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AI in medicine

Enrico Coiera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Lancet
James K Ruffle, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz
Technological advances in artificial intelligence (AI) represent an enticing opportunity to benefit gastroenterological practice. Moreover, AI, through machine or deep learning, permits the ability to develop predictive models from large datasets. Possibilities of predictive model development in machine learning are numerous dependent on the clinical question. For example, binary classifiers aim to stratify allocation to a categorical outcome, such as the presence or absence of a gastrointestinal disease. In addition, continuous variable fitting techniques can be used to predict quantity of a therapeutic response, thus offering a tool to predict which therapeutic intervention may be most beneficial to the given patient...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Ai-Leng Foong, Kelly A Grindrod, Tejal Patel, Jamie Kellar
OBJECTIVE: To review the symptoms of serotonin toxicity (commonly referred to as serotonin syndrome ) and the causative drugs and their mechanisms of action, and to equip primary care providers with practical strategies to prevent and identify serotonin toxicity. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles on serotonin toxicity, the causes, and the differential diagnosis using search terms related to serotonin toxicity ( serotonin syndrome, serotonin toxicity, serotonin overdose ), causes (individual names of drug classes, individual drug names), and diagnosis ( differential diagnosis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, anticholinergic toxicity, discontinuation syndrome, malignant hyperthermia, serotonin symptoms )...
October 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Peile Wang, Jing Yang, Zhenfeng Zhu, Xiaojian Zhang
The stems and roots of Marsdenia tenacissima (Roxb.) Wight et Arn., a traditional Chinese medicine and Dai herbal medicine, have been widely used for the treatment of asthma, trachitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, cystitis, pneumonia and drug or food poisoning. Nowadays, the extract of Marsdenia tenacissima, under the trademark of "Xiao-ai-ping", is widely used in clinic for the treatment of different cancers in China. To date, approximately 196 chemical ingredients covering steroids, triterpenes and organic acids have been identified from different parts of this plant...
October 4, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Subhamoy Mandal, Aaron B Greenblatt, Jingzhi An
Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have influenced medicine in myriad ways, and medical imaging is at the forefront of technological transformation. Recent advances in AI/ML fields have made an impact on imaging and image analysis across the board, from microscopy to radiology. AI has been an active field of research since the 1950s; however, for most of this period, algorithms achieved subhuman performance and were not broadly adopted in medicine. Recent enhancements for computational hardware is enabling researchers to revisit old AI algorithms and experiment with new mathematical ideas...
September 2018: IEEE Pulse
Shannon Bohle
As genetic testing gains ground in medicine, the ability to search across the suite of biomedical and clinical care databases offered through the National Library of Medicine/National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-such as PubMed, GENE, Structure, the Genetic Testing Registry, and others-holds the potential to enhance quality of clinical care best practices. "Plutchik" is a voice-enabled, embodied artificial intelligence (AI) chatbot that can perform highly technical medical searches in and across the NCBI suite of databases...
October 2018: Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA
Manuel Salto-Tellez, Perry Maxwell, Peter Hamilton
Histopathology has undergone major changes firstly with the introduction of Immunohistochemistry, and latterly with Genomic Medicine. We argue that a third revolution is underway: Artificial Intelligence (AI). Coming on the back of Digital Pathology (DP), the introduction of AI has the potential to both challenge traditional practice and provide a totally new realm for pathology diagnostics. Hereby we stress the importance of certified pathologists having learned from the experience of previous revolutions and be willing to accept such disruptive technologies, ready to innovate and actively engage in the creation, application and validation of technologies and oversee the safe introduction of AI into diagnostic practice...
October 1, 2018: Histopathology
Vural Özdemir
Industry 4.0 is an innovation framework launched initially at the 2011 Hanover Fair in Germany. It is premised on extreme digital connectivity to build smart factories and deliver extreme automation in science and society. Industry 4.0 has recently scaled up worldwide beyond Germany and Europe. Industry 4.0 employs the Internet of Things (IoT) to connect, communicate, and collect big data from embedded sensors in living and inanimate objects. When we add artificial intelligence (AI) powered real-time data analyses to the IoT, a state of worldwide extreme connectivity, or "The Quantified Planet," is created...
September 27, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Long Guo, Dan Zhang, Zi-Jing Xue, Qian Jiao, Ai-Peng Liu, Yu-Guang Zheng, E-Hu Liu, Li Duan
INTRODUCTION: Artemisiae argyi Folium and Artemisiae lavandulaefoliae Folium, two morphologically similar herbal medicines derived from Artemisia genus. Although the two Artemisia herbs have been used as medicines for a long time in China, the study of their phytochemical and bioactive composition is limited. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively compare and evaluate the composition of Artemisiae argyi Folium and Artemisiae lavandulaefoliae Folium, and find the chemical makers for quality evaluation of the two Artemisia herbal medicines...
September 5, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Rahul Kapoor, Stephen P Walters, Lama A Al-Aswad
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that deals with the development of algorithms that seek to simulate human intelligence. We provide an overview of the basic principles in AI that are essential to the understanding of AI and its application to health care. We also present a descriptive analysis of the current state of AI in various fields of medicine, especially ophthalmology. Finally, we review the potential limitations and challenges that come along with the development and implementation of this new technology that will likely play a major role in clinical medicine in the near future...
September 22, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Hidetaka Arimura, Mazen Soufi, Kamezawa, Kenta Ninomiya, Masahiro Yamada
Recently, the concept of radiomics has emerged from radiation oncology. It is a novel approach for solving the issues of precision medicine and how it can be performed, based on multimodality medical images that are non-invasive, fast and low in cost. Radiomics is the comprehensive analysis of massive numbers of medical images in order to extract a large number of phenotypic features (radiomic biomarkers) reflecting cancer traits, and it explores the associations between the features and patients' prognoses in order to improve decision-making in precision medicine...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
G Fagherazzi, P Ravaud
Digital medicine, digital research and artificial intelligence (AI) have the power to transform the field of diabetes with continuous and no-burden remote monitoring of patients' symptoms, physiological data, behaviours, and social and environmental contexts through the use of wearables, sensors and smartphone technologies. Moreover, data generated online and by digital technologies - which the authors suggest be grouped under the term 'digitosome' - constitute, through the quantity and variety of information they represent, a powerful potential for identifying new digital markers and patterns of risk that, ultimately, when combined with clinical data, can improve diabetes management and quality of life, and also prevent diabetes-related complications...
September 19, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
Dibyendu Dana, Satishkumar V Gadhiya, Luce G St Surin, David Li, Farha Naaz, Quaisar Ali, Latha Paka, Michael A Yamin, Mahesh Narayan, Itzhak D Goldberg, Prakash Narayan
The practice of medicine is ever evolving. Diagnosing disease, which is often the first step in a cure, has seen a sea change from the discerning hands of the neighborhood physician to the use of sophisticated machines to use of information gleaned from biomarkers obtained by the most minimally invasive of means. The last 100 or so years have borne witness to the enormous success story of allopathy, a practice that found favor over earlier practices of medical purgatory and homeopathy. Nevertheless, failures of this approach coupled with the omics and bioinformatics revolution spurred precision medicine, a platform wherein the molecular profile of an individual patient drives the selection of therapy...
September 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yurong Wang, Yuan Xu, Pingping Zhang, Wenchen Ruan, Luyong Zhang, Shengtao Yuan, Tao Pang, Ai-Qun Jia
Macrophages, which have various phenotypes and diverse functions, are becoming the target cells in inflammatory diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the natural product smiglaside A, a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Smilax riparia, on macrophage polarization and investigated the underlying mechanisms. We found that smiglaside A promoted M2 polarization and reduced M1 polarization in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and primary mouse peritoneal macrophages...
September 6, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Ming-Chin Lin, Usman Iqbal, Yu-Chuan Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Lihong Liu, Bo Du, Haiying Zhang, Xiaofei Guo, Zheng Zhou, Aihui Xiu, Chang Liu, Shiyu Su, Hao Ai
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) significantly affects women's health and well-being. To explore the pharmacological basis of the Erxian decoction (EXD) action in PCOS therapy, a network interaction analysis was conducted at the molecular level. Methods: The active elements of EXD were identified according to the oral bioavailability and drug-likeness filters from three databases: traditional Chinese medicine system pharmacology analysis platform, TCM@taiwan and TCMID, and their potential targets were also identified...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Michael J Zellweger, Andrew Tsirkin, Vasily Vasilchenko, Michael Failer, Alexander Dressel, Marcus E Kleber, Peter Ruff, Winfried März
Background: Known coronary artery disease (CAD) risk scores (e.g., Framingham) estimate the CAD-related event risk rather than presence/absence of CAD. Artificial intelligence (AI) is rarely used in this context. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic power of AI (memetic pattern-based algorithm (MPA)) in CAD and to expand its applicability to a broader patient population. Methods and results: Nine hundred eighty-seven patients of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study (LURIC) were divided into a training ( n  = 493) and a test population ( n  = 494)...
September 2018: EPMA Journal
Shang-Chun Guo, Shi-Cong Tao, Helen Dawn
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which can be found in almost all body fluids, consist of a lipid bilayer enclosing proteins and nucleic acids from their cells of origin. EVs can transport their cargo to target cells and have therefore emerged as key players in intercellular communication. Their potential as either diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers or therapeutic drug delivery systems (DDSs) has generated considerable interest in recent years. However, conventional methods used to study EVs still have significant limitations including the time-consuming and low throughput techniques required, while at the same time the demand for better research tools is getting stronger and stronger...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Jie Liao, Cui Hao, Wenhua Huang, Xin Shao, Yangang Song, Liangfeng Liu, Ni Ai, Xiaohui Fan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shenqi Fuzheng (SQ) is a renowned traditional Chinese medicine extracted from Radix Codonopsis and Radix Astragali. Although SQ is widely used to treat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, the molecular mechanisms supporting its clinical application remain elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of current study was to understand its cardioprotective effects at the molecular level using network pharmacology approach. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In an I/R injury animal model, the beneficial pharmacological activities of SQ were confirmed by decreased infarct range observed on drug treated rats versus control group...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Qiang Lu, Cai-Lan Li
AIMS: Kang-ai injection (KA) is a famous Chinese patent medicine authorized by China Food and Drug Administration, which is widely used to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in China. This meta-analysis is aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of KA on advanced NSCLC. METHODS: Seven databases were examined for related studies until January 15, 2018. Odds ratio (OR) was used to evaluate tumor response, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) improvement and adverse reactions, and mean difference (MD) was used to estimate immune functions...
October 1, 2018: Life Sciences
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