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Delta gamma T-Cells

Dimpu Gogoi, Dipankar Biswas, Biswajyoti Borkakoty, Jagadish Mahanta
Gamma delta (γδ) T cells exhibit potent anti-Plasmodium activity but are also implicated in the immunopathology of malaria. It is currently poorly understood how γδ T cells are affected in human suffering from Plasmodium vivax infection or in symptomless individuals living in an endemic region. We examined both the percentages and expression of markers associated with immune exhaustion in γδ T cells in individuals living in a P. vivax endemic region by flow cytometry. The percentage of γδ T cells in the blood was significantly higher both in acute P...
October 1, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Jeemin Yim, Seung Geun Song, Sehui Kim, Jae Won Choi, Kyu-Chong Lee, Jeong Mo Bae, Yoon Kyung Jeon
Primary central nervous system lymphoma of T-cell origin (T-PCNSL) is rare, and its clinicopathological features remain unclear. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) of γδ T-cell origin is an aggressive lymphoma mainly involving extranodal sites. Here, we report a case of γδ T-PCNSL involving the intramedullary spinal cord and presenting with paraplegia. A 75-year-old Korean woman visited the hospital complaining of back pain and lower extremity weakness. MRI revealed multifocal enhancing intramedullary nodular lesions in the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
M Watanabe, Makiko Kumagai-Braesch, M Yao, S Thunberg, D Berglund, F Sellberg, C Jorns, S Lind Enoksson, J Henriksson, T Lundgren, M Uhlin, E Berglund, B-G Ericzon
Adoptive transfer of alloantigen-specific immunomodulatory cells generated ex vivo with anti-CD80/CD86 mAbs (2D10.4/IT2.2) holds promise for operational tolerance after transplantation. However, good manufacturing practice is required to allow widespread clinical application. Belatacept, a clinically approved cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin that also binds CD80/CD86, could be an alternative agent for 2D10.4/IT2.2. With the goal of generating an optimal cell treatment with clinically approved reagents, we evaluated the donor-specific immunomodulatory effects of belatacept- and 2D10...
September 27, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Kieran Sahasrabudhe, Mario Otto, Peiman Hematti, Vaishalee Kenkre
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative option for patients with a variety of diseases. Transplantation from a related haploidentical donor is being increasingly utilized for patients who lack an available human leukocyte antigen matched related or unrelated donor. One of the strategies used for haploidentical transplants involves selective depletion of T cells expressing the αβ T cell receptor and CD19+ B cells prior to transplant. This allows for the removal of cells responsible for graft-versus-host disease and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder but maintains hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells for engraftment (CD34+ cells), as well as cells to elicit graft-versus-tumor effect and provide anti-infective activity (such as gamma-delta T cells and natural killer cells)...
September 6, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Susanne Juhl Pedersen, Walter P Maksymowych
Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a complex disease that affects the joints and entheses of axial and peripheral joints, and is associated with inflammation in extra-articular sites such as the gut. Improved knowledge on genetics and immunology has improved treatment options with the availability of treatments targeting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-17. However, these agents do not provide clinical benefit for about 40% of patients, and additional therapeutic options are necessary...
September 2018: Drugs
Priyanka Devi-Marulkar, Hélène Kaplon, Marie-Caroline Dieu-Nosjean, Myriam Lawand
The tumor microenvironment is a complex network of interacting cells composed of immune and nonimmune cells. It has been reported that the composition of the immune contexture has a significant impact on tumor growth and patient survival in different solid tumors. For instance, we and other groups have previously demonstrated that a strong infiltration of T-helper type 1 (Th1) or memory CD8+ T cells is associated with long-term survival of cancer patients. Nevertheless, the prognostic value of the other immune populations, namely regulatory T cells (Treg), B cells, and gamma delta (γδ) T cells, remains a matter of debate...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Di Wu, Wei-Ming Yan, Hong-Wu Wang, Da Huang, Xiao-Ping Luo, Qin Ning
The mechanisms involved in virus-induced severe hepatitis have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of gamma delta T cell receptors (γδ) T cells in the pathogenesis of fulminant viral hepatitis (FVH) induced by murine hepatitis virus strain 3 (MHV-3). The model of FVH was established by intraperitoneal injection of MHV-3 into Balb/cJ mice. The survival days of mice, and the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were examined. The proportions of γδ T cells in blood, spleen and liver, and cytokines secreted by hepatic γδ T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry...
August 2018: Current medical science
Yueshui Zhao, Ling Lin, Zhangang Xiao, Mingxing Li, Xu Wu, Wanping Li, Xiaobing Li, Qijie Zhao, Yuanlin Wu, Hanyu Zhang, Jianhua Yin, Lingling Zhang, Chi Hin Cho, Jing Shen
γδ T cells, a subgroup of T cells based on the γδ TCR, when compared with conventional T cells ( αβ T cells), make up a very small proportion of T cells. However, its various subgroups are widely distributed in different parts of the human body and are attractive effectors for infectious disease immunity. γδ T cells are activated and expanded by nonpeptidic antigens (P-Ags), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, and lipids which are associated with different kinds of pathogen infections...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
P C Gaspar, R C M Rudolf-Oliveira, L M Wildner, A C R de Moraes, M L Reis, R M da Silva, J Gonçalves, M L Bazzo, M C Santos-Silva
SETTING: Information about the sputum cells of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients is scarce. The analysis of sputum cells using optical microscopy (OM) is a well-established method, but it has some serious limitations. OBJECTIVE: To establish a new flow cytometry (FC) protocol for the leucocyte evaluation of sputum samples from PTB patients. DESIGN: A new FC protocol using 0.1% dithiothreitol and 0.5% paraformaldehyde was developed to fluidise sputum samples and kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively, to allow the analysis of sputum samples collected from TB patients...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Salma Machan, Raúl Córdoba, Nerea Carvajal, Luis Requena, Miguel Ángel Piris, Fabio Facchetti, Socorro María Rodríguez-Pinilla
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), not otherwise specified (NOS) is a diagnosis of exclusion, showing extreme cytological and phenotypic heterogeneity. Skin involvement of PTCL may be primary or secondary. Diagnosis of histiocytosis may be difficult, requiring clinical-pathological correlation. We describe a laryngeal atypical histiocytic lesion (AHL) and a nasal PTCL, NOS with cutaneous involvement in the same patient presenting with peculiar histopathologic and immunophenotypic features. The laryngeal neoplasm showed morphological and immunophenotypic evidence of histiocytic differentiation and does not fit any other category of the WHO classification nor the revised classification of histiocytosis...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Shohei Iijima, Tomohiro Chiba, Keisuke Maruyama, Kuniaki Saito, Keiichi Kobayashi, Yuki Yamagishi, Junji Shibahara, Nobuyuki Takayama, Yoshiaki Shiokawa, Motoo Nagane
BACKGROUND: Brain involvement of hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma (HSTL) has not been reported so far. CASE DESCRIPTION: We observed an extremely rare case of HSTL, which is a rare and aggressive variant of peripheral T cell lymphoma, generally showing predominant infiltration to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow and involving the brain. A 41-year-old Japanese woman presented with dysarthria and numbness of the right hand. Radiologic examination revealed a single 3-cm mass in the left frontal cortex, which was totally removed...
October 2018: World Neurosurgery
Adrianna M S Laursen, Raveendra R Kulkarni, Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz, Brandon L Plattner, Leah R Read, Shayan Sharif
Immunity against Marek's disease (MD), caused by Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), in chickens is mediated by both innate and adaptive responses. The present study evaluated the effects of GaHV-2 infection on distribution and frequency of γδ T cells in tissues, as well as their expression of cytokines. We found that the infected chickens had significantly higher number of γδ T cells in their spleens by 10 and 21 days post-infection (d.p.i.) and nearly 100% of these γδ T cells were CD8+ at 21 d.p.i. Conversely, the number of γδ T cells in the cecal tonsils of GaHV-2-infected birds decreased compared to uninfected birds...
September 2018: Virology
Jonathan Fisher, John Anderson
Sharing both innate and adaptive immune properties, γδT cells are attractive candidates for cellular engineering. As the cancer immunotherapy field becomes increasingly busy, orthogonal approaches are required to drive advancement. Engineering of alternative effector cell types such as γδT cells represents one such approach. γδT cells can be modified using many of the techniques used in αβT cell engineering, with the added advantage of innate-like tumor recognition and killing. Progress has been made in T-cell receptor transfer to and from γδT cells as well as in a number of chimeric antigen receptor-based strategies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jeroen Maertzdorf, Mario Tönnies, Laura Lozza, Sandra Schommer-Leitner, Hans Mollenkopf, Torsten T Bauer, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Early immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) invasion of the human lung play a decisive role in the outcome of infection, leading to either rapid clearance of the pathogen or stable infection. Despite their critical impact on health and disease, these early host-pathogen interactions at the primary site of infection are still poorly understood. In vitro studies cannot fully reflect the complexity of the lung architecture and its impact on host-pathogen interactions, while animal models have their own limitations...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yuki Abe, Hirohito Kobayashi, Yoshika Akizawa, Ken Ishitani, Kazunori Hashimoto, Hideo Matsui
BACKGROUND/AIM: Malignant ascites contain many tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. γδ T cells with antitumour activity have attracted attention as effector cells in cancer immunotherapy. Vδ2 + T cells were cultured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and ascites-infiltrating lymphocytes (AILs) to compare the differences in response to 2-methyl-3-butenyl-1-pyrophosphate (2M3B1-PP) and zoledronate (Zol) as antigens in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To expand Vδ2 + T cells from PBMCs and AILs from 29 patients with cancer, these cells were cultured and subjected to analysis...
July 2018: Anticancer Research
Gabrielle M Siegers, Indrani Dutta, Raymond Lai, Lynne-Marie Postovit
Interactions between immune and tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) often impact patient outcome, yet remain poorly understood. In addition, the effects of biophysical features such as hypoxia [low oxygen (O2 )] on cells within the TME may lead to tumor evasion. Gamma delta T cells (γδTcs) naturally kill transformed cells and are therefore under development as immunotherapy for various cancers. Clinical trials have proven the safety of γδTc immunotherapy and increased circulating γδTc levels correlate with improved patient outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
C David Pauza, Mei-Ling Liou, Tyler Lahusen, Lingzhi Xiao, Rena G Lapidus, Cristiana Cairo, Haishan Li
Human gamma delta T cells have extraordinary properties including the capacity for tumor cell killing. The major gamma delta T cell subset in human beings is designated Vγ9Vδ2 and is activated by intermediates of isoprenoid biosynthesis or aminobisphosphonate inhibitors of farnesyldiphosphate synthase. Activated cells are potent for killing a broad range of tumor cells and demonstrated the capacity for tumor reduction in murine xenotransplant tumor models. Translating these findings to the clinic produced promising initial results but greater potency is needed...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jenée M Mitchell, Stuart P Berzins, George Kannourakis
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is characterized by lesions containing inflammatory immune cells, including myeloid cells and T cells. Patient mortality remains unacceptably high and new treatment options are required. Several LCH studies have identified aberrant frequencies of T cell subsets with potential immune regulatory properties. High numbers of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and gamma-delta T cells have been reported in patients with LCH, although, the cause of their presence or their significance is not yet clear...
September 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Kazuyasu Fujii
Primary cutaneous lymphomas comprise a group of lymphatic malignancies that occur primarily in the skin. They represent the second most common form of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and are characterized by heterogeneous clinical, histological, immunological, and molecular features. The most common type is mycosis fungoides and its leukemic variant, Sézary syndrome. Both diseases are considered T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) diseases. Not only the tumor cells but also the tumor microenvironment can promote Th2 differentiation, which is beneficial for the tumor cells because a Th1 environment enhances antitumor immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Melissa Pulitzer, Shamir Geller, Erica Kumar, Denise Frosina, Alison Moskowitz, Steven Horwitz, Patricia Myskowski, Meenal Kheterpal, Alexander Chan, Ahmet Dogan, Achim Jungbluth
AIMS: The diagnosis of cutaneous γδ T-cell lymphoma (GDTCL) requires the identification of γδ chains of the T-cell receptor (TCR). Our aim in this study was, by using a new monoclonal antibody (mAb) against TCRδ, to evaluate TCRδ expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) skin tissue from TCRγ+ cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), and to assess TCRδ expression within a spectrum of other cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPDs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve cases (10 patients) with TCRγ+ CTCL and 132 additional CLPD cases (127 patients) were examined, including mycosis fungoides (MF) (n = 60), cutaneous GDTCL (n = 15), subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) (n = 11), and CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) (n = 24)...
October 2018: Histopathology
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