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effector evolution

Tiehui Wang, Yehfang Hu, Eakapol Wangkahart, Fuguo Liu, Alex Wang, Eman Zahran, Kevin R Maisey, Min Liu, Qiaoqing Xu, Mónica Imarai, Christopher J Secombes
Mammalian interleukin (IL)-2 is a cytokine centrally involved in the differentiation and survival of CD4+ T helper subsets and CD4+ T regulatory cells and in activation of cytotoxic effector lymphocytes. In bony fish, IL2 orthologs have been identified with an additional divergent IL2-Like gene on the same locus present in several fish species. We report here two divergent IL2 paralogs, IL2A and IL2B , in salmonids that originated from the whole genome duplication event in this fish lineage. The salmonid IL2 paralogs differ not only in sequence but also in exon sizes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Arry Morel, Jérémy Guinard, Fabien Lonjon, Lakshmi Sujeeun, Patrick Barberis, Stéphane Genin, Fabienne Vailleau, Marie-Christine Daunay, Jacques Dintinger, Stéphane Poussier, Nemo Peeters, Emmanuel Wicker
To deploy durable plant resistance, we must understand its underlying molecular mechanisms. The Type III effectors (T3Es) and their recognition play a central role in the interaction between bacterial pathogens and crops. We demonstrate that the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) T3E ripAX2 triggers specific resistance in eggplant AG91-25, which carries the major resistance locus EBWR9. The eggplant accession AG91-25 is resistant to the wild type R. pseudosolanacearum strain GMI1000, while a ripAX2 defective mutant of this strain can cause wilt...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Attila Kereszt, Peter Mergaert, Jesús Montiel, Gabriella Endre, Éva Kondorosi
Ribosomally synthesized peptides have wide ranges of functions in plants being, for example, signal molecules, transporters, alkaloids, or antimicrobial agents. Legumes are an unprecedented rich source of peptides, which are used to control the symbiosis of these plants with the nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria. Here, we discuss the function and the evolution of these peptides playing an important role in the formation or functioning of the symbiotic organs, the root nodules. We distinguish peptides that can be either cell-autonomous or secreted short-range or long-range signals, carrying messages in or between plant cells or that can act as effectors interacting with the symbiotic bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hannah J Gould, Yu-Chang Bryan Wu
It is now generally recognised that bone marrow is the survival niche for antigen-specific plasma cells with long-lived immunological memory. These cells release antibodies into the circulation, needed to prime effector cells in the secondary immune response. These antibodies participate in the surveillance for antigen and afford immune defence against pathogens and toxins previously encountered in the primary immune response. IgE antibodies function together with their effector cells, mast cells, to exert "immediate hypersensitivity" in mucosal tissues at the front line of immune defence...
July 20, 2018: International Immunology
Hao-Xun Chang, Zachary A Noel, Hyunkyu Sang, Martin I Chilvers
Fungal secretory proteins that interact with host plants are regarded as effectors. Because fungal effectors rarely contain conserved sequence features, identification and annotation of fungal effectors from predicted secretory proteins are difficult using outward comparison methods such as BLAST or hidden Markov model. In desire of more sequence features to prioritize research interests of fungal secretory proteins, this study developed a pipeline to identify tandem repeat (TR) domain within putative secretory proteins and tested a hypothesis that at least one type of TR domain in non-orthologous secretory proteins has emerged from convergent evolution for plant pathogenicity...
July 16, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Chayanika Chaliha, Michael D Rugen, Robert A Field, Eeshan Kalita
Plants and microbes utilize glycoconjugates as structural entities, energy reserves for cellular processes, and components of cellular recognition or binding events. The structural heterogeneity of carbohydrates in such systems is a result of the ability of the carbohydrate biosynthetic enzymes to reorient sugar monomers in a variety of forms, generating highly complex, linear, branched, or hierarchical structures. During the interaction between plants and their microbial pathogens, the microbial cell surface glycans, cell wall derived glycans, and glycoproteins stimulate the signaling cascades of plant immune responses, through a series of specific or broad spectrum recognition events...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Peter Valent, Hans-Peter Horny, Michel Arock
Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a hematopoietic neoplasm defined by the chromosome translocation t(9;22) and the related oncogene, BCR-ABL1. In most patients, leukaemic cells can be kept under control using BCR-ABL1-targeting drugs. However, many patients relapse which remains a clinical challenge. In particular, patients with advanced (accelerated or blast phase) CML have a poor prognosis. So far, little is known about molecular and cellular interactions and features that contribute to disease progression and drug resistance in CML...
July 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Urai Chaisri, Wanpen Chaicumpa
This narrative review article summarizes past and current technologies for generating antibodies for passive immunization/immunotherapy. Contemporary DNA and protein technologies have facilitated the development of engineered therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in a variety of formats according to the required effector functions. Chimeric, humanized, and human monoclonal antibodies to antigenic/epitopic myriads with less immunogenicity than animal-derived antibodies in human recipients can be produced in vitro ...
2018: BioMed Research International
François Osiurak, Mathieu Lesourd, Ludovic Delporte, Yves Rossetti
For most people, human tool use is inextricably entwined with manual dexterity. This folk belief is widespread among scientists too. In this line, human tool use is based on motor programs about how the hand interacts with tools, implying that the use of end-effectors other than the hand should generate motor control difficulties (e.g., inability to reproduce a specific tool-use action over time), because these so-called programs characterize the spatiotemporal parameters of hand movements, but not of other end-effectors...
July 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Marina Franceschetti, Abbas Maqbool, Hiromasa Saitoh, Ryohei Terauchi, Sophien Kamoun, Mark J Banfield
Accelerated adaptive evolution is a hallmark of plant-pathogen interactions. Plant intracellular immune receptors (NLRs) often occur as allelic series with differential pathogen specificities. The determinants of this specificity remain largely unknown. Here, we unravelled the biophysical and structural basis of expanded specificity in the allelic rice NLR Pik, which responds to the effector AVR-Pik from the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Rice plants expressing the Pikm allele resist infection by blast strains expressing any of three AVR-Pik effector variants, whereas those expressing Pikp only respond to one...
August 2018: Nature Plants
Alessandra Dal Molin, Andrea Minio, Francesca Griggio, Massimo Delledonne, Alessandro Infantino, Maria Aragona
The first draft genome sequencing of the non-model fungal pathogen Pyrenochaeta lycopersici showed an expansion of gene families associated with heterokaryon incompatibility and lacking of mating-type genes, providing insights into the genetic basis of this "imperfect" fungus which lost the ability to produce the sexual stage. However, due to the Illumina short-read technology, the draft genome was too fragmented to allow a comprehensive characterization of the genome, especially of the repetitive sequence fraction...
2018: PloS One
Wiphawee Leesutthiphonchai, Andrea L Vu, Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Howard S Judelson
The infamous oomycete Phytophthora infestans has been a persistent threat to potato and tomato production worldwide, causing the diseases known as late blight. This pathogen has proved to be remarkably adept at overcoming control strategies including host-based resistance and fungicides. This review describes the features of P. infestans that make it such a daunting challenge to agriculture. These include a stealthy lifestyle that helps P. infestans evade plant defenses, effectors that suppress host defenses and promote susceptibility, profuse sporulation with a short latent period that enables rapid dissemination, and a genome structure that promotes the adaptive evolution of P...
August 2018: Phytopathology
Angela Tramonti, Caterina Nardella, Martino L di Salvo, Stefano Pascarella, Roberto Contestabile
Many biological functions played by current proteins were not created by evolution from scratch, rather they were obtained combining already available protein scaffolds. This is the case of MocR-like bacterial transcription factors (MocR-TFs), a subclass of GntR transcription regulators, whose structure is the outcome of the fusion between DNA-binding proteins and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes. The resultant chimeras can count on the properties of both protein classes, i.e. the capability to recognize specific DNA sequences and to bind PLP and amino-compounds; it is the modulation of such binding properties to confer to MocR-TFs chimeras the ability to interact with effector molecules and DNA so as to regulate transcription...
June 26, 2018: FEBS Journal
Marcin Piechocki, Fabian Giska, Grzegorz Koczyk, Marcin Grynberg, Magdalena Krzymowska
Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola is the causative agent of halo blight in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ). Similar to other pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, it secrets a set of type III effectors into host cells to subvert defense mechanisms. HopQ1 (for Hrp outer protein Q) is one of these type III effectors contributing to virulence of bacteria. Upon delivery into a plant cell, HopQ1 undergoes phosphorylation, binds host 14-3-3 proteins and suppresses defense-related signaling. Some plants however, evolved systems to recognize HopQ1 and respond to its presence and thus to prevent infection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marina Pais, Kentaro Yoshida, Artemis Giannakopoulou, Mathieu A Pel, Liliana M Cano, Ricardo F Oliva, Kamil Witek, Hannele Lindqvist-Kreuze, Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers, Sophien Kamoun
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks caused by asexual lineages of fungal and oomycete pathogens are a continuing threat to crops, wild animals and natural ecosystems (Fisher MC, Henk DA, Briggs CJ, Brownstein JS, Madoff LC, McCraw SL, Gurr SJ, Nature 484:186-194, 2012; Kupferschmidt K, Science 337:636-638, 2012). However, the mechanisms underlying genome evolution and phenotypic plasticity in asexual eukaryotic microbes remain poorly understood (Seidl MF, Thomma BP, BioEssays 36:335-345, 2014). Ever since the 19th century Irish famine, the oomycete Phytophthora infestans has caused recurrent outbreaks on potato and tomato crops that have been primarily caused by the successive rise and migration of pandemic asexual lineages (Goodwin SB, Cohen BA, Fry WE, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:11591-11595, 1994; Yoshida K, Burbano HA, Krause J, Thines M, Weigel D, Kamoun S, PLoS Pathog 10:e1004028, 2014; Yoshida K, Schuenemann VJ, Cano LM, Pais M, Mishra B, Sharma R, Lanz C, Martin FN, Kamoun S, Krause J, et al...
July 5, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Xiao Min Liu, Ming Long Yuan
Insects have evolved a strong innate immune system to defense pathogens and adverse conditions. Insect innate immune system comprises of humoral immunity and cellular immunity. Humoral immunity mainly includes three signaling pathways, i.e., Toll, IMD and JAK/STAT, by which signal transduction and immune pathways regulate expression of immune-related genes and activate antimicrobial peptides and other effectors. Cellular immunity contains phagocytosis, encapsulation and nodulation of pathogens, which is mediated by hemolymph cells...
June 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Ilary Ruscito, Dan Cacsire Castillo-Tong, Ignace Vergote, Iulia Ignat, Mandy Stanske, Adriaan Vanderstichele, Jacek Glajzer, Hagen Kulbe, Fabian Trillsch, Alexander Mustea, Caroline Kreuzinger, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici, Charlie Gourley, Hani Gabra, Marianna Nuti, Eliane T Taube, Mirjana Kessler, Jalid Sehouli, Silvia Darb-Esfahani, Elena Ioana Braicu
BACKGROUND: High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) intratumoural vasculature evolution remains unknown. The study investigated changes in tumour microvessel density (MVD) in a large cohort of paired primary and recurrent HGSOC tissue samples and its impact on patients' clinico-pathological outcome. METHODS: A total of 222 primary (pOC) and recurrent (rOC) intra-patient paired HGSOC were assessed for immunohistochemical expression of angiogenesis-associated biomarkers (CD31, to evaluate MVD, and VEGF-A)...
August 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Lay-Sun Ma, Clément Pellegrin, Regine Kahmann
Pathogenic and symbiotic filamentous microbes secrete effectors which suppress host immune responses and promote a successful colonization. Pathogen effectors are engaged in the arms race with their hosts and because of this they are subject to intense evolutionary pressure. Effectors particularly prone to rapid evolution display repeat-containing domains which can easily expand or contract and accumulate point mutations without altering their original function. In this review we address the diversity of function in such repeat-containing effectors, focus on new findings and point out avenues for future work...
June 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Rhiannon Kundu, Robin Knight, Meenakshi Dunga, Mark Peakman
Coxsackie B Virus (CBV) infection has been linked to the aetiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and vaccination has been proposed as prophylaxis for disease prevention. Serum neutralising antibodies and the presence of viral protein and RNA in tissues have been common tools to examine this potential disease relationship, whilst the role of anti-CBV cytotoxic T cell responses and their targets have not been studied. To address this knowledge gap, we augmented conventional HLA-binding predictive algorithm-based epitope discovery by cross-referencing epitopes with sites of positive natural selection within the CBV3 viral genome, identified using mixed effects models of evolution...
2018: PloS One
Karolina Michalska, Dinh Quan Nhan, Julia L E Willett, Lucy M Stols, William H Eschenfeldt, Allison M Jones, Josephine Y Nguyen, Sanna Koskiniemi, David A Low, Celia W Goulding, Andrzej Joachimiak, Christopher S Hayes
Bacteria use several different secretion systems to deliver toxic EndoU ribonucleases into neighboring cells. Here, we present the first structure of a prokaryotic EndoU toxin in complex with its cognate immunity protein. The contact-dependent growth inhibition toxin CdiA-CTSTECO31 from Escherichia coli STEC_O31 adopts the eukaryotic EndoU fold and shares greatest structural homology with the nuclease domain of coronavirus Nsp15. The toxin contains a canonical His-His-Lys catalytic triad in the same arrangement as eukaryotic EndoU domains, but lacks the uridylate-specific ribonuclease activity that characterizes the superfamily...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
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