people. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India and Bangladesh, and a putative Nipah virus was also recently associated with human disease in the Philippines. Worryingly, human-to-human transmission is common in Bangladesh, where outbreaks occur with near-annual frequency. Onward human transmission of Nipah virus in Bangladesh is associated with close contact with clinically-unwell patients or their infectious secretions...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088123/antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-and-influenza-virus
#3
REVIEW
Hillary A Vanderven, Sinthujan Jegaskanda, Adam K Wheatley, Stephen J Kent
Antibodies are a key defence against influenza infection and disease, but neutralizing antibodies are often strain-specific and of limited utility against divergent or pandemic viruses. There is now considerable evidence that influenza-specific antibodies with Fc-mediated effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), can assist in the clearance of influenza infection in vitro and in animal models. Further, ADCC-mediating antibodies that recognize a broad array of influenza strains are common in humans, likely as a result of being regularly exposed to influenza infections...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088121/synthesis-of-ctab-intercalated-graphene-and-its-application-for-the-adsorption-of-ar265-and-ao7-dyes-from-water
#4
Mohammed Yusuf, Moonis Ali Khan, Marta Otero, E C Abdullah, Masaaki Hosomi, Akihiko Terada, Shohei Riya
Environmental applications of graphene (GN) are limited by the occurrence of aggregation. Herein, graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized, reduced to GN by ascorbic acid, and intercalated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). GN-CTAB was characterized by Boehm's titration, N2 adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. Then, GN-CTAB was used for the adsorptive removal of acid red 265 (AR265) and acid orange 7 (AO7) dyes from water both under batch and column operation...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088117/adsorption-of-phosphate-from-aqueous-solution-using-iron-zirconium-modified-activated-carbon-nanofiber-performance-and-mechanism
#5
Weiping Xiong, Jing Tong, Zhaohui Yang, Guangming Zeng, Yaoyu Zhou, Dongbo Wang, Peipei Song, Rui Xu, Chen Zhang, Min Cheng
Phosphate (P) removal is significant for the prevention of eutrophication in natural waters. In this paper, a novel adsorbent for the removal of P from aqueous solution was synthesized by loading zirconium oxide and iron oxide onto activated carbon nanofiber (ACF-ZrFe) simultaneously. The adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that P adsorption was highly pH dependent and the optimum pH was found to be 4...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088113/modulatory-effect-of-vanillic-acid-on-antioxidant-status-in-high-fat-diet-induced-changes-in-diabetic-hypertensive-rats
#6
Kolanji Vinothiya, Natarajan Ashokkumar
The worldwide incidence of diabetes has increased dramatically along with widespread lifestyle and dietary changes. Diets high in fat are strongly associated with the development of obesity and can induce insulin resistance in humans and animals. It is clear that obesity constitutes a risk factor for contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential action of vanillic acid on diabetes associated complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic hypertensive by high fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks and were treated with vanillic acid (50mg/kg bw) for last 8 weeks...
January 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088109/carbetocin-versus-oxytocin-for-prevention-of-post-partum-haemorrhage-at-caesarean-section-in-the-united-kingdom-an-economic-impact-analysis
#7
Helen A van der Nelson, Tim Draycott, Dimitrios Siassakos, Christopher W H Yau, Anthony J Hatswell
OBJECTIVE: To determine the economic impact of the introduction of carbetocin for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at caesarean section, compared to oxytocin. STUDY DESIGN: The model is a decision tree conducted from a UK National Health Service perspective. 1500 caesarean sections (both elective and emergency) were modelled over a 12 month period. Efficacy data was taken from a published Cochrane meta-analysis, and costs from NHS Reference costs, the British National Formulary and the NHS electronic Medicines Information Tool...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088094/organ-on-a-chip-for-assessing-environmental-toxicants
#8
REVIEW
Soohee Cho, Jeong-Yeol Yoon
Man-made xenobiotics, whose potential toxicological effects are not fully understood, are oversaturating the already-contaminated environment. Due to the rate of toxicant accumulation, unmanaged disposal, and unknown adverse effects to the environment and the human population, there is a crucial need to screen for environmental toxicants. Animal models and in vitro models are ineffective models in predicting in vivo responses due to inter-species difference and/or lack of physiologically-relevant 3D tissue environment...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088081/lead-pb-2-and-copper-cu-2-remediation-from-water-using-superparamagnetic-maghemite-%C3%AE-fe2o3-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-flame-spray-pyrolysis-fsp
#9
Shalini Rajput, Lok P Singh, Charles U Pittman, Dinesh Mohan
Superparamagnetic maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles of controllable morphology were successfully synthesized using a flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) technique. Their physico-chemical properties, size, morphology, and surface chemistries were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction patterns (SAED), SEM-EDX, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and pHZPC(6.3). Elemental contents before and after adsorption were identified using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and elemental mapping...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088080/a-computer-based-simulator-for-intravascular-photoacoustic-images
#10
Sun Zheng, Yuan Yuan, Han Duoduo
Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) is a newly developed catheter-based imaging technique for the diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis. A framework of simulating IVPA transversal images from a cross-sectional vessel model with given optical and acoustic parameters was presented. The light illumination and transportation in multi-layered wall and atherosclerotic plaque tissues were modeled through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The generation and transmission of photoacoustic (PA) waves in the acoustically homogeneous medium were modeled through the PA wave equation, which is solved explicitly with a finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm in polar coordinates...
January 6, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088077/rhoa-knockdown-by-cationic-amphiphilic-copolymer-sirhoa-polyplexes-enhances-axonal-regeneration-in-rat-spinal-cord-injury-model
#11
So-Jung Gwak, Christian Macks, Da Un Jeong, Mark Kindy, Michael Lynn, Ken Webb, Jeoung Soo Lee
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor and sensory function due to developmentally-related and injured-induced changes in the extrinsic microenvironment and intrinsic neuronal biochemistry that limit plasticity and axonal regeneration. Our long term goal is to develop cationic, amphiphilic copolymers (poly (lactide-co-glycolide)-g-polyethylenimine, PgP) for combinatorial delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) and drugs targeting these different barriers. In this study, we evaluated the ability of PgP to deliver siRNA targeting RhoA, a critical signaling pathway activated by multiple extracellular inhibitors of axonal regeneration...
January 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088071/discrete-quasi-linear-viscoelastic-damping-analysis-of-connective-tissues-and-the-biomechanics-of-stretching
#12
Behzad Babaei, Aaron J Velasquez-Mao, Stavros Thomopoulos, Elliot L Elson, Steven D Abramowitch, Guy M Genin
The time- and frequency-dependent properties of connective tissue define their physiological function, but are notoriously difficult to characterize. Well-established tools such as linear viscoelasticity and the Fung quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model impose forms on responses that can mask true tissue behavior. Here, we applied a more general discrete quasi-linear viscoelastic (DQLV) model to identify the static and dynamic time- and frequency-dependent behavior of rabbit medial collateral ligaments. Unlike the Fung QLV approach, the DQLV approach revealed that energy dissipation is elevated at a loading period of ∼10s...
December 22, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088067/tuning-neural-circuits-by-turning-the-interneuron-knob
#13
REVIEW
Nathalie Dehorter, Nicolás Marichal, Oscar Marín, Benedikt Berninger
Interneurons play a critical role in sculpting neuronal circuit activity and their dysfunction can result in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. To temporally structure and balance neuronal activity in the adult brain interneurons display a remarkable degree of subclass-specific plasticity, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms have recently begun to be elucidated. Grafting new interneurons to pre-existing neuronal networks allows for amelioration of circuit dysfunction in rodent models of neurological disease and can reopen critical windows for circuit plasticity...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088059/infrared-analysis-of-clay-bricks-incorporated-with-spent-shea-waste-from-the-shea-butter-industry
#14
A N Adazabra, G Viruthagiri, N Shanmugam
The peculiar challenge of effective disposing abundant spent shea waste and the excellent compositional variation tolerance of clay material offered an impetus to examine the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay material as an eco-friendly disposal route in making clay bricks. For this purpose, the chemical constituent, mineralogical compositions and thermal behavior of both clay material and spent shea waste were initially characterized from which modelled brick specimens incorporating 5-20 wt% of the waste into the clay material were prepared...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088056/the-evolving-relationship-between-premorbid-intelligence-and-serious-depression-across-the-lifespan-a-longitudinal-study-of-43-540-swedish-men
#15
Emil Lager, Bo Melin, Tomas Hemmingsson, Alma Sörberg Wallin
BACKGROUND: An association between higher intelligence and lower probability of serious depression has previously been established. Yet, to our knowledge, no large prospective study has examined the relationship across the lifespan. METHODS: A cohort of 49,321 Swedish men was followed from conscription in 1969-70 (age 18-20) through to 2008. Odds ratios (OR) for first time hospitalisation for depression (FTHD) were calculated in relation to intelligence for distinct time periods across the lifespan, while controlling for established risk factors for depression...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088053/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-gain-short-screener-for-predicting-substance-use-disorders-in-a-large-national-sample-of-emerging-adults
#16
Douglas C Smith, Kyle M Bennett, Michael L Dennis, Rodney R Funk
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emerging Adults (ages 18-25) have the highest prevalence of substance use disorders and rarely receive treatment from the specialty care system. Thus, it is important to have screening instruments specifically developed for emerging adults for use in Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) models. Optimal cutoffs for the widely-used GAIN Short-Screener's (GAIN-SS) Substance Disorder Screener (SDScrY) are not established specifically for emerging adults...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088038/evidence-of-functional-duplicity-of-nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#17
Parisa Farzanehfar, Shi Sheng Lu, Anupa Dey, Dharshani Musiienko, Hamzah Baagil, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088033/a-bayesian-spatial-random-parameters-tobit-model-for-analyzing-crash-rates-on-roadway-segments
#18
Qiang Zeng, Huiying Wen, Helai Huang, Mohamed Abdel-Aty
This study develops a Bayesian spatial random parameters Tobit model to analyze crash rates on road segments, in which both spatial correlation between adjacent sites and unobserved heterogeneity across observations are accounted for. The crash-rate data for a three-year period on road segments within a road network in Florida, are collected to compare the performance of the proposed model with that of a (fixed parameters) Tobit model and a spatial (fixed parameters) Tobit model in the Bayesian context. Significant spatial effect is found in both spatial models and the results of Deviance Information Criteria (DIC) show that the inclusion of spatial correlation in the Tobit regression considerably improves model fit, which indicates the reasonableness of considering cross-segment spatial correlation...
January 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088023/a-novel-model-to-predict-gas-phase-hydroxyl-radical-oxidation-kinetics-of-polychlorinated-compounds
#19
Shuang Luo, Zongsu Wei, Richard Spinney, Zhihui Yang, Liyuan Chai, Ruiyang Xiao
In this study, a novel model based on aromatic meta-substituent grouping was presented to predict the second-order rate constants (k) for OH oxidation of PCBs in gas-phase. Since the oxidation kinetics are dependent on the chlorination degree and position, we hypothesized that it may be more accurate for k value prediction if we group PCB congeners based on substitution positions (i.e., ortho (o), meta (m), and para (p)). To test this hypothesis, we examined the correlation of polarizability (α), a quantum chemical based descriptor for k values, with an empirical Hammett constant (σ(+)) on each substitution position...
January 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088017/co-delivery-of-ibuprofen-and-gentamicin-from-nanoporous-anodic-titanium-dioxide-layers
#20
Anna Pawlik, Magdalena Jarosz, Karolina Syrek, Grzegorz D Sulka
Although single-drug therapy may prove insufficient in treating bacterial infections or inflammation after orthopaedic surgeries, complex therapy (using both an antibiotic and an anti-inflammatory drug) is thought to address the problem. Among drug delivery systems (DDSs) with prolonged drug release profiles, nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (ATO) layers on Ti foil are very promising. In the discussed research, ATO samples were synthesized via a three-step anodization process in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte with fluoride ions...
January 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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