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Homa Darmani, Khitam H Tawalbeh, Ahmad S Al-Hiyasat, Mohammad-Ali Al-Akhras
This study compared the outcome of photosensitization on the viability of four different cariogens in planktonic form as well as biofilms in human dentine. Photodynamic therapy was carried out with a gallium aluminium arsenide laser (670 nm wavelength) using Toluidine blue O (TBO) as the photosensitizer. Cariogenic bacteria ( Streptococcus mutans , Lactobacillus casei , Streptococcus salivarius and Actinomyces viscosus ) were exposed to TBO and then to the laser for 1 minute in planktonic suspension. Then, tooth slices previously incubated for 24 hours with broth cultures of broth culture of the four cariogenic organisms were exposed to antimicrobial photosensitization...
2018: Polish Journal of Microbiology
Rodrigo A Giacaman, Pascale Jobet-Vila, Cecilia Muñoz-Sandoval
OBJECTIVES: Limited evidence suggests a putative inhibitory effect of dietary proteins on demineralization during the carious process. The aim was to explore a potential anticaries activity of the egg protein ovalbumin on a relevant in vitro approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biofilms of Streptococcus mutans UA159 were formed on saliva-coated enamel and dentin bovine slabs. Biofilms were challenged with 10% sucrose followed by either a 200 μg/mL solution of ovalbumin or 1:10, 1:100, and 1:1000 (v/v) serial dilutions of that ovalbumin solution, for the entire length of the experiment...
December 12, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Luhana Santos Gonzales Garcia, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, Juliano Pelim Pessan, Matheus Dos Passos Silva, Francisco Nunes Souza Neto, Luiz Fernando Gorup, Emerson Rodrigues de Camargo, Marcelle Danelon
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a fluoride toothpaste containing nano-sized sodium hexametaphosphate (HMPnano) on enamel demineralization on the biochemical composition and insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) in biofilm formed in situ. METHODS: This crossover double-blind study consisted of four phases (7 days each), in which 12 volunteers wore intraoral appliances containing four enamel bovine blocks. The cariogenic challenge was performed using 30% sucrose solution (6×/day)...
December 11, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Mia J Sales, William G Herbert, Yuting Du, Amitha S Sandur, Naaman M Stanley, Paul A Jensen
The bacterium Streptococcus sobrinus causes tooth decay in humans. We present complete circularized genome sequences for four strains of S. sobrinus, type strain SL1, strain NIDR 6715-7 and the related NIDR 6715-15, and strain NCTC 10919. The finished genomes will enable genomic comparisons between S. sobrinus and other cariogenic microbes.
July 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Yasuhiro Nakanishi, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Nozomu Obana, Masanori Toyofuku, Nobuhiko Nomura, Akihiro Kaneko
Bacterial interspecies interactions in the oral cavity influence the structural development of cariogenic biofilms and dental caries. Visualization of the biofilm architecture and bacterial localization within biofilms is essential for understanding bacterial interactions. We herein demonstrated that the spatial localization of Streptococcus mutans within dual-species biofilms was altered in a manner that depended on the partner. Furthermore, we found that these biofilms influenced the survival of S. mutans against disinfectants...
December 8, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Gaëlle Simon, Christopher Bérubé, Normand Voyer, Daniel Grenier
Microorganisms embedded in a biofilm are significantly more resistant to antimicrobial agents and the defences of the human immune system, than their planktonic counterpart. Consequently, compounds that can inhibit biofilm formation are of great interest for novel therapeutics. In this study, a screening approach was used to identify novel cyclic dipeptides that have anti-biofilm activity against oral pathogens. Five new active compounds were identified that prevent biofilm formation by the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans and the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans...
November 29, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Amit Arora, Caroline M Bowman, Stephanie J P Chow, Jack Thepsourinthone, Sameer Bhole, Narendar Manohar
BACKGROUND: Children's preferences for cariogenic foods and/or drinks has been proven to be associated with exposure to advertisements. This study aimed to assess and compare the proportion of cariogenic food and /or drink advertisements aired on three metropolitan Sydney commercial television channels at different broadcast times during school term and school holidays. METHODS: Three Sydney free-to-air television channels (Channels Seven, Nine, and Ten) were recorded between June 2016 and January 2017...
December 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Anna Edlund, Youngik Yang, Shibu Yooseph, Xuesong He, Wenyuan Shi, Jeffrey S McLean
BACKGROUND: Dental plaque is composed of hundreds of bacterial taxonomic units and represents one of the most diverse and stable microbial ecosystems associated with the human body. Taxonomic composition and functional capacity of mature plaque is gradually shaped during several stages of community assembly via processes such as co-aggregation, competition for space and resources, and by bacterially produced reactive agents. Knowledge on the dynamics of assembly within complex communities is very limited and derives mainly from studies composed of a limited number of bacterial species...
December 6, 2018: Microbiome
Xianju Xie, Lin Wang, Dan Xing, Manlin Qi, Xiaodong Li, Jirun Sun, Mary Anne S Melo, Michael D Weir, Thomas W Oates, Yuxing Bai, Hockin H K Xu
The objectives were to develop a novel rechargeable cement containing amorphous calcium-phosphate nanoparticles (nanoACP) to suppress tooth decay. Five cements were made with: (1) 60% glass particles (experimental control); (2) 40% glass+20% nanoACP; (3) 30% glass+30% nanoACP; (4) 20% glass+40% nanoACP; (5) 10% glass+50% nanoACP. Groups 1-4 had enamel bond strengths similar to Transbond XT (3M) and Vitremer (3M) (p>0.1). The nanoACP cement had calcium and phosphate ion release which increased with increasing nanoACP fillers...
December 1, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
Yasaman Delaviz, Timothy W Liu, Ashley R Deonarain, Yoav Finer, Babak Shokati, J Paul Santerre
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial oligomers synthesized from ciprofloxacin (CF) and metronidazole (MN) were investigated for their potential use in dental adhesives. METHODS: Susceptibility of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans UA159 to CF, MN, and CF/MN combination was evaluated. Hydrolytic stability and drug release from the oligomers was studied in buffer and simulated human salivary esterase conditions. Cytotoxicity of films with 15wt% drug oligomers co-polymerized with commercial monomers were assessed using human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs)...
November 29, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
F J R Alexandrino, E M Bezerra, R F Da Costa, L R L Cavalcante, F A M Sales, T S Francisco, L K A Rodrigues, D H Almeida de Brito, N M P S Ricardo, S N Costa, P de Lima-Neto, I L Barroso-Neto, E W S Caetano, V N Freire
Rose Bengal@α-cyclodextrin (RB@α-CD) microparticles (µPs) were prepared and the RB inclusion in α-CD was experimentally demonstrated through infrared, UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The RB inclusion in α-CD was theoretically investigated using classical molecular mechanics calculations, the simulation results showing that RB can be included in both the narrow and wide apertures of the α-cyclodextrin ring with configurations exhibiting average binding energies of about 27 kcal mol-1 ...
November 20, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Pei-Pei Lin, You-Miin Hsieh, Cheng-Chih Tsai
PURPOSE: Consumption of refined foods and beverages high in sugar make the teeth susceptible to the formation of biofilm and may lead to dental caries. The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of selected probiotics to inhibit growth and biofilm formation by the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Strains of latic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 120) from the Bioresources Collection and Research Center (BCRC), saliva of healthy adults and infant stool were screened...
2018: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
Neslihan Özveren, Şerife Özalp
PURPOSE: In this study, the protective effects of restorative materials with fluoride content, resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC), giomer, and glass carbomer against artificial initial caries lesions in a simulated highly cariogenic oral environment were evaluated. Considering the reported recharging abilities of these restorative materials, fluoridated toothpaste was applied to some groups, in which the anti-demineralising effect was also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two enamel blocks were produced from each of 60 sound permanent molars...
2018: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
Megha Gupta
BACKGROUND: Dental caries has continued to be the major oral disease in the past, as well as the present scenario. Cariogenic sugars in the presence of specific bacteria Streptococcus mutans over a period have been attributed as the major etiologic agent for dental caries. The association between sugar consumption and dental caries has been well documented. AIM: Hence, the dental profession shares an interest in the search for safe, palatable sugar substitutes. METHODS: Therefore, the use of a suitable sugar substitute can help in combating dental caries...
October 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Endang W Bachtiar, Boy M Bachtiar
Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the synergistic relationship between Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans in children with early childhood caries (ECC) experience. Methods: Dental plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken from 30 subjects aged 3-5 years old, half with (n=15, dmft > 4) and half without (n=15) ECC. The abundance of C. albicans and S. mutans and relative to total bacteria load were quantify by real-time PCR (qPCR). This method was also employed to investigate the mRNA expression of glycosyltransferase ( gtfB ) gene in dental plaque...
2018: F1000Research
Shigeki Uchinuma, Yasushi Shimada, Khairul Matin, Keiichi Hosaka, Masahiro Yoshiyama, Yasunori Sumi, Junji Tagami
The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of ultraviolet (UV) light at 265-nm (UVC) and 310-nm (UVB) wavelengths from a newly developed UV light-emitting diode (LED) device against cariogenic bacteria in vitro. Suspensions of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sobrinus were directly irradiated by UVB or UVC for 2.5 min or 5 min. Numbers of colonies were counted and calculated as colony forming units (CFU) per milliliter. Fluorescence microscopy (FM) and optical density measurements at 490 nm (OD490 ) were also taken after irradiation...
November 17, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Aline A Sampaio, Samilly E Souza, Antônio P Ricomini-Filho, Altair A Del Bel Cury, Yuri W Cavalcanti, Jaime A Cury
Streptococcus mutans are considered the most cariogenic bacteria, but it has been suggested that Candida albicans could increase their cariogenicity. However, the effect of this dual-species microorganisms' combination on dentine caries has not been experimentally evaluated. Biofilms of C. albicans, S. mutans and C. albicans + S. mutans (n = 12/biofilm) were grown in ultra-filtered tryptone yeast extract broth culture medium for 96 h on root dentine slabs of known surface hardness and exposed 8 times per day for 3 min to 10% sucrose...
November 16, 2018: Caries Research
Michael Foley, Harry F Akers
Dental caries generates significant health, financial and social costs to individuals and communities, but risk factors are not spread randomly and evenly throughout populations. People from lower socioeconomic status (SES) and disadvantaged groups suffer a disproportionately greater disease burden. Clinicians and public health experts view this problem through a different lens. Dentists at the clinical coalface consider individual risk factors and behaviours, for example sugar consumption, cariogenic bacteria and poor oral hygiene, as major causes of dental caries...
November 16, 2018: Australian Dental Journal
Maria Rita G Carvalho, Luis Pezo-Lanfranco, Sabine Eggers
Women from ancient societies have shown a higher prevalence of dental caries in comparison with men. Recent research has shown that the relationship between increased oestrogen production during pregnancy and decreased salivary flow is a possible cause for the higher levels of caries in women, which is in contrast to the traditional view of sexual division of labour resulting in unequal access to cariogenic food. In order to test these two hypotheses, individuals exhumed from 12 South American archaeological sites were examined for markers of oral health (caries, ante mortem tooth loss, deep caries, and enamel hypoplasia) and compared in terms of fertility (Crude Birth Rate) and subsistence systems...
November 16, 2018: European Journal of Oral Sciences
Andrea Ardizzoni, Eva Pericolini, Simona Paulone, Carlotta Francesca Orsi, Anna Castagnoli, Ilaria Oliva, Elena Strozzi, Elisabetta Blasi
Oral microbiota consists of hundreds of different species of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and archaea, important for oral health. Oral mycoses, mostly affecting mucosae, are mainly caused by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. They become relevant in denture-wearers elderly people, in diabetic patients, and in immunocompromised individuals. Differently, bacteria are responsible for other pathologies, such as dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, which affect even immune-competent individuals. An appropriate oral hygiene can avoid (or at least ameliorate) such pathologies: the regular and correct use of toothbrush, toothpaste and mouthwash helps prevent oral infections...
2018: PloS One
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