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Carla P Lozano, Natalia Díaz-Garrido, Jens Kreth, Rodrigo A Giacaman
Streptococcus mutans synthesizes 3 glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) associated with cariogenic biofilms, while commensal Streptococcus sanguinis produces only one; gtfP and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by SpxB. The aim was to test the hypothesis that under a sucrose-induced cariogenic challenge, the expression of competition-related genes is differentially regulated depending on whether S. sanguinis or S. mutans primarily colonize enamel. Dual-species biofilms of S. sanguinis and S. mutans were formed under different colonization sequences on enamel slabs and exposed to 10% sucrose for 5 min, 3×/day for 5 days...
August 14, 2018: Caries Research
Fatemeh Ostadhossein, Santosh K Misra, Indu Tripathi, Valeriya Kravchuk, Gururaja Vulugundam, Denae LoBato, Laura E Selmic, Dipanjan Pan
The removal of tenacious dental plaque is of paramount importance; however, early diagnosis can be a challenging task in dental clinics due to the limitations of current approaches, specifically X-ray-based techniques. We have approached this problem by integrating antibacterial properties and X-ray contrast enhancement in a single probe specific to colonies of Streptococcus mutans as the most predominant and carious oral bacteria. We report the synthesis of an inherently therapeutic polymeric silane conjugated hafnium oxide nanoparticles (Hf PS NPs)...
July 30, 2018: Biomaterials
Yan Zhou, Emma Millhouse, Tracy Shaw, David F Lappin, Ranjith Rajendran, Jeremy Bagg, Huancai Lin, Gordon Ramage
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate strain dependent differences of the cariogenic biofilm forming Streptococcus mutans within both simple and complex communities. Methods: A mono-species containing representative S. mutans clinical isolates (caries and non-caries), and a multispecies in vitro caries biofilm model containing Lactobacillus casei , Veillonella dispar , Fusobacterium nucleatum and Actinomyces naeslundii , and either of two representative S. mutans clinical isolates (caries and non-caries), was developed as a comparison model...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hamzah Abdulrahman Salman, Sankarasetty Venkatesh, Ramasamy Senthilkumar, B S Gnanesh Kumar, Aamer Mousa Ali
BACKGROUND: Ruta graveolens is one of the most used phytomedicines. To date, there is no report of determining the bioactivity of R. graveolens against cariogenic causing bacteria ( Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus ). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activity and metabolite profile of R. graveolens against S. mutans and S. sobrinus . MATERIALS AND METHODS: R. graveolens plant material was collected and processed in the month of February...
July 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Luanderson Oliveira Silva, Cácia Signori, Aline Carvalho Peixoto, Maximiliano Sérgio Cenci, André Luis Faria-E-Silva
This study evaluated the effectiveness of resin infiltration or enamel microabrasion for restoring color changes caused by incipient carious lesions as well as the color stability achieved by these treatments. Enamel specimens were subjected to cariogenic challenge to produce white spot lesions (WSLs) using a microcosm biofilm model. These lesions were treated with resin infiltration or enamel microabrasion (n = 8), and color changes were measured with a spectrophotometer at baseline and after the treatments...
2018: International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry
D T Yucesoy, H Fong, C Gresswell, S Saadat, W O Chung, S Dogan, M Sarikaya
The utilization of rat models in cariology research has made substantial contributions to decipher mechanisms of caries formation and to develop preventive treatments. The existing rat models still have potential for improvement toward establishing a more accurate standard caries protocol to utilize in testing and/or developing new dental technologies. The current caries-scoring methods rely on optical microscopy-based techniques, which necessitates formation of highly advanced lesions. Moreover, models that facilitate the implementation of cariogenic bacteria by shifting the balance of oral flora through desalivation and/or antibiotic treatment create a nonnatural environment...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Iosif Sifakakis, William Papaioannou, Aikaterini Papadimitriou, Dimitrios Kloukos, Spyridon N Papageorgiou, Theodore Eliades
BACKGROUND: Fixed orthodontic appliances might be associated with intraoral adverse effects on enamel, due to plaque accumulation and their colonization by oral microbes. At the same time, the demand for esthetic alternatives to orthodontic treatment, like thermoplastic aligners, is growing. However, thermoplastic aligners may behave differently intraorally than fixed appliances in terms of bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. Therefore, the aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess the salivary prevalence of the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus sanguinis among adolescents treated orthodontically with thermoplastic aligners or fixed appliances...
August 1, 2018: Progress in Orthodontics
L Paglia
Tooth structure anomalies affect the deciduous or permanent dentition with varying degrees of severity, depending on the odontogenesis phase in which the disturbance factor occurs. Some forms are clearly increasing and becoming of common clinical observation, as is the case of MIH (Molar Incisor Hypomineralization) whose prevalence ranges from 3 to 25%. However, often stucture anomalies are still under-diagnosed. Early diagnosis should be within the reach of all clinicians (both dentist and non-dentist), and is essential for improving the treatment outcome and quality of life of affected patients...
September 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Khine W Zan, Keiki Nakamura, Hidenori Hamba, Alireza Sadr, Toru Nikaido, Junji Tagami
Using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), this study assessed the inhibitory effect of three different types of restorations on root-caries formation under a cariogenic challenge. Bovine-root dentin blocks with a cylindrical cavity were divided into three restoration groups: a fluoride-free self-etch adhesive and a resin composite (SE-ES); a self-etch adhesive and a resin composite with multi-ion release (FL-BF); and a glass ionomer cement (Fuji-VII). After the restorative procedures, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1 d, then subjected to a demineralization solution for 4 d and a remineralization solution for 28 d...
July 28, 2018: European Journal of Oral Sciences
J Xiao, A Grier, R C Faustoferri, S Alzoubi, A L Gill, C Feng, Y Liu, R G Quivey, D T Kopycka-Kedzierawski, H Koo, S R Gill
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal organism frequently detected in the oral cavity of children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). Previous studies suggested the cariogenic potential of C. albicans, in vitro and in vivo, and further demonstrated its synergistic interactions with Streptococcus mutans. In combination, the 2 organisms are associated with higher caries severity in a rodent model. However, it remains unknown whether C. albicans influences the composition and diversity of the entire oral bacterial community to promote S-ECC onset...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Jingjing Xu, Hang Yang, Yongli Bi, Wuyou Li, Hongping Wei, Yuhong Li
Dental caries is a common disease caused by oral bacteria. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are the primary cariogenic microbes that often survive as biofilms on teeth. In this study, we evaluated the activity of ClyR, a well-known chimeric lysin with extended streptococcal host range, against common Gram-positive oral microbes and its anticaries efficacy in rat models. ClyR demonstrated high lytic activity against S. mutans MT8148 and S. sobrinus ATCC6715, with minor activity against Streptococcus sanguinis , Streptococcus oralis , and Streptococcus salivarius , which are considered as harmless commensal oral bacteria...
July 20, 2018: Viruses
Sérgio Luiz Pinheiro, Bruna Segatti, Daniel Sartorelli Pucca, Priscila Tessaro Dutra
The study aims to assess the utility of dental acid etchant containing 37% phosphoric acid and methylene blue dye (DAE) as a sensitizing agent for photodynamic therapy (PDT) to reduce Streptococci mutans in dentinal caries. Forty-five permanent third molars were sectioned and the coronal dentin exposed. A cariogenic challenge was performed using brain-heart infusion (BHI) supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract, 1% glucose, 1% sucrose, and S. mutans ATCC 25175 standardized to 0.5 McFarland turbidity. Specimens were incubated in anaerobic jars at 37 °C for 15 days...
July 19, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Antonella Barone, Mario Giannoni, Eleonora Ortu, Annalisa Monaco, Davide Pietropaoli
PURPOSE: To investigate the short- and long-term effects of different combinations of dietary instructions on cariogenic food intake and salivary cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans [SM] and Lactobacillus [LB]). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomised 2-arm parallel study, 75 6-year-old subjects were assigned to repeated (group A; 19M/19F) or isolated (group B; 17M/20F) verbal and/or written dietary advice (VWDA), with foods classified by cariogenic potential...
July 19, 2018: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
Maria Manconi, Giacomo Petretto, Guy D'hallewin, Elvira Escribano, Egle Milia, Roberto Pinna, Alessandra Palmieri, Mohammad Firoznezhad, Josè Esteban Peris, Iris Usach, Anna Maria Fadda, Carla Caddeo, Maria Letizia Manca
The aim of the work was to extract, characterize, and formulate Thymus capitatus (Tymbra capitata) essential oil in phospholipid vesicles: liposomes, glycerosomes and Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles (PEVs). The steam-distilled essential oil was mainly composed of carvacrol. The oil was mixed with lecithin and water to produce liposomes, or different ratios of water/glycerol or water/propylene glycol (PG) to produce glycerosomes and PG-PEVs, respectively. Cryo-TEM showed the formation of unilamellar, spherical vesicles, and light scattering disclosed that their size increased in the presence of glycerol or PG, which improved long-term stability...
July 11, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Isabel Cristina Celerino de Moraes Porto, Dayse Chaves Cardoso de Almeida, Gabriela Vasconcelos Calheiros de Oliveira Costa, Tayná Stéphanie Sampaio Donato, Letícia Moreira Nunes, Ticiano Gomes do Nascimento, José Marcos Dos Santos Oliveira, Carolina Batista da Silva, Natanael Barbosa Dos Santos, Maria Luísa de Alencar E Silva Leite, Irinaldo Diniz Basílio-Júnior, Camila Braga Dornelas, Pierre Barnabé Escodro, Eduardo Jorge da Silva Fonseca, Regianne Umeko Kamiya
BACKGROUND: Propolis is a natural substance produced by bees and is known to have antimicrobial activity. Our aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of micellar nanocomposites loaded with an ethyl acetate extract of Brazilian red propolis as a cavity cleaning agent and its influence on the color and microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of the dentin/resin interface. METHODS: An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) assay was used to determine the flavonoids and isoflavones present in an ethyl acetate extract of Brazilian red propolis (EARP) and micellar nanocomposites loaded with EARP (MNRP)...
July 18, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Thamsanqa Ngabaza, Sharon Moeno, Mrudula Patel
OBJECTIVES: Crude extracts of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA), has shown to have anticariogenic property. However the compound responsible for this activity has not been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-acidogenic and anti-biofilm activity of a flavone 5,6,8-Trihydroxy-7-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one isolated from D. viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA) in cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans. METHODS: The crude extract from DVA leaves was fractionated into six fractions (F1-F6) using chromatography...
July 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Arunagiri Kamala, Sushil Kumar Middha, Chandrakant S Karigar
The nutgrass, Cyperus rotundus L. (Family: Cyperaceae), is a colonial, perennial herb considered to have originated in India 2000 years ago and widely used in Ayurveda to treat several ailments. In addition to its prehistoric uses, it is used in several systems of medicine for treating variety of diseases. The synergistic actions of the Cyperus ' compounds have added advantage over that of a single constituent. In the past decade, numerous studies proved analgesic, anti-allergic, anti-arthritic, anti-candida, anti-cariogenic, anti-convulsant, anti-diarrheal, anti-emetic, anti-helminthic, anti-histamine, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, anti-obesity, antioxidant, anti-platelet, anti-pyretic, anti-ulcer, anti-viral, cardioprotective, cytoprotective, cytotoxic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, ovicidal, and larvicidal, wound healing and inhibition of brain Na+ K+ ATPase activities of C...
July 2018: 3 Biotech
Li Zhao, Fang Wang, Qun Lu, Rui Liu, Jing Tian, Yanchun Huang
As one of receptors of the acquired membrane, human salivary α‑amylase (HSA) plays an important role in the formation of caries. In vitro conditions, sorghum procyanidins (SPC) tetramer has a better inhibitory effect on the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite than SPC-dimer and SPC-trimer. This study investigated the interaction mechanism between HSA and SPC-tetramer using spectroscopic techniques including fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, and circular dichroism (CD). Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of HSA by SPC-tetramer was a static quenching process, and that the SPC-tetramer was bound with HSA at the ratio of 1:1 in SPC-tetramer-protein complex...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Javaregowda P Beena, Punyatoya Sahoo, Sapna Konde, N Sunil Raj, Narayana C Kumar, Manisha Agarwal
Aim: The aim of the study was to test the antibacterial activity of manuka honey and compare its efficacy with another commercially available honey (Dabur honey) on the cariogenic bacteria on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and methods: An in vitro study was carried out on 40 agar specimens; the samples were divided into two groups of 20 samples consisting of S. mutans and Lactobacil-lus respectively. The 20 samples in each group were further subdivided into four groups of five each, which were tested with 25% manuka honey, 100% manuka honey, 25% Dabur honey, and 100% Dabur honey for both Lactobacillus and S...
March 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Mengchen Wang, Man Qin
OBJECTIVE: Dental caries is related to cariogenic bacteria, salivary components, oral hygiene, and host susceptibility. Lactoferrin is an important antimicrobial glycoprotein in saliva; however, the role of the LTF gene in caries susceptibility is unclear. We investigated the association between LTF polymorphisms and the severity of caries. DESIGN: Our study included 910 healthy paediatric subjects (aged 24-48 months) categorised into three groups: 403 with no caries or white-spot lesions; 230 with moderate caries (8 ≤ dmft ≤ 12); and 277 with severe caries (13 ≤ dmft ≤ 20)...
July 10, 2018: Oral Diseases
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