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Fasting Exercise

Susann Weihrauch-Blüher, Susanna Wiegand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes our current understanding of factors associated with childhood obesity, including latest prevalence rates, effectiveness of intervention strategies, and risk for concomitant disease later in life. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity has reached global dimensions, and prevalence of childhood obesity has increased eightfold since 1975. Interventions for obesity prevention have mainly focused on behavioral settings to date, i.e., interventions that have focused on behavioral changes of the individuum such as increasing daily physical exercise or optimizing diet...
October 13, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
S Altrichter, M Chuamanochan, H Knoth, A Asady, T Ohanyan, M Metz, M Maurer
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic urticaria (CholU), a frequent type of chronic inducible urticaria, presents with small itchy wheals upon physical exercise or passive warming. Omalizumab has been shown to be very effective in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. Whether or not omalizumab is also effective in CholU is largely unknown. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of omalizumab treatment in CholU METHOD: We assessed the effects of real life omalizumab treatment at standard and higher than standard doses in CholU patients including their time to response, the effects on concomitant urticaria forms and links to clinical features...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Biljana Jakovljevic, Tamara Nikolic Turnic, Nevena Jeremic, Jovana Jeremic, Jovana Bradic, Marko Ravic, Vladimir Lj Jakovljevic, Djordje Jelic, Dragan Radovanovic, Olga Pechanova, Vladimir Zivkovic
This study was aimed to assess the impact of aerobic and anaerobic type of exercise on blood pressure and redox status in normotensive and hypertensive rats. After 1 week of preconditioning feeding and 1 week of preconditioning running regimen, Wistar albino rats (n = 72; bw: 270 ± 50 g) were randomly assigned to three groups according to running protocol (high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity training (MIT)): sedentary control, MIT, HIIT; spontaneous hypertensive sedentary control (SHR), SHR + MIT and SHR + HIIT...
October 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Steven K Malin, Monique E Francois, Natalie Z M Eichner, Nicole M Gilbertson, Emily M Heiston, Chiara Fabris, Marc D Breton
The effect of work-matched exercise intensity on β-cell function is unknown in people with prediabetes prior to clinical weight loss. We determined if short-term moderate continuous (CONT) versus high intensity interval (INT) exercise increased β-cell function. Thirty-one subjects (Age: 61.4±2.5 yr; BMI: 32.1±1.0 kg/m2 ) with prediabetes (ADA criteria, 75g OGTT) were randomized to work-matched CONT (70% HRpeak) or INT (3 min 90% HRpeak and 3 min 50% HRpeak) exercise for 60min/d over 2-weeks. A 75g 2 hr OGTT was conducted after an overnight fast, and plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and FFA were determined for calculations of skeletal muscle (Oral Minimal Model; OMM), hepatic (HOMA-IR), and adipose (Adipose-IR) insulin sensitivity...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Maya Hioki, Nana Kanehira, Teruhiko Koike, Akira Saito, Hideyuki Takahashi, Kiyoshi Shimaoka, Hisataka Sakakibara, Yoshiharu Oshida, Hiroshi Akima
PURPOSE: Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) is influenced by physical exercise; however, whether the habitual level of physical activity affects resting IMCL content remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and resting IMCL content in young and older adults. METHODS: In total, 15 nonobese young adults (21.0 ± 0.0 years) and 15 older adults (70.7 ± 3.8 years) were recruited. Time spent performing physical activities for 10 days was assessed using a three-dimensional ambulatory accelerometer, and intensity was categorized as light [< 3...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Julie Dupas, Annie Feray, Anthony Guernec, Morgane Pengam, Manon Inizan, François Guerrero, Jacques Mansourati, Christelle Goanvec
Background: Metabolic Syndrom has become a public health problem. It mainly results from the increased consumption of fat and sugar. In this context, the benefits of personalized moderate exercise training were investigated on a metabolic syndrome male wistar rat model food with fructose drinking water (20-25% w / v ). Different markers including body weight, metabolic measurements, blood biochemistry related to metabolic syndrome complications have been evaluated. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 4 groups: control (sedentary (C, n  = 8) and exercise trained (Ex, n = 8)), fructose fed (sedentary (FF, n = 8) and exercise trained fructose fed rats (ExFF, n  = 10))...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Amy L Kimball, Patrick M McCue, Michael A Petrie, Richard K Shields
AIM: Exercise modulates glucose tolerance and homeostasis in both healthy and diabetic individuals. Heat stress is a fundamental element of exercise. The acute glycemic response and alterations in glucose clearance following whole body passive heat stress in the absence of muscle activity has yet to be examined in humans. Knowledge of this relationship may prove useful, particularly in populations with compromised glucoregulation from reduced activity. PURPOSE: To determine insulin/glucose levels before and after an acute bout of heat stress in healthy, lean individuals and examine the effects of whole body heat stress (WBHS) and exercise on acute glucose tolerance in an expanded cohort...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Emanuele Loro, Sara Bisetto, Tejvir S Khurana
The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-15 (IL15) and its receptor alpha (IL15RA) participate in the regulation of musculoskeletal function and metabolism. Deletion of the Il15ra gene in mice increases spontaneous activity, improves fatigue resistance in glycolytic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, and protects from diet-induced obesity. In humans, IL15RA SNPs have been linked to muscle strength, metabolism and performance in elite endurance athletes. Together, these features suggest a possible role for IL15RA in muscle mitochondrial structure and function...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Raúl Franco-Gutiérrez, Alberto José Pérez-Pérez, Virginia Franco-Gutiérrez, Ana María Testa-Fernández, Rafael Carlos Vidal-Pérez, Manuel Lorenzo López-Reboiro, Víctor Manuel Puebla-Rojo, Melisa Santás-Álvarez, María Generosa Crespo-Leiro, Carlos González-Juanatey
BACKGROUND: Relationship between carotid and coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing invasive and non-invasive test is unclear. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether carotid disease is associated with CAD in patients submitted to exercise echocardiography (EE) and if it improves the EE ability to predict CAD. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 156 subjects without previous vascular disease who underwent EE, carotid ultrasonography and coronary angiography between 2002 and 2013...
October 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Tatsuya Iso, Hikari Haruyama, Hiroaki Sunaga, Hiroki Matsui, Miki Matsui, Rina Tanaka, Yogi Umbarawan, Mas Rizky A A Syamsunarno, Mirasari Putri, Aiko Yamaguchi, Hirofumi Hanaoka, Kazuaki Negishi, Tomoyuki Yokoyama, Masahiko Kurabayashi
During fasting, most tissues including skeletal muscle heavily rely on utilization of fatty acids (FA) and minimize glucose use. In contrast, skeletal muscle prefers carbohydrate use as exercise intensity increases. In mice deficient for CD36 (CD36-/- mice), FA uptake is markedly reduced with a compensatory increase in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle even during fasting. In this study, we questioned how exercise endurance is affected during prolonged fasting in CD36-/- mice where glucose utilization is constantly increased...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Juan Pablo Frias, Michael A Nauck, Joanna Van, Mark E Kutner, Xuewei Cui, Charles Benson, Shweta Urva, Ruth E Gimeno, Zvonko Milicevic, Deborah Robins, Axel Haupt
BACKGROUND: LY3298176 is a novel dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is being developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of co-stimulation of the GLP-1 and GIP receptors with LY3298176 compared with placebo or selective stimulation of GLP-1 receptors with dulaglutide in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomised, phase 2 study, patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1) to receive either once-weekly subcutaneous LY3298176 (1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg), dulaglutide (1·5 mg), or placebo for 26 weeks...
October 3, 2018: Lancet
Michael J Marmura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A wide variety of triggers prompt attacks in episodic migraine. Although experimental triggers such as glyceryl trinitrate reliably produce migraine, natural triggers are much less predictable and vary in importance between individuals. This review describes the most common triggers in episodic migraine and provides strategies for managing them in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple migraine attack triggers have been established based on patient surveys, diary studies, and clinical trials...
October 5, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Zihong He, Tuomo Rankinen, Arthur S Leon, James Skinner, André Tchernof, Claude Bouchard
We investigated the associations between steroid hormones and resting and exercise blood pressure in the sedentary state and in response to an exercise program controlling for sex, body mass, ethnicity, age, oral contraceptives, hormone therapy, smoking and alcohol intake in subjects from the HERITAGE Family Study.: In the sedentary state, 267 men (28% Blacks) and 301 women (37% Blacks) were available, and 241 men and 254 women completed the exercise program. Fourteen steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations were assayed in a fasted state...
October 5, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Jing Li, Liming Wang, Fen Chen, Dongxia Xia, Lingling Miao
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the switch from glargine+once daily insulin aspart (1 + 1 regimen) to glargine+insulin aspart 30 before breakfast combined with exercise and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with poorly controlled blood glucose levels. METHODS: Consecutive patients with poorly controlled T2DM (n = 182) were switched from the 1 + 1 regimen to glargine+insulin aspart 30 before breakfast in combination with exercise after dinner and dividing meals in two (same final calories intake)...
October 1, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Anthony Damiot, Rémi Demangel, John Noone, Isabelle Chery, Alexandre Zahariev, Sylvie Normand, Thomas Brioche, François Crampes, Isabelle de Glisezinski, Etienne Lefai, Marie-Pierre Bareille, Angele Chopard, Jocelyne Drai, Delphine Collin-Chavagnac, Martina Heer, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Michel Prost, Patrick Simon, Guillaume Py, Stéphane Blanc, Chantal Simon, Audrey Bergouignan, Donal J O'Gorman
CONTEXT: Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviours are independent risks factors for numerous diseases. OBJECTIVE: We examined the capacity of a nutrient cocktail composed of polyphenols, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin E and selenium to prevent the expected metabolic alterations induced physical activity and sedentary behaviors. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Twenty healthy trained men (averaging∼14,000 steps/d and engaged in sports) were randomly divided into a control group (no supplementation) and a cocktail group for a 20-day free-living intervention during which they stopped exercise and decreased their daily steps to averaging∼3000...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Lyndon J Hawke, Nora Shields, Michelle M Dowsey, Peter F M Choong, Nicholas F Taylor
Usual care after hip or knee joint replacement does not adequately address the problem of low physical activity levels. We aimed to determine whether exercise delivered in a group setting in the early stage of outpatient rehabilitation influenced self-reported physical activity levels after hip or knee joint replacement. A case series of 79 participants referred to a 6-week outpatient orthopaedic exercise group after total hip or knee replacement were evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form...
October 3, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Robin Deloux, Cynthia Tannous, Arnaud Ferry, Zhenlin Li, Mathias Mericskay
Background: Skeletal muscle aging is marked by the development of a sarcopenic phenotype, a global decline of muscle energetic capacities, and an intolerance to exercise. Among the metabolic disorders involved in this syndrome, NAD metabolism was shown to be altered in skeletalmuscle, with an important role for the NAMPT enzyme recycling the nicotinamide precursor. An alternative pathway for NAD biosynthesis has been described for the nicotinamide riboside vitamin B3 precursor used by the NMRK kinases, including the striated muscle-specific NMRK2...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rafael Zapata-Lamana, Carlos Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos Burgos, Roberto Meneses-Valdés, Igor Cigarroa, Claudio Soto, Valentín E Fernández-Elías, Sonia García-Merino, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Antonio García-Hermoso, Hugo Cerda-Kohler
Introduction: Volume and intensity are major variables governing exercise training-mediated beneficial effects in both athletes and patients. Although polarized endurance training optimizes and maximizes physiological gains in highly trained individuals, its cardiometabolic protective-effects have not been established. The purpose of the present single site, randomized-controlled trial was to compare the effects of 12-weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), and polarized volume training (POL) programs on cardiometabolic risk factors in young overweight and obese women...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yi-Sub Kwak, Sun Young Lim
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is highly enriched in the membrane phospholipids of the brain, neuronal tissue and retina. Accumulating evidence suggests that brain DHA is necessary for maintaining for optimal function of the cognition and the visual system, particularly the photoreceptor, the retina. Loss of brain DHA, especially during crucial brain development period, was highly associated with visual and cognitive defects. Here it would be addressed the effect of DHA on brain functions as assessed by spatial task performance using a first generation model which is similar to human nutrition case...
August 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Maria Bertuzzi, Weipang Chang, Konstantinos Ampatzis
A particularly essential determinant of a neuron's functionality is its neurotransmitter phenotype. While the prevailing view is that neurotransmitter phenotypes are fixed and determined early during development, a growing body of evidence suggests that neurons retain the ability to switch between different neurotransmitters. However, such changes are considered unlikely in motoneurons due to their crucial functional role in animals' behavior. Here we describe the expression and dynamics of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the adult zebrafish spinal motoneuron circuit assembly...
October 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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