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Global Emergency Care

Brooke G Rogers, Noelle A Mendez, Matthew J Mimiaga, Susan G Sherman, Elizabeth F Closson, Arunrat Tangmunkongvorakul, Ruth K Friedman, Mohammed Limbada, Ayana T Moore, Kriengkrai Srithanaviboonchai, Kenneth H Mayer, Steven A Safren
PURPOSE: There have been significant biomedical improvements in the treatment and prevention of HIV over the past few decades. However, new transmissions continue to occur. Alcohol use is a known barrier to medication adherence and consistent condom use and therefore may affect treatment as prevention (TasP) efforts. The purpose of this study was to further explore how alcohol is associated with condom use and sexual transmission behavior in three international cities. METHOD: HIV Prevention Trials Network 063 was an observational mixed-methods study of HIV-infected patients currently in care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Chiang Mai, Thailand; and Lusaka, Zambia...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Khadija Murtaza Bhimji, Helga Naburi, Said Aboud, Karim Manji
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is emerging as a serious public health problem globally; however due to lack of resources, vitamin D levels are not routinely measured among neonates. The study was conducted to determine vitamin D levels in neonates and factors associated with the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted among neonates admitted at neonatal ward of a tertiary care hospital. Means and proportions were calculated from summarized data in frequency tables. Chi square test was used to determine association between vitamin D and various associated factors such as sex, infant birth weight, gestation age, parity of the mother, maternal age, and HIV status of the mother...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Barbara Jester, Timothy Uyeki, Daniel Jernigan
The 1918 H1N1 pandemic caused unprecedented mortality worldwide. The tools to deal with the global emergency were limited with insufficient surveillance systems and a dearth of diagnostic, treatment, and prevention options. With continuing focus on pandemic planning, technologic advances in surveillance, vaccine capabilities, and 21st century medical care and countermeasures, we are more prepared for a severe pandemic than 100 years ago; however, notable gaps remain.
August 9, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Bhawna Sirohi, Kalipso Chalkidou, C S Pramesh, Benjamin O Anderson, Patrick Loeher, Omar El Dewachi, Omar Shamieh, Shailesh V Shrikhande, R Venkataramanan, Groesbeck Parham, Mulindi Mwanahamuntu, Tim Eden, Audrey Tsunoda, Arnie Purushotham, Susannah Stanway, Goura K Rath, Richard Sullivan
Global cancer centres operate across different sizes, scales, and ecosystems. Understanding the essential aspects of the creation, organisation, accreditation, and activities within these settings is crucial for developing an affordable, equitable, and quality cancer care, research, and education system. Robust guidelines are scarce for cancer units, cancer centres, and comprehensive cancer centres in low-income and middle-income countries. However, some robust examples of the delivery of complex cancer care in centres in emerging economies are available...
August 2018: Lancet Oncology
A Rebecca L Hamilton, Karl W du Pré le Roux, Catherine W Young, Björn Södergård
BACKGROUND: The majority of global HIV infections in children under 10 years of age occur during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding, despite improved coverage of 'prevention of mother-to-child transmission' (PMTCT) guidelines to reduce vertical transmission. This article looks closer at one community-based peer mentorship programme [Mentor Mothers Zithulele (MMZ)] in the Eastern Cape, South Africa which aims to supplement the existing heavily burdened antenatal programmes and improve PMTCT care...
August 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Benjamin Anathory Kamala, Andrew Hans Mgaya, Matilda Michael Ngarina, Hussein Lesio Kidanto
Introduction: The global prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) is 16%, representing more than 20 million infants worldwide, of which 96% are born in low-income countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, predictors and perinatal outcomes of LBW newborns. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data obtained from the hospital's obstetric and neonatal database. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were performed with 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Anna Laven, Maira Anna Deters, Olaf Rose, Holger Schwender, Alexandra Smaranda, Isabell Waltering, Stephanie Laeer
Background Pharmacists who engage in Pharmaceutical Care need skills to optimise responsible medication use and increase medication adherence. Objectives We developed and evaluated a blended-learning programme for German community pharmacists that focused on conducting consultations in chronic diseases. Setting Community pharmacists in Germany. Method Interventional study with pre-post design. We combined e-learning with Objective Standardised Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) for emergency situations, initiation/implementation of medication therapy and detection of symptoms of four chronic diseases...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Jennifer Liu, Jose Banchs, Negar Mousavi, Juan Carlos Plana, Marielle Scherrer-Crosbie, Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Ana Barac
Early recognition of cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) provides an opportunity to mitigate cardiac injury and risk of developing late cardiac events. Echocardiography serves as the cornerstone in the detection and surveillance of CTRCD in patients during and after cancer therapy. Guidelines from professional societies and regulatory agencies have been published on approaches to surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment of CTRCD, although adoption as standard of care remains limited given the lack of evidence on the prognostic value of asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in the oncology population...
August 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Tiffany Patterson, Alexander Perkins, Gavin D Perkins, Tim Clayton, Richard Evans, Hanna Nguyen, Karen Wilson, Mark Whitbread, Johanna Hughes, Rachael T Fothergill, Joanne Nevett, Iris Mosweu, Paul McCrone, Miles Dalby, Roby Rakhit, Philip MacCarthy, Divaka Perera, Jerry P Nolan, Simon R Redwood
BACKGROUND: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a global public health issue. There is wide variation in both regional and inter-hospital survival rates from OHCA and overall survival remains poor at 7%. Regionalization of care into cardiac arrest centers (CAC) improves outcomes following cardiac arrest from ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) through concentration of services and greater provider experience. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) recommends delivery of all post-arrest patients to a CAC, but that randomized controlled trials are necessary in patients without ST elevation (STE)...
August 6, 2018: American Heart Journal
Vijay K Chattu, Raman Kumar, Soosanna Kumary, Fnu Kajal, Joseph K David
Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis first reported in "Sungai Nipah" in Malaysia in 1999 has emerged as a global public health threat in the Southeast Asia region. From 1998 to 2018, more than 630 cases of NiV human infections were reported. NiV is transmitted by zoonotic (from bats to humans, or from bats to pigs, and then to humans) as well as human-to-human routes. Deforestation and urbanization of some areas have contributed to greater overlap between human and bat habitats resulting in NiV outbreaks...
March 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
C B van Houten, K Oved, E Eden, A Cohen, D Engelhard, S Boers, R Kraaij, R Karlsson, D Fernandez, E Gonzalez, Y Li, A Stubbs, E R B Moore, J P Hays, L J Bont
BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant micro-organisms is a global concern, which is largely attributable to inaccurate prescribing of antibiotics to patients presenting with non-bacterial infections. The use of 'omics' technologies for discovery of novel infection related biomarkers combined with novel treatment algorithms offers possibilities for rapidly distinguishing between bacterial and viral infections. This distinction can be particularly important for patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and/or sepsis as they represent a significant burden to healthcare systems...
August 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Martin Hoenigl, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Esther Segal, Alexandre Alanio, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Sharon C-A Chen, Nelesh Govender, Ferry Hagen, Nikolaj Klimko, Jacques F Meis, Alessandro C Pasqualotto, Danila Seidel, Thomas J Walsh, Katrien Lagrou, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Oliver A Cornely
Invasive mycoses present a global challenge with expansion into new hosts, emergence of new pathogens, and development of multidrug resistance. In parallel, new antifungal agents and advanced laboratory diagnostic systems are being developed. In response to these evolving challenges, the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) is committed to providing international expertise, guidance, and leadership with the key objectives of improving diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and survival of persons with invasive fungal diseases...
August 7, 2018: Mycoses
S Musa, L W Umar, F L Abdullahi, M Taegtemeyer, S M Abdullahi, A A Olorukooba, A M Alfa, N H Usman
Background: Nigeria has the highest burden of paediatric HIV infection, and the success of control efforts in the country is crucial to the global control of the HIV epidemic. However, defaults from schedules of care pose a threat to paediatric HIV control in Nigeria. This study was conducted in a pioneer facility for the implementation of the National HIV Prevention and Treatment Programmes. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore factors that facilitate adherence to clinic appointments from perspectives of child caregivers and service providers...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
B Emily Esmaili, Kearsley A Stewart, Nestory A Masalu, Kristin M Schroeder
Purpose Palliative care remains an urgent, neglected need in the developing world. Global disparities in end-of-life care for children, such as those with advanced cancers, result from barriers that are complex and largely unstudied. This study describes these barriers at Bugando Medical Center, one of three consultant hospitals in Tanzania, to identify areas for palliative care development suitable to this context. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 caregivers of pediatric patients with cancer and 14 hospital staff involved in pediatric end-of-life care...
July 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Ernest Tambo, Jeanne Y Ngogang, Xiao Ning, Zhou Xiao-Nong
Background: There is an urgent need to promote innovative partnerships, community leadership and commitment toward strengthening coherent and sustainable community support, resilience programmes, engagement and social mobilization for resiliency. Aims: This paper aims to strengthen coherent, scalable and sustainable community participation, resilience policies and innovative programmes to accelerate elimination and eradication of infectious diseases of poverty. Methods: An unstructured and retrospective review approach was used to determine and to define full papers, reviewed publications, and grey literature on the topics of community resilience, infectious diseases of poverty elimination and eradication, and the global health security agenda...
July 29, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Emmanuelle Levy, Sally Mustafa, Kanza Naveed, Ridha Joober
OBJECTIVE: Poor adherence to antipsychotic medications is strongly associated with psychotic relapses and hospitalizations. This may hinder patients' ability to function, particularly in a first episode of psychosis (FEP). Poor adherence to treatment may be due to poor insight that can alter the capacity to consent to care, including pharmacotherapy. When patients are judged legally lacking the capacity to consent to care, treatment can be mandated through community treatment orders (CTOs)...
August 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
William E Rosa
The landscape of global health is quickly evolving as international health care systems and nursing organizations are developing solutions to dilemmas that face the global village and planet as a whole. Nurses remain key players in advancing all major transnational initiatives. Despite admirable efforts by many governing bodies to unify globalized health improvement, palliative care as a specialty has often not been included as a priority for health research, education, practice, or policy. The purpose of this article is to identify both opportunities and challenges for nurses to integrate palliative care into established global health initiatives and the emerging professional organizational movements impacting the future development of both global and palliative nursing...
April 2018: Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing: JHPN
Gerhard Bauer, Magdi Elsallab, Mohamed Abou-El-Enein
The promise of stem cell (SC) therapies to restore functions of damaged tissues and organs brings enormous hope to patients, their families, loved ones and caregivers. However, limits may exist for which indications SC therapies might be useful, efficacious, and safe. Applications of innovative therapies within regulatory boundaries and within the framework of controlled clinical trials are the norm in the scientific and medical community; such a system minimizes patient risk by setting a clear and acceptable safety and efficacy profile for new therapeutics before marketing authorization...
July 31, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Azhar Abdul Aziz, Baha Hamdi Kahlout, Khalid Bashir
Burnout rate among emergency physicians has shown a gradual increase in the last 20 years. To explore the burnout syndrome, we conducted an email questionnaire survey of the residents graduating from Qatar emergency medicine residency training programme between 2000 and 2009. A total of 75 residents (44 males and 31 females) graduated with board pass rates of 73.3% males and 73.8% females. Seven females (22.6%) and one male (2.3%) left emergency medicine completely. There was a significantly higher burnout rate observed in female emergency physicians compared to their male counterparts (22...
August 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Julie Collins, Viema Biaukula, Daniel Faktaufon, James Flint, Sam Fullman, Katri Jalava, Jimaima Kailawadoko, Angela Merianos, Eric Nilles, Katrina Roper, Meru Sheel, Mike Kama
Introduction: Influenza-associated severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) are a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. In response to a cluster of SARI cases and deaths in pregnant women, with two deceased cases testing positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, an investigation was initiated to determine whether there was an increase of paediatric SARI cases admitted to divisional hospital intensive care units in Fiji in may 2016 compared to May 2013-2015. Methods: Retrospective case finding was conducted at the paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in Fiji's three divisional hospitals...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
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