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Fasting Exercise

Wen Han, Xiao-Juan Bai, Lu-Lu Han, Xue-Feng Sun, Xiang-Mei Chen
OBJECTIVES: Changes in serum protein levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and Klotho resulting from bone metabolism are still controversial. The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship between FGF23 and Klotho serum proteins and lumbar spine bone mineral density (LBMD) in northern Chinese postmenopausal women. METHODS: This was a community-based cross-sectional study carried out in Shenyang, a northern Chinese city. The study included 355 postmenopausal women with an average age of 62...
December 3, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Ben Stocks, Jessica R Dent, Henry B Ogden, Martina Zemp, Andrew Philp
Exercise performed in the fasted state acutely increases fatty acid availability and utilization. Furthermore, activation of energy-sensing pathways and fatty acid metabolic genes can be augmented by fasting and fasted exercise. However, whether a similar effect occurs at higher exercise intensities remains poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of fed and fasted exercise upon post-exercise signaling and mRNA responses during moderate- to high-intensity steady-state exercise. Eight male participants (age: 25 ± 2 y, O2peak : 47...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Timothy R DeGrado, Mukesh K Pandey, Anthony P Belanger, Falguni Basuli, Aditya Bansal, Shuyan Wang
The ability of heart and skeletal muscle (SM) to switch between fat and carbohydrate oxidation is of high interest in the study of metabolic diseases and exercise physiology. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the glucose analog 18 F-FDG provides a noninvasive means to quantitate glucose metabolic rates. However, evaluation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rates by PET has been limited by the lack of a suitable FAO probe. We have developed a metabolically trapped oleate analog, (Z)-18-[18 F]fluoro-octadec-9-en-4-thia-oate (18 F-FTO), and investigated the feasibility of using 18 F-FTO and 18 F-FDG to measure FAO and glucose uptake, respectively, in heart and SM of rats in vivo...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yongmei Liu, Peiling Zhao, Mingliang Cheng, Lei Yu, Zhuo Cheng, Linda Fan, Chi Chen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed that triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (henceforth TG/HDL-C) is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and metabolism syndrome. However, there are fewer investigations of the correlations between the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio and brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the AST to ALT ratio and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in a Japanese population...
December 3, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Ebrahim Banitalebi, AbdolReza Kazemi, Mohammad Faramarzi, Samira Nasiri, Marjan Mosalman Haghighi
Our primary aim was to assess the effects of two different training modalities: sprint interval training (SIT) or combined aerobic and resistance training (A + R) on circulating myokines related to metabolic profile and adiposity in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fifty-two overweight women with T2D [55 ± 6 yrs., BMI 28.9 ± 4.1 kg/m2 , HbA1c 9.4 ± 0.82% (79 mmol/mol)] were randomized to SIT (n = 17), A + R training (n = 17) or control (n = 18) for 10 weeks. Myokines, metabolic outcomes, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed at baseline and 48 h after the last training session/control period...
November 30, 2018: Life Sciences
Maremka Zwinkels, Olaf Verschuren, Janke F de Groot, Frank J G Backx, Harriet Wittink, Anne Visser-Meily, Tim Takken
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) on physical fitness and cardiometabolic health in youth with physical disabilities. METHODS: For this quasi-experimental study 70 participants were recruited from schools for special education and divided into runners and users of wheelchairs. HIT was performed for 8 weeks, twice a week, containing 30 seconds all-out exercises. RESULTS: Exercise adherence was 84...
November 30, 2018: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Mohammad Mazani, Ali Nemati, Mojtaba Amani, Kobra Haedari, Reza Alipanah Mogadam, Abbas Naghizadeh Baghi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of probiotic yoghurt consumption on oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in young females after exhaustive exercise. METHODS: TThis study included 27 healthy participants with an age range of 18-25. For two weeks, 450 grams of probiotic yoghurt and 450 grams of ordinary yoghurt were given to the supplement and control groups, respectively. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and at the end of study. At the end of the intervention, the participants were given one exhaustive exercise and then fasting blood samples were taken to test for blood antioxidant enzymes, inflammatory markers, and oxidative markers...
December 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Sarkawt Kolahdouzi, Mohammad Baghadam, Farhad Ahmadi Kani-Golzar, Ayoub Saeidi, Georges Jabbour, Amani Ayadi, Maysa De Sousa, Amira Zouita, Abderraouf Ben Abderrahmane, Hassane Zouhal
BACKGROUND: Circuit resistance training (CRT) is a time-efficient exercise modality for improving skeletal muscle and cardiovascular fitness. But the beneficial role of CRT in obese individuals is still not well understood. This study explores the reducing effects of progressive CRT on inflammatory biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese young men. METHODS: Thirty obese men (Body mass index (BMI): 30.67 ± 3.06; age: 23 ± 3.2 years) were divided into CRT and control groups...
November 29, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Bradley T Gieske, Richard A Stecker, Charles R Smith, Kyle E Witherbee, Patrick S Harty, Robert Wildman, Chad M Kerksick
BACKGROUND: Augmenting fat oxidation is a primary goal of fitness enthusiasts and individuals desiring to improve their body composition. Performing aerobic exercise while fasted continues to be a popular strategy to achieve this outcome, yet little research has examined how nutritional manipulations influence energy expenditure and/or fat oxidation during and after exercise. Initial research has indicated that pre-exercise protein feeding may facilitate fat oxidation while minimizing protein degradation during exercise, but more research is needed to determine if the source of protein further influences such outcomes...
November 29, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Aline Castilho de Almeida, Maria Gabriela Pedroso, Jessica Bianca Aily, Glaucia Helena Gonçalves, Carlos Marcelo Pastre, Stela Marcia Mattiello
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of a 14-week periodized circuit training protocol on patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in randomized intervention groups, on thigh intermuscular adipose tissue (interMAT), body composition, systemic inflammation, cartilage degradation, and its repercussion on pain, functional performance and quality of life. METHODS: This study presents a protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Sixty selected participants diagnosed with knee OA grades II and III, 40-65 years old and BMI < 30 kg/m2, will be randomly divided into three groups:periodized circuit training, strength training, and educational protocol...
November 30, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Domenico Alberga, Daniela Trisciuzzi, Michele Montaruli, Francesco Leonetti, Giuseppe Felice Mangiatordi, Orazio Nicolotti
We present MuSSeL, a multi-fingerprint similarity search algorithm, able to predict putative drug targets for a given query small molecule as well as to return a quantitative assessment of its bioactivity in terms of Ki or IC50 values. Predictions are automatically made exploiting a large collection of high quality experimental bioactivity data available from ChEMBL (version 22.1) combining, in a consensus-like approach, predictions resulting from a similarity search performed using 13 different fingerprint definitions...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Xinjun Han, Yan Feng, Xinbing Han, Haiqing Guo, Jianbo Zhu, Chao Ning, Fen Liu, Shidong Li, Xiaomei Li, Yi-Ning Yang
To investigate the effect of exercise on adiponectin in young healthy human males, we examined serum total adiponectin and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in newly recruited male soldiers who participated in an 8-week basic military training (BMT). A total of 95 males (mean age, 18.79±1.50 years) were sampled from among 1,100 new male army recruits in China. Participants were separated into 3 groups according to their body mass index (BMI): overweight group (BMI: 24.9 kg/m2 to<30 kg/m2 ; n=26); normal-weight group (BMI: 18...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Eiji Fujita, Karen Yakushi, Masaki Takeda, Mohammod Monirul Islam, Masaki Nakagaichi, Dennis Robert Taaffe, Nobuo Takeshima
Nordic walking (NW) is a total body version of walking increasingly used as a health-promoting activity by middle-aged and older adults. The present study examined the relationship between force exerted through the pole and physiological response during NW. In this non-randomized exercise trial, 17 participants comprising 8 middle-aged and older recreationally trained Nordic walkers (NWrec: 63.7 ± 8.1 years) and 9 experienced NW instructors (NWinstr: 57.5 ± 7.8 years) underwent outdoor ordinary walking (OW) and NW bouts as fast as possible for 12 minutes...
2018: PloS One
Consolato Sergi
In the 21st century, the determination of alert thresholds remains the most challenging and controversial issue in clinical pediatrics. Pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical matters will consolidate or undermine the fate of any laboratory process. Pre-analytical issues need to be cleared off before the laboratory physician can dispatch the result to the pediatrician in charge. Once it is cleared off, the classification of essential laboratory results is paramount. It is more than an academic exercise and may be subdivided in the order of priority we handle it to inform promptly and safely the primary physicians...
November 12, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Jing-Min Guo, Hua-Chuan Lin, Ping Ou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of simple obesity and its risk factors in preschool children in Fuzhou, China. METHODS: The physical examination data of 14 kindergartens in Fuzhou, China were collected by stratified cluster random sampling. The detection rate of simple obesity was calculated. The children with normal body weight were selected as the control group by 1:1 case-control method. The risk factors for childhood simple obesity were investigated by self-made questionnaire and multivariate logistic regression analysis...
November 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
David A Levitsky, Anna Sewall, Yingyi Zhong, Laura Barre, Stefan Shoen, Nicole Agaronnik, Jean-Luc LeClair, Wendy Zhuo, Carly Pacanowski
To assess the precision of the biological control of energy intake we performed a systematic review of studies that measured acute changes in human food intake in response to energetic errors. The imposed errors were grouped into the following categories of studies: alternate day fasting, changes in diet composition, exercise, meal skipping, overfeeding, energy substitutes, underfeeding and changes in portion size. Seven hundred thirty-nine studies published between 1980 and 2017 were identified from which the data from 592 groups from 200 studies were extracted and subjected to analysis consisting of a total of 13,203 participants...
November 23, 2018: Appetite
Vibha Singhal, Kathryn E Ackerman, Amita Bose, Landy Paola Torre Flores, Hang Lee, Madhusmita Misra
Objective: Transdermal, but not oral, estrogen replacement improves bone mineral density (BMD) in athletes with oligo-amenorrhea (OA). Our objective was to determine mechanisms that may explain the impact of route of estrogen administration on bone outcomes. Methods: 73 OA between 14-25 years old received (i) a 17β-estradiol transdermal patch continuously with cyclic oral micronized progesterone (PATCH), (ii) a combined ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel pill (PILL), or (iii) no estrogen/progesterone (NONE) for 12-months...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Xue Zou, Hongmei Wang, Dianlong Ge, Yan Lu, Lei Xia, Chaoqun Huang, Chengyin Shen, Yannan Chu
AIM: This study aims to develop a method for monitoring fat loss by detection of breath acetone. METHODS: A new method combining direct breath sampling system and proton transfer reaction MS (PTR-MS) was developed for on-line detection of breath acetone. The breath acetone of 272 volunteers was detected respectively when exercise or diet. RESULTS: Exercises perennially can make the breath acetone increase by 40-130%. Dinner fasting for 1 week can make it increase by 140%...
November 26, 2018: Bioanalysis
Yu Chung Chooi, Cherlyn Ding, Zhiling Chan, Jezebel Lo, John Choo, Benjamin T K Ding, Melvin K-S Leow, Faidon Magkos
Weight loss, induced by chronic energy deficit, improves the blood lipid profile. However, the effects of an acute negative energy balance and the comparative efficacy of diet and exercise are not well-established. We determined the effects of progressive, acute energy deficits (20% or 40% of daily energy requirements) induced by a single day of calorie restriction ( n = 19) or aerobic exercise ( n = 13) in healthy subjects (age: 26 ± 9 years; body mass index (BMI): 21.8 ± 2.9 kg/m²). Fasting plasma concentrations of very low-, intermediate-, low-, and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, IDL, and HDL, respectively) particles and their subclasses were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance...
November 21, 2018: Nutrients
Ebba Du Rietz, Alan R Barker, Giorgia Michelini, Anna-Sophie Rommel, Isabella Vainieri, Philip Asherson, Jonna Kuntsi
BACKGROUND: Emerging research suggests that a single bout of aerobic exercise can improve cognition, brain function and psychological health. Our aim was to examine the effects of high-intensity exercise on cognitive-performance and brain measures of attention, inhibition and performance-monitoring across a test-battery of three cognitive tasks. METHOD: Using a randomised cross-over design, 29 young men completed three successive cognitive tasks (Cued Continuous Performance Task [CPT-OX]; Eriksen Flanker Task; four-choice reaction-time task [Fast Task]) with simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) recording before and after a 20-minute high-intensity cycling exercise and resting control session...
November 19, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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