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Chemical Abnormalities

Sarah Kishinevsky, Tai Wang, Anna Rodina, Sun Young Chung, Chao Xu, John Philip, Tony Taldone, Suhasini Joshi, Mary L Alpaugh, Alexander Bolaender, Simon Gutbier, Davinder Sandhu, Faranak Fattahi, Bastian Zimmer, Smit K Shah, Elizabeth Chang, Carmen Inda, John Koren, Nathalie G Saurat, Marcel Leist, Steven S Gross, Venkatraman E Seshan, Christine Klein, Mark J Tomishima, Hediye Erdjument-Bromage, Thomas A Neubert, Ronald C Henrickson, Gabriela Chiosis, Lorenz Studer
Environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to Parkinson's Disease (PD) pathogenesis and the associated midbrain dopamine (mDA) neuron loss. Here, we identify early PD pathogenic events by developing methodology that utilizes recent innovations in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) and chemical sensors of HSP90-incorporating chaperome networks. We show that events triggered by PD-related genetic or toxic stimuli alter the neuronal proteome, thereby altering the stress-specific chaperome networks, which produce changes detected by chemical sensors...
October 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Courtney R Sullivan, Catharine A Mielnik, Sinead M O'Donovan, Adam J Funk, Eduard Bentea, Erica A DePasquale, Khaled Alganem, Zhexing Wen, Vahram Haroutunian, Pavel Katsel, Amy J Ramsey, Jarek Meller, Robert E McCullumsmith
We utilized a cell-level approach to examine glycolytic pathways in the DLPFC of subjects with schizophrenia (n = 16) and control (n = 16) and found decreased mRNA expression of glycolytic enzymes in pyramidal neurons, but not astrocytes. To replicate these novel bioenergetic findings, we probed independent datasets for bioenergetic targets and found similar abnormalities. Next, we used a novel strategy to build a schizophrenia bioenergetic profile by a tailored application of the Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures data portal (iLINCS) and investigated connected cellular pathways, kinases, and transcription factors using Enrichr...
October 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Xiangjun Liu, Junfeng Gao, Gang Zhang, Yong-Wei Zhang
Using density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations, we systematically explore various possible atomic structures of phosphorene/graphene in-plane heterojunctions and their effects on interfacial thermal conductance (ITC). Unlike the remarkable orientation-dependence of thermal conductivity in pure phosphorene, the ITC is much less orientation-dependent. In addition, the ITC is found to be high, comparable to those of graphene-MoS2 in-plane heterojunctions and chemically-bonded graphene-metal heterojunctions...
October 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Noor Khan, Pilar Martínez-Hidalgo, Tyler A Ice, Maskit Maymon, Ethan A Humm, Najmeh Nejat, Erin R Sanders, Drora Kaplan, Ann M Hirsch
Fusarium is a complex genus of ascomycete fungi that consists of plant pathogens of agricultural relevance. Controlling Fusarium infection in crops that leads to substantial yield losses is challenging. These economic losses along with environmental and human health concerns over the usage of chemicals in attaining disease control are shifting focus toward the use of biocontrol agents for effective control of phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. In the present study, an analysis of the plant-growth promoting (PGP) and biocontrol attributes of four bacilli ( Bacillus simplex 30N-5, B...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Angeline Nemeth, Bérénice Segrestin, Benjamin Leporq, Kevin Seyssel, Khuram Faraz, Valérie Sauvinet, Emmanuel Disse, Pierre-Jean Valette, Martine Laville, Hélène Ratiney, Olivier Beuf
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are major worldwide health concerns characterized by an abnormal accumulation of fat in adipose tissue (AT) and liver. PURPOSE: To evaluate the volume and the fatty acid (FA) composition of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the fat content in the liver from 3D chemical-shift-encoded (CSE)-MRI acquisition, before and after a 31-day overfeeding protocol. STUDY TYPE: Prospective and longitudinal study...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Lorenz K Fuchs, Glyn Jenkins, Dylan W Phillips
As the human population grows and continues to encroach on the natural environment, organisms that form part of such ecosystems are becoming increasingly exposed to exogenous anthropogenic factors capable of changing their meiotic landscape. Meiotic recombination generates much of the genetic variation in sexually reproducing species and is known to be a highly conserved pathway. Environmental stresses, such as variations in temperature, have long been known to change the pattern of recombination in both model and crop plants, but there are other factors capable of causing genome damage, infertility and meiotic abnormalities...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Diana Cadena Castaneda, Christine Dhommée, Thomas Baranek, Emilie Dalloneau, Laurie Lajoie, Alexandre Valayer, Christophe Arnoult, Marie-Véronique Demattéi, Delphine Fouquenet, Christelle Parent, Nathalie Heuzé-Vourc'h, Valérie Gouilleux-Gruart
The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is responsible for the recycling and transcytosis of IgG and albumin. FcRn level was found altered in cancer tissues and implicated in tumor immunosurveillance and neoplastic cell growth. However, the consequences of FcRn down-regulation in the anti-tumor immune response are not fully elucidated. By using the B16F10 experimental lung metastasis model in an FcRn-deficient microenvironment (FcRn-/- mice), we found lung metastasis associated with an abnormal natural killer (NK) cell phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Stainsloss Isabella, Sankaran Mirunalini, Kannaiyan Pandiyan
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) on inflammatory markers, estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), level of glycoprotein and the mast cell population in 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) 25 mg/kg b.wt. induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. After 8 weeks of tumor formation, rats had access to an oral administrated with DIM 10 mg/kg b.wt. and DIM@CS-NP 0.5 mg/kg body weight respectively for 8 weeks. The oral administration of DIM@CS-NP 0.5 mg/kg b...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Hussah I Algwaiz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There have been a number of reported drawbacks and efficacy issues regarding the use of bleaching agents in the plant industry. This study was conducted to determine the cytological effects of the bleaching agent (Quneex) on the plant cells and plant DNA using the Allium cepa assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was subjected sixteen root meristems of A. cepa to different concentrations of the bleaching agent (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%) with different periods of time (6, 12 and 24 h)...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Bin Yang, Xiangru Liu, Yongqian Liang, Yue Li
Rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RAFLS) proliferate abnormally and resist apoptosis. Geldanamycin (GA) and other HSP90 inhibitors have emerged as promising therapeutic agents that inhibited cancer cell growth. In this study, we explored the effects of HSP90 inhibitor, GA, on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced proliferation and apoptosis of RAFLS, and the underlying mechanism. Human RAFLS was isolated from the knee joints of patients with RA and subjected to TNF-α treatment in combination of various concentration of GA...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Soo-Youl Kim
Transglutaminase 2 (EC; TG2 or TGase 2) plays important roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancers, neurodegeneration, and inflammatory disorders. Under normal conditions, however, mice lacking TGase 2 exhibit no obvious abnormal phenotype. TGase 2 expression is induced by chemical, physical, and viral stresses through tissue-protective signaling pathways. After stress dissipates, expression is normalized by feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of TGase 2 expression under pathologic conditions, however, can potentiate pathogenesis and aggravate disease severity...
October 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Xueli Zhang, Yi Zhao, Yamin Liu, Yang Yuan, Hua Shao, Xiao Zheng
Metabolic disturbance is commonly observed in schizophrenia patients, and the metabolic impacts of atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine (OLA) have received much attention. Drug naive schizophrenia patients display metabolic abnormality to varying degrees, but how this shapes the metabolic responses to chronic OLA exposure is unknown. Using high-fat diet (HFD, 8 weeks) induced obesity, here we explored the metabolic outcome of chronic OLA exposure in conditions of pre-existing metabolic disturbance. OLA treatment (2 mg/kg) for 4 weeks led to markedly reduced body weight and adiposity in obese mice, concomitant with reduced adipose inflammation and hepatic steatosis...
October 4, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Longsheng Chen, Minjie Xu, Zhunan Gong, Samkele Zonyane, Shuwen Xu, Nokwanda P Makunga
BACKGROUND: Sutherlandia frutescens is one of the most promising commercialized, indigenous and medicinal plants of South Africa that is used as an immune-booster, and a traditional treatment for cancer. However, few studies report on its toxicology and dosage in vivo. There is still room to better understand its cytotoxicity effects in animal systems. METHODS: We prepared two extracts, one with 80% (v/v) ethanol, and the other, with water. Both were studied to determine the maximum tolerable concentration when extracts were applied at 0 to 200 μg/ml to a Tuebingen zebrafish embryo line...
October 5, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Zhenzhong Liu, Liu Anfei, Aruo Nan, Ying Cheng, Ti Yang, Xin Dai, Lijian Chen, Xin Li, Yangyang Jia, Nan Zhang, Yiguo Jiang
Smoking is one of the major environmental risk factors for lung cancer. In recent years, the role of long-chain non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in chemical carcinogenesis has attracted extensive research attention. In this study, we treated human bronchial epithelial cells with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) at a dose of 2 μg/mL to establish a malignantly transformed cellular model (16HBE-M). Screening of lncRNAs highly expressed in transformed cells via differential analysis revealed a crucial role of linc00152 in CSE-induced malignant transformation...
October 5, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Christopher T Esapa, Sian E Piret, M Andrew Nesbit, Gethin P Thomas, Leslie A Coulton, Orla M Gallagher, Michelle M Simon, Saumya Kumar, Ann-Marie Mallon, Ilaria Bellantuono, Matthew A Brown, Peter I Croucher, Paul K Potter, Steve Dm Brown, Roger D Cox, Rajesh V Thakker
Kyphosis and scoliosis are common spinal disorders that occur as part of complex syndromes or as nonsyndromic, idiopathic diseases. Familial and twin studies implicate genetic involvement, although the causative genes for idiopathic kyphoscoliosis remain to be identified. To facilitate these studies, we investigated progeny of mice treated with the chemical mutagen N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea (ENU) and assessed them for morphological and radiographic abnormalities. This identified a mouse with kyphoscoliosis due to fused lumbar vertebrae, which was inherited as an autosomal dominant trait; the phenotype was designated as hereditary vertebral fusion (HVF) and the locus as Hvf ...
May 2018: JBMR Plus
Huong Thanh Nguyen, Lucia Wiwid Wijayanti, Kihoon Kim, Won Koo Lee, Choong-Hun Lee, Kwanwoo Shin
This descriptive, cross-sectional study illustrates the high prevalence of intellectual impairment among students at the Kanisius Prontakan primary school near Mt. Merapi, one of the most active volcanic mountains in Indonesia. To determine the possible cause of these abnormal cognitive impairments, we considered and investigated the threats to society and the environment of the frequent volcanic eruptions, as well as the effects of malnutrition due to extreme poverty, in that area. The results showed that intellectual impairment and stunting were remarkably common among the students, with 10...
August 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Wojciech Michno, Patrick M Wehrli, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Jörg Hanrieder
While the molecular mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain largely unknown, abnormal accumulation and deposition of beta amyloid (Aβ) peptides into plaques has been proposed as a critical pathological process driving disease progression. Over the last years, neuronal lipid species have been implicated in biological mechanisms underlying amyloid plaque pathology. While these processes comprise genetic features along with lipid signaling as well as direct chemical interaction of lipid species with Aβ mono- and oligomers, more efforts are needed to spatially delineate the exact lipid-Aβ plaque interactions in the brain...
September 28, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Proteins and proteomics
Vicki S Blazer, Heather L Walsh, Ryan P Braham, Cheyenne Smith
Anthropogenic influences from increased nutrients and chemical contaminants, to habitat alterations and climate change, can have significant effects on fish populations. Adverse effects monitoring, utilizing biomarkers from the organismal to the molecular level, can be used to assess the cumulative effects on fishes and other organisms. Fish health has been used worldwide as an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health. The necropsy-based fish health assessment provides data on visible abnormalities and lesions, parasites, condition and organosomatic indices...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yaichiro Kotake
 It is pivotal to assess the toxicity and safety of chemicals, including medicines, in the research field of environmental health science. Here we introduce neurotoxic mechanisms in mammals of environmental organotin and Parkinson's disease-related chemicals. We clarified that low concentrations of tributyltin decrease α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor subunit GluA2 (GluR2) expression, leading to the vulnerability of cultured neurons. That is, tributyltin reduces GluA2 prior to neuronal death...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Mi Ping, Zhang Qiu-Ping, Li Shi-Bao, Liu Xing-Yu, Zhang Shu-Hui, Li Meng, Chen Dong-Yan, Zhao Xin, Feng Dao-Fu, Xi-Zeng Feng
Environmental endocrine chemicals have various adverse effects on the development of vertebrates. Fluorene-9-bisphenol (BHPF), a substitute of bisphenol A (BPA), is widely used in commercial production. The effects of BHPF on development and behavior are unclear. Melatonin plays a protective role under many unfavorable conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of BHPF on the development and behaviors of zebrafish and whether melatonin reverses effects induced by BHPF. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
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