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Chemical Abnormalities

Sung-Young Yoon, Hyeongwon Jeon, Changho Yi, Seungil Park, Seungmin Ryu, Seong Bong Kim
This study investigated the mutual interaction between the plasma and plasma treated water (PTW). Many works have shown that the plasma treatment decreases the pH of PTW due to nitric oxide electrolyte ion but the interactions between PTW and the plasma are still largely unknown. We investigated the effect of PTW on a plasma as well as the effect of a plasma on PTW using a pin-to-liquid discharge system. It is found that PTW affects not only the chemical properties but also the physical properties of the plasma such as breakdown voltage and concentration of plasma column...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dounia Daoud, Anne McCarthy, Cory Dubetz, Duane E Barker
This study examined the effects of a range of ½-log concentrations of emamectin benzoate (commercially applied as SLICE® ) and ivermectin (commercially applied as IVOMEC® ) on juvenile American lobster, Homarus americanus. Phase I of the research assessed acute (up to 4 days) and chronic (30-day) toxicity of sediment dosed with the active ingredients emamectin benzoate (EMB) formulated as SLICE® or ivermectin (IVM) formulated as IVOMEC® at various nominal concentrations (EMB: 15, 48, 150, 475 and 1500 ng g-1 wet sediment; IVM: 3, 9...
August 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Pravin Shende, Jai Vaidya, R S Gaud
Cancer is the largest family of diseases that involve abnormal uncontrolled cell growth which metastasizes to other parts of the body. The most common type of cancers includes lung, liver, colorectal, prostate, stomach, breast and cervical cancer with skin cancer excluding melanoma (contribute up to 40% of the cases). The conventional treatment approaches like surgery, chemotherapy, etc., have several side effects such as severe inflammation and pain. Hence, pharmacotherapeutic approaches of antineoplastic agents can be advantageous for treating various forms of cancer through the skin...
August 10, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Linda G Kahn, Leonardo Trasande
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the strength of evidence for associations between environmental toxicants and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, suggest potential biological mechanisms based on animal and in vitro studies, and highlight avenues for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence is strongest for links between persistent chemicals, including lead, cadmium, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic biphenyls, and preeclampsia, although associations are sometimes not detectable at low-exposure levels...
August 8, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Michiko Hirose, Masashi Hada, Satoshi Kamimura, Shogo Matoba, Arata Honda, Kaori Motomura, Narumi Ogonuki, Hossam H Shawki, Kimiko Inoue, Satoru Takahashi, Atsuo Ogura
Although phenotypic abnormalities frequently appear in the placenta following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), mouse trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) established from SCNT embryos reportedly show no distinct abnormalities compared with those derived from normal fertilization. In this study, we reexamined SCNT-TSCs to identify their imprinting statuses. Placenta-specific maternally imprinted genes (Gab1, Slc38a4, and Sfmbt2) consistently showed biallelic expression in SCNT-TSCs, suggesting their loss of imprinting (LOI)...
August 5, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Alejandro Gran-Scheuch, Milos Trajkovic, Loreto Parra, Marco W Fraaije
Actinobacteria are an important source of commercial (bio)compounds for the biotechnological and pharmaceutical industry. They have also been successfully exploited in the search of novel biocatalysts. We set out to explore a recently identified actinomycete, Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii C34, isolated from a hyper-arid region, the Atacama desert, for Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs). Such oxidative enzymes are known for their broad applicability as biocatalysts by being able to perform various chemical reactions with high chemo-, regio-, and/or enantioselectivity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Waqar Ahmad
The microtubule associated tau protein becomes hyperphosphorylated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). While hyperphosphorylation promotes neurodegeneration, the cause and consequences of this abnormal modification are poorly understood. As impaired energy metabolism is an important hallmark of AD progression, we tested whether it could trigger phosphorylation of human tau protein in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans model of AD. We found that inhibition of a mitochondrial enzyme of energy metabolism, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) results in elevated whole-body glucose levels as well as increased phosphorylation of tau...
July 28, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Saba Rehman, Zeenat Usman, Sabeen Rehman, Moneera AlDraihem, Noor Rehman, Ibraheem Rehman, Gulfam Ahmad
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been known to adversely affect the endocrine system leading to compromised functions of hormones. The presence of these compounds in everyday products such as canned food, water bottles, plastics, cosmetics, fertilizers, kid's toys and many others goods is a greater concern for general population. The persistent and long-term use of EDCs has deleterious effects on human reproductive health by interfering with the synthesis and mechanism of action of sex hormones. Any change during the synthesis or action of the sex hormones may result in abnormal reproductive functions which includes developmental anomalies in the reproductive tract and decline in semen quality...
June 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Bryson E Finch, Emily S Stefansson, Chris J Langdon, Suzanne M Pargee, William A Stubblefield
During the Deepwater Horizon oil spill rapid natural weathering of Macondo crude oil occurred during the transport of oil to coastal areas. In response to the DWH incident, dispersant was applied to Macondo crude oil to reduce the movement of oil to coastal regions. This study aimed to assess the narcotic and phototoxicity of water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of weathered Macondo crude oil, and chemically-enhanced WAFs of Corexit 9500 to Pacific (Crassostrea gigas) and eastern (Crassostrea virginica) oyster larvae...
August 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Roberta Valskienė, Janina Baršienė, Laura Butrimavičienė, Wlodzimierz Grygiel, Virmantas Stunžėnas, Kęstutis Jokšas, Milda Stankevičiūtė
Frequencies of eight nuclear abnormalities (NAs) reflecting environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, were examined in 739 specimens of herring (Clupea harengus), flounder (Platichthys flesus) and cod (Gadus morhua) collected between 2009 and 2017 at 50 study stations located in the Gulf of Gdansk and the southern part of the Gdansk Deep (the Baltic Sea). The highest levels of geno-cytotoxicity were recorded in fish caught at stations located in close proximity to chemical and conventional munitions dumping sites or in zones polluted by Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs)...
August 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Morgane Danion, Stéphane Le Floch, Joelle Cabon, Lénaïg Louboutin, Thierry Morin
In the Transchem project, rainbow trout genitors were exposed to environmental concentrations of pendimethalin over a period of 18 months and two new first generations of offspring, F1_2013 and F1_2014, were obtained. We investigated the impact of direct chemical exposure on juveniles as well as the potential cumulative transgenerational and direct effects on the larval development and on the pathogen susceptibility of offspring. Depending on the chemical treatment or not of the adults, their offspring were distributed in the tanks of our experimental system, in two batches i...
September 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Jia-Mei Yu, Yuan-Yang Liu, Yu-Cong Zheng, Hao Li, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Gao-Wei Zheng, Chun-Xiu Li, Yunpeng Bai, Jian-He Xu
Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are versatile biocatalysts in organic synthesis that can generate esters or lactones by inserting a single oxygen atom adjacent to a carbonyl moiety. Regioselectivity of BVMOs is essential in determining the ratio of two regioisomers for converting asymmetric ketones. Herein, we reported a novel BVMO from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaBVMO), and exploited it for the direct synthesis of medium-chain α,ω-dicarboxylic acids via a two-step chemo-enzymatic route. To our knowledge, PaBVMO displayed the highest abnormal regioselectivity toward a variety of long-chain aliphatic keto acids (C16-C20) to date, affording dicarboxylic monoesters with a ratio up to 95%...
July 19, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Yue Shi, Bin Zhang, Fanbin Kong, Xilian Li
To analyze prenatal ultrasound data for fetal limb deformities in high-risk pregnant women and the risk factors for prenatal limb defects in high-risk pregnant women.This was a retrospective study of high-risk pregnant women at the multidisciplinary consultation center from January 2006 to December 2015. When deformities were definitively diagnosed in the first trimester by ultrasound, patients were recommended to undergo an abortion, and fetal abnormalities were confirmed by pathological examination (both gross anatomic examinations and fetal chromosome and genetic tests)...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
I-Chun Tsai, Kelly McKnight, Spencer U McKinstry, Andrew T Maynard, Perciliz L Tan, Christelle Golzio, C Thomas White, Daniel J Price, Erica E Davis, Heather Amrine-Madsen, Nicholas Katsanis
Kabuki Syndrome (KS) is a rare disorder characterized by distinctive facial features, short stature, skeletal abnormalities, and neurodevelopmental deficits. Previously, we showed that loss of function of RAP1A, a RAF1 regulator, can activate the RAS/MAPK pathway and cause KS, an observation recapitulated in other genetic models of the disorder. These data suggested that suppression of this signaling cascade might be of therapeutic benefit for some features of KS. To pursue this possibility, we performed a focused small molecule screen of a series of RAS/MAPK pathway inhibitors, where we tested their ability to rescue disease-relevant phenotypes in a zebrafish model of the most common KS locus, kmt2d...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eduardo Merlo, Ian V Silva, Rodolfo C Cardoso, Jones B Graceli
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by abnormal reproductive cycles, irregular ovulation, and hyperandrogenism. This complex disorder has its origins both within and outside the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Cardio-metabolic factors, such as obesity and insulin resistance, contribute to the manifestation of the PCOS phenotype. Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age. Growing evidence suggested an association between reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), such as bisphenol A...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Laís C Brazaca, Camila B Bramorski, Juliana Cancino-Bernardi, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Regina P Markus, Bruno C Janegitz, Valtencir Zucolotto
Melatonin, the 'chemical signal of darkness', is responsible to regulate biological rhythms and different physiological processes. It is mainly produced by the pineal gland as a hormone in a rhythmic daily basis, but it may also be synthesized by other tissues, such as immune cells, under inflammatory conditions. Its abnormal circulating levels have been related to several diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and some types of cancer. Currently, melatonin is exclusively quantified by ELISA or radioimmunoassays, which although are very sensitive techniques and present low detection limits, usually require specialized personal and equipment, restricting the tests to a limited number of patients...
July 7, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Katharine A Horzmann, Leeah S Reidenbach, Devang H Thanki, Anna E Winchester, Brad A Qualizza, Geoffrey A Ryan, Kaitlyn E Egan, Victoria E Hedrick, Tiago J P Sobreira, Samuel M Peterson, Gregory J Weber, Sara E Wirbisky-Hershberger, Maria S Sepúlveda, Jennifer L Freeman
Atrazine (ATZ), the second most commonly used herbicide in the United States, is an endocrine disrupting chemical linked to cancer and a common drinking water contaminant. This study further investigates ATZ-related developmental toxicity by testing the following hypotheses in zebrafish: the effects of embryonic ATZ exposure are dependent on timing of exposure; embryonic ATZ exposure alters brain development and function; and embryonic ATZ exposure changes protein abundance in carcinogenesis-related pathways...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Clive H Wilder-Smith, Søren S Olesen, Andrea Materna, Asbjørn M Drewes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are defined by broad phenotypic descriptions and exclusion of recognizable disease. FGIDs cause multi-organ symptoms and abnormal results in a wide range of laboratory tests, indicating broad mechanisms of pathogenesis. Many patients with FGID develop symptoms following ingestion of fermentable sugars; we investigated the associations between symptoms and intestinal gas production following sugar provocation tests, to elucidate mechanisms of FGID...
July 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
Flávia Martins Costa, Clarissa Canella, Filipa Gomes Vieira, Evandro Miguelote Vianna, Walter Meohas, Edson Marchiori
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be useful in the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma when clinical and radiological tumor features are inconclusive. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 17 patients who underwent chemical-shift MRI for the evaluation of osteoid osteoma. For all patients, two musculoskeletal radiologists independently recorded signal intensities on in-phase and out-of-phase images in the nidus of the tumor, in abnormal-intensity bone marrow surrounding the lesion, and in normal-appearing bone marrow...
May 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
Yi-Ping Chen, Qiang Liu, Qing-Yi Ma, Lorraine Maltby, Aaron M Ellison, Yan Zhao
Captive pandas are exposed to higher concentrations of environmental toxins in their food source and from atmospheric pollution than wild pandas. Moreover, the Qinling panda subspecies had significantly higher concentrations of toxic chemicals in its feces. To determine whether these toxicants also accumulate in panda's blood and impair its health, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals were measured in blood samples. Four heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr and Pb), PCDD/Fs and PCBs were detected in blood drawn from captive Qinling pandas...
October 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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