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AI in medicine

Xiao Ai, Lin Wang, Xiao-Yu Liu, Chao-Qun Cai, Wei Yi
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effectiveness of electroacupuncture (EA) therapy in promoting medicinal abortion. METHODS: Sixty participants with early pregnancy were randomly divided into medication (control) and EA+ medication groups ( n =30 in each). Participants in the control group were treated by regular medication (mifepristone and misoprostol tablets), and those of the EA group were treated by EA stimulation (2 Hz/100 Hz, a tolerable strength) of bilateral Hegu(LI 4) and Sanyinjiao(SP 6) for 25 min, and also by the same medication method mentioned in the control group...
July 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Thomas D Stuckey, Roger S Gammon, Robi Goswami, Jeremiah P Depta, John A Steuter, Frederick J Meine, Michael C Roberts, Narendra Singh, Shyam Ramchandani, Tim Burton, Paul Grouchy, Ali Khosousi, Ian Shadforth, William E Sanders
BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are increasingly applied to cardiovascular (CV) medicine in arenas ranging from genomics to cardiac imaging analysis. Cardiac Phase Space Tomography Analysis (cPSTA), employing machine-learned linear models from an elastic net method optimized by a genetic algorithm, analyzes thoracic phase signals to identify unique mathematical and tomographic features associated with the presence of flow-limiting coronary artery disease (CAD). This novel approach does not require radiation, contrast media, exercise, or pharmacological stress...
2018: PloS One
Toshihide Yamamoto
In 1855, Thomas Addison described an illness now known as Addison disease (AD) caused by damage to the adrenal cortex and manifesting in weakness, weight loss, hypotension, gastrointestinal disturbances, and brownish pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes. Corticosteroid supplementation, corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] of medicinal use) test, and anti-adrenal auto-antibodies (AA) have come into use in the 100 years since Addison's death. Following the methodological innovations, 4 disorders which share impaired response to corticotropin in common have been discovered (i...
August 7, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Shuang-Li Liu, Xiao-Hui Wang, Yu-Gang Gao, Yan Zhao, Ai-Hua Zhang, Yong-Hua Xu, Lian-Xue Zhang
Saposhnikovia divaricata is a valuable Chinese medicinal herb; the transformation from vegetative growth to reproductive growth may lead to the decrease of its pharmacological activities. Therefore, the study of bolting and flowering for Saposhnikovia divaricata is warranted. The present study aimed to reveal differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and regularity of expression during the bolting and flowering process, and the results of this study might provide a theoretical foundation for the suppression of early bolting for future research and practical application...
June 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Sumei Wang, Shunqin Long, Shujing Xiao, Wanyin Wu, Swei Sunny Hann
Decoction of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) Fuzheng Kang-Ai (FZKA for short) has been applied as adjuvant treatment strategy in advanced lung cancer patients for decades. We previously showed that FZKA decoction inhibited proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPK α ) signaling pathway, followed by inducing insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and forkhead homeobox type O3a (FOXO3a) proteins, and enhanced the inhibition effect of gefitinib in lung cancer cell growth via inactivating PI3-K/Akt-mediated suppressing of cell surface-associated mucin-1 (MUC1) expression...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
M Jäger, C Mayer, H Hefter, M Siebler, A Kecskeméthy
The digitalization in medicine has led to almost universal availability of information to different healthcare professionals and accelerated clinical pathways. Fast-track concepts and short hospital stays require intelligent and practicable systems in preventive and rehabilitation medicine. This includes optimization of movement analysis by innovative tools such as detectors sensing skin movements, portable feedback systems for monitoring, robot-assisted devices, and prevention programs based on reliable data...
July 23, 2018: Der Orthopäde
Farid Ullah Khan Zimri, Syed Shujaat Ali Shah, Muhammad Saaiq, Faisal Qayyum, Muhammad Ayaz
Objective: To document the clinical presentation of neglected DDH and evaluate the outcome of triple procedure. Methods: It was a descriptive case series study, conducted at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM), Islamabad over a period of 8-years. It included children aged >1 and <9 years who underwent the triple procedure of open reduction, femoral shortening and Salter's osteotomy. Clinical evaluation was performed using McKay's criteria...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
E Stoutjesdijk, A Schaafsma, D A J Dijck-Brouwer, F A J Muskiet
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency occurs in West European countries. Iodine is important for brain development of the foetus and infant. The current iodine status of pregnant and lactating Dutch women is unknown. METHODS: In a pilot study we examined the iodine status of 36 women. From 20 gestational weeks (GW) until 4 weeks postpartum, they ingested 150 μg iodine/day in the form of a multivitamin supplement for pregnant and lactating women. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected at 20 and 36 GW and at 4 weeks postpartum...
July 2018: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Jonathon Stewart, Peter Sprivulis, Girish Dwivedi
Interest in artificial intelligence (AI) research has grown rapidly over the past few years, in part thanks to the numerous successes of modern machine learning techniques such as deep learning, the availability of large datasets and improvements in computing power. AI is proving to be increasingly applicable to healthcare and there is a growing list of tasks where algorithms have matched or surpassed physician performance. Despite the successes there remain significant concerns and challenges surrounding algorithm opacity, trust and patient data security...
July 16, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Jun Zhan, Jingyuan Ren, Pei Sun, Jin Fan, Chang Liu, Jing Luo
In contrast to cognitive emotion regulation theories that emphasize top-down control of prefrontal-mediated regulation of emotion, in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, different emotions are considered to have mutual promotion and counteraction relationships. Our previous studies have provided behavioral evidence supporting the hypotheses that "fear promotes anger" and "sadness counteracts anger"; this study further investigated the corresponding neural correlates. A basic hypothesis we made is the "internal versus external orientation" assumption proposing that fear could promote anger as its external orientation associated with motivated action, whereas sadness could counteract anger as its internal or homeostatic orientation to somatic or visceral experience...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Lan Yang, Juan Tang, Jin-Jun Chen, Ai-Yun Peng, Qi-Ming Wang, Li-Qun Rao, Hua Yang, Xian-Wen Zhang, Huan-Zhi Yang, Chen Zhang, Guo-Ping Peng
Poria cocos (P. cocos) polysaccharides (PCPs) are used to improve immunity and possess antitumor activities. We compared three cultivars of P. cocos (5.78, XJ 28 and JHYH) PCP contents. Then we determined that malZ, galA, SORD, gnl and bglX are key enzymes within the PCP biosynthetic pathway by using HiSeq2500 transcriptome and qRT-PCR validation. Our results provide more detailed information about the PCP biosynthesis pathway at the molecular level in P. cocos and establish the functions for the molecular breeding to produce polysaccharides in general for therapeutic use in Chinese medicinal plants...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Kyle E Karches
Experts in medical informatics have argued for the incorporation of ever more machine-learning algorithms into medical care. As artificial intelligence (AI) research advances, such technologies raise the possibility of an "iDoctor," a machine theoretically capable of replacing the judgment of primary care physicians. In this article, I draw on Martin Heidegger's critique of technology to show how an algorithmic approach to medicine distorts the physician-patient relationship. Among other problems, AI cannot adapt guidelines according to the individual patient's needs...
July 10, 2018: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
D Pinto Dos Santos, D Giese, S Brodehl, S H Chon, W Staab, R Kleinert, D Maintz, B Baeßler
OBJECTIVES: To assess undergraduate medical students' attitudes towards artificial intelligence (AI) in radiology and medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was designed using SurveyMonkey, and was sent out to students at three major medical schools. It consisted of various sections aiming to evaluate the students' prior knowledge of AI in radiology and beyond, as well as their attitude towards AI in radiology specifically and in medicine in general...
July 6, 2018: European Radiology
Chayakrit Krittanawong, Andrew S Bomback, Usman Baber, Sripal Bangalore, Franz H Messerli, W H Wilson Tang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence that artificial intelligence (AI) is useful for predicting risk factors for hypertension and its management is emerging. However, we are far from harnessing the innovative AI tools to predict these risk factors for hypertension and applying them to personalized management. This review summarizes recent advances in the computer science and medical field, illustrating the innovative AI approach for potential prediction of early stages of hypertension. Additionally, we review ongoing research and future implications of AI in hypertension management and clinical trials, with an eye towards personalized medicine...
July 6, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
B S Gerendas, S M Waldstein, U Schmidt-Erfurth
BACKGROUND: Modern retinal imaging creates gigantic amounts of data (big data) of anatomic information. At the same time patient numbers and interventions are increasing exponentially. OBJECTIVE: Introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) for optimization of personalized therapy and diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Deep learning was introduced for automated segmentation and recognition of risk factors and activity levels in retinal diseases...
July 6, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Halla Kamińska, Aneta Gawlik, Tomasz Gawlik, Ewa Małecka-Tendera
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of hospitalizations due to alcohol intoxication (AI) at the Pediatric Health Center, and to attempt to identify factors contributing to the occurrence of intoxication in the population of children and adolescents. METHODS: Medical documentation of 227 patients hospitalized due to AI. 108 (48%) patients were girls and 119 (52%) patients were boys. The mean age of the study group was 14.9 years ±2.1. Data regarding patients, their families and the circumstances of intoxication underwent analysis...
April 30, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
Huimin Cheng, Brian M Linhares, Wenbo Yu, Mariano G Cardenas, Yong Ai, Wenjuan Jiang, Alyssa Winkler, Sandra Cohen, Ari Melnick, Alexander MacKerell, Tomasz Cierpicki, Fengtian Xue
Protein-protein interactions (PPI) between the transcriptional repressor B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) BTB domain (BCL6BTB ) and its corepressors have emerged as a promising target for anticancer therapeutics. However, identification of potent, drug-like inhibitors of BCL6BTB has remained challenging. Using NMR-based screening of a library of fragment-like small molecules, we have identified a thiourea compound (7CC5) that binds to BCL6BTB . From this hit, the application of computer-aided drug design (CADD), medicinal chemistry, NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography has yielded an inhibitor, 15f, that demonstrated over 100-fold improved potency for BCL6BTB ...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Zhongxia Ren, Ai Zhao, Yan Wang, Liping Meng, Ignatius Man-Yau Szeto, Ting Li, Huiting Gong, Zixing Tian, Yumei Zhang, Peiyu Wang
Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a global major public health problem. Chronic low-grade inflammation associated with diet was found to play an import role in the development of MetS, although further studies are needed. The main purpose of this study was to explore the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII), C-reactive protein (CRP) as a sign of inflammation status, and MetS. A total of 1712 participants from eight cities in China were included. Sociodemographic and health-related information was collected by a self-administrated questionnaire...
June 27, 2018: Nutrients
Fei Yang, Xin Wang, Chuan-Jiang Ma, Ya-Hui Chen, Ai-Ping Sun, Jing Jia, Guang-Shang Cao, Yi-Zhou Xin, Xue-Shun Zhang
Steaming method is a traditional processing method for Gastrodiae Rhizoma(GR). The current studies on the steaming method's mechanism of GR are mainly focused on facilitating softening slice, destroying the β-glycosidic bond enzymes to reduce the decomposition of gastrodia glycosides (killing enzyme and protecting glycosides). The researches on the processing mechanism are still incomplete, while revealing and analyzing the active components in the body's metabolic process are important channels and new models to clarify the mechanism of traditional medicine processing...
June 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Hong-Lei Gao, Ai-Hua Zhang, Jing-Bo Yu, Hui Sun, Ling Kong, Xiang-Qian Wang, Guang-Li Yan, Liang Liu, Xi-Jun Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still a major problem nowadays. Under the circumstance of many chemical drugs have poor effects on AD, traditional Chinese medicine has become a hot spot for us due to its multi-target and multi-path advantages. To explore the potential therapeutic targets of Kaixinsan (KXS) protects against AD in APP/PS1 transgenic mice model. All mice were divided into three groups: control group, model group and KXS group. Orally given KXS from two month old, and the control and model groups were given the same dose of distilled water...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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