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Chemical Abnormalities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30551624/evaluation-of-the-novel-synthetic-tyrosinase-inhibitor-z-3-3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene-thiochroman-4-one-mhy1498-in-vitro-and-in-silico
#1
EunJin Bang, Sang-Gyun Noh, Sugyeong Ha, Hee Jin Jung, Dae Hyun Kim, A Kyoung Lee, Min Kyung Hyun, Dongwan Kang, Sanggwon Lee, Chaeun Park, Hyung Ryong Moon, Hae Young Chung
Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin synthesis, catalyzing the initial rate-limiting steps of melanin synthesis. Abnormal and excessive melanin synthesis is the primary cause of serious skin disorders including melasma, senile lentigo, freckles, and age spots. In attempts to find potent and safe tyrosinase inhibitors, we designed and synthesized a novel compound, ( Z )-3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene)thiochroman-4-one (MHY1498), and evaluated its tyrosinase inhibitory activity in vitro and in silico . The chemical structures of ( Z )-3-benzylidenethiochroman-4-one analogues, including the novel compound MHY1498, were rationally designed and synthesized as hybrid structures of reported potent tyrosinase inhibitors, which were confirmed both in vitro and in vivo : ( Z )-5-(substituted benzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-diones (Compound A) and 2-(substituted phenyl)benzo[ d ]thiazoles (Compound B)...
December 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550966/scavenging-effect-of-oxidized-biochar-against-the-phytotoxicity-of-lead-ions-on-hydroponically-grown-chicory-an-anatomical-and-ultrastructural-investigation
#2
Mostafa F El-Banna, Ahmed Mosa, Bin Gao, Xianqiang Yin, Hongyu Wang, Zahoor Ahmad
To evaluate the scavenging effect of functionalized biochar against the phytotoxicity of Pb2+ , original biochar (O-B) was chemically oxidized with either HNO3 or KMnO4 to serve as biofilters (O-BF, HNO3 -BF and KMnO4 -BF) to hydroponically grown chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. intybus). Plants subjected to Pb-stress showed various deteriorations in cell organelles including visible alterations in chloroplasts, malformations in plant cells, abnormalities in the mitochondrial system, inward invagination of cell walls, distortions in the plasma membrane, oversized vacuoles and irregular increase in plastoglobuli formation...
December 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544914/combining-a-qsar-approach-and-structural-analysis-to-derive-an-sar-map-of-lyn-kinase-inhibition
#3
Imane Naboulsi, Aziz Aboulmouhajir, Lamfeddal Kouisni, Faouzi Bekkaoui, Abdelaziz Yasri
Lyn kinase, a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, is mainly expressed by various hematopoietic cells, neural and adipose tissues. Abnormal Lyn kinase regulation causes various diseases such as cancers. Thus, Lyn represents, a potential target to develop new antitumor drugs. In the present study, using 176 molecules (123 training set molecules and 53 test set molecules) known by their inhibitory activities (IC50 ) against Lyn kinase, we constructed predictive models by linking their physico-chemical parameters (descriptors) to their biological activity...
December 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539387/abnormal-iodine-nutrition-induced-er-stress-upregulates-mcp-1-expression-through-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-in-thyroid-cells
#4
Xiaoshan Chen, Huibin Huang, Bo Liang, Jingxiong Zhou
Iodine is an important chemical for thyroid hormone synthesis. The association between iodine nutrition status and the risk of disease present U-shaped curve, as either low or high iodine nutrition status will increase the risk of thyroid diseases. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), which can induce over expressions of inflammation factors, like monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), is related to the pathogenesis of thyroid disease. However, the correlations among iodine, MCP-1 and ER stress are not entirely clear during the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases...
December 11, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529425/agkistrodon-ameliorates-pain-response-and-prevents-cartilage-degradation-in-monosodium-iodoacetate-induced-osteoarthritic-rats-by-inhibiting-chondrocyte-hypertrophy-and-apoptosis
#5
Caiwei Wang, Li Yan, Bo Yan, Li Zhou, Wan Sun, Lingying Yu, Fucun Liu, Wenxi Du, Guangping Yu, Zhengyan Hu, Qiang Yuan, Luwei Xiao, Hongwen Li, Peijian Tong, Jida Zhang, Letian Shan, Thomas Efferth
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Osteoarthritis (OA), characterized by joint pain and cartilage degradation, is the most common form of joint disease worldwide but with no satisfactory therapy available. The ethanol extract of Agkistrodon acutus (EAA) has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of arthralgia and inflammatory diseases, but there is no report regarding its efficacy on OA to date. Here, we determined the effects of EAA on the pain behavior and cartilage degradation in vivo and clarified its target genes and proteins associated with chondrocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis in vitro...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529118/inhalational-injury-and-the-larynx-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Allison Reid, Jennifer F Ha
OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss the existing research on the pathophysiology, impact and management of inhalational injury on the larynx and lower respiratory tract. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted on the PubMed, MedLine, Embase, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases based on the keywords "airway burn", "inhalational injury" and "larynx". REVIEW METHODS: Inclusion criteria included English language studies containing original and review data on airway injury...
December 7, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526399/functional-and-structural-liver-abnormalities-in-former-pcb-exposed-workers-analyses-from-the-helpcb-cohort
#7
Andrea Kaifie, Thomas Schettgen, Monika Gube, Patrick Ziegler, Thomas Kraus, André Esser
The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on liver function and structure are still under debate. Although higher transaminase activity and tumor promoting the potential of PCB reported for animal and human studies was suggested, these studies were not able to provide definitive evidence on the ability of these chemicals to affect liver function and contribution to tumor development. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of PCB on liver function and morphology in a cohort of former PCB exposed workers...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523782/nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling-of-geminivirus-c4-protein-mediated-by-phosphorylation-and-myristoylation-is-critical-for-viral-pathogenicity
#8
Yuzhen Mei, Yaqin Wang, Tao Hu, Xiuling Yang, Rosa Lozano-Duran, Garry Sunter, Xueping Zhou
Many geminivirus C4 proteins induce severe developmental abnormalities in plants. We previously demonstrated that Tomato leaf curl Yunnan virus (TLCYnV) C4 induces plant developmental abnormalities at least partically by decreasing the accumulation of NbSKη, an ortholog of Arabidopsis BIN2 kinase involved in the brassinosteroid signaling pathway, in the nucleus through directing it to the plasma membrane. However, the molecular mechanism by which the membrane-associated C4 modifies the localization of NbSKη in the host cell remains unclear...
December 3, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502704/associations-between-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-equine-metabolic-syndrome-phenotypes
#9
S A Durward-Akhurst, N E Schultz, E M Norton, A K Rendahl, H Besselink, P A Behnisch, A Brouwer, R J Geor, J R Mickelson, M E McCue
Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) is characterized by abnormalities in insulin regulation, increased adiposity and laminitis, and has several similarities to human metabolic syndrome. A large amount of environmental variability in the EMS phenotype is not explained by commonly measured factors (diet, exercise, and season), suggesting that other environmental factors play a role in EMS development. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are associated with metabolic syndrome and other endocrine abnormalities in humans...
November 26, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501071/osteogenesis-of-multipotent-progenitor-cells-using-the-epigallocatechin-gallate-modified-gelatin-sponge-scaffold-in-the-rat-congenital-cleft-jaw-model
#10
Satoshi Sasayama, Tomoya Hara, Tomonari Tanaka, Yoshitomo Honda, Shunsuke Baba
Cost-effective and functionalized scaffolds are in high demand for stem-cell-based regenerative medicine to treat refractory bone defects in craniofacial abnormalities and injuries. One potential strategy is to utilize pharmacological and cost-effective plant polyphenols and biocompatible proteins, such as gelatin. Nevertheless, the use of chemically modified proteins with plant polyphenols in this strategy has not been standardized. Here, we demonstrated that gelatin chemically modified with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major catechin isolated from green tea, can be a useful material to induce bone regeneration in a rat congenial cleft-jaw model in vivo when used with/without adipose-derived stem cells or dedifferentiated fat cells...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488735/stem-cells-therapy-a-review-on-approaches-that-can-be-used-for-treatment-of-respiratory-failures-in-sulfur-mustard-injured-patients
#11
Amir Nejad-Moghaddam, Eisa Tahmasbpour, Milad Sohrabiyan, Hosein Jafari, Mostafa Ghanei
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a toxic agent which causes severe abnormalities in an airway system such as necrosis and inflammation, oxidative stress, chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although possible mechanisms of SM toxicity have been extensively considered, there is still need to find an appropriate clinical treatment to decrease chronic lung injuries caused by SM. Due to extensive progresses and achievement in tissue repairing through stem cells therapy, the importance of cell therapy for the treatment of lung injuries has been increased...
November 29, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483844/abdominal-and-pelvic-imaging-findings-associated-with-sex-hormone-abnormalities
#12
REVIEW
Nicole Kurzbard-Roach, Priyanka Jha, Liina Poder, Christine Menias
Hormones are substances that serve as chemical communication between cells. They are unique biological molecules that affect multiple organ systems and play a key role in maintaining homoeostasis. In this role, they are usually produced from a single organ and have defined target organs. However, hormones can affect non-target organs as well. As such, biochemical and hormonal abnormalities can be associated with anatomic changes in multiple target as well as non-target organs. Hormone-related changes may take the form of an organ parenchymal abnormality, benign neoplasm, or even malignancy...
November 27, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483383/effects-of-assisted-oocyte-activation-with-calcium-ionophore-and-strontium-chloride-on-in-vitro-icsi-outcomes
#13
Marziyeh Norozi-Hafshejani, Marziyeh Tavalaee, Leila Azadi, Mehrnoosh Bahadorani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Objectives: Failed fertilization after intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is mainly attributed to failed oocyte activation and can be overcome by artificial oocyte activation (AOA). The present study aims to compare in vitro outcomes of ICSI following two different assisted oocyte activation chemical procedures (SrCl2 and Ionomycin) in sibling oocytes of ICSI candidates. Materials and Methods: From March 2015 until February 2016, 105 infertile men with 99-100% abnormal sperm morphology, irrespective of sperm motility, concentration, or origin (semen or testicular) were included in this study...
November 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30479366/flavonoids-are-identified-from-the-extract-of-scutellariae-radix-to-suppress-inflammatory-induced-angiogenic-responses-in-cultured-raw-264-7-macrophages
#14
Guowei Gong, Huaiyou Wang, Xiangpeng Kong, Ran Duan, Tina T X Dong, Karl W K Tsim
Scutellariae Radix (SR), also named Huangqin in China, is the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Historically, the usage of SR was targeted to against inflammation. In fact, chronic inflammation has a close relationship with hypoxia and abnormal angiogenesis in tumor cells. Hence, we would like to probe the water extract of SR in suppressing the inflammation-induced angiogenesis. Prior to determine the pharmaceutical values of SR, the first step is to analysis the chemical compositions of SR according to China Pharmacopeia (2015)...
November 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30477550/arginine-does-not-rescue-p-q188r-mutation-deleterious-effect-in-classic-galactosemia
#15
Minela Haskovic, Britt Derks, Liesbeth van der Ploeg, Jorn Trommelen, Jean Nyakayiru, Luc J C van Loon, Sabrina Mackinnon, Wyatt W Yue, Roy W A Peake, Li Zha, Didem Demirbas, Wanshu Qi, Xiaoping Huang, Gerard T Berry, Jelle Achten, Jörgen Bierau, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo, Ana I Coelho
BACKGROUND: Classic galactosemia is a rare genetic metabolic disease with an unmet treatment need. Current standard of care fails to prevent chronically-debilitating brain and gonadal complications. Many mutations in the GALT gene responsible for classic galactosemia have been described to give rise to variants with conformational abnormalities. This pathogenic mechanism is highly amenable to a therapeutic strategy based on chemical/pharmacological chaperones. Arginine, a chemical chaperone, has shown beneficial effect in other inherited metabolic disorders, as well as in a prokaryotic model of classic galactosemia...
November 26, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30472611/toxicity-effects-of-the-organic-uv-filter-4-methylbenzylidene-camphor-in-zebrafish-embryos
#16
Carla Quintaneiro, Bruna Teixeira, Juan L Benedé, Alberto Chisvert, Amadeu M V M Soares, Marta S Monteiro
Ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in personal care products and due to their lipophilicity these chemicals tend to bioaccumulate in the aquatic biota. 4-Methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) is one of the most used UV-filters, and it is commonly detected in freshwater fish tissues. This substance is suspected to be an endocrine disruptor due to its interaction with Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal (HPG) and HP-Thyroid (HPT)-axis. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4-MBC on apical endpoints, biochemical markers and on genes involved in endocrine pathways in Danio rerio...
November 15, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30467683/early-detection-of-elevated-lactate-levels-in-a-mitochondrial-disease-model-using-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-cest-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-mrs-at-7t-mri
#17
Shigeyoshi Saito, Yusuke Takahashi, Akiko Ohki, Yasunori Shintani, Takahiro Higuchi
This study aimed to use chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 7T-MRI for early detection of intracerebral lactate in a mitochondrial disease model without brain lesions. We considered Ndufs4-knockout (KO) mice as Leigh syndrome models and wild-type (WT) mice as control mice. Brain MRI and 1 H-MRS were performed. T2 WI data acquired with the Rapid Acquisition with Refocused Echoes (RARE) sequence were used for evaluation of brain lesions. CEST imaging of mice brains was performed using RARE with a magnetization transfer (MT) pulse...
November 22, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460649/an-insight-into-the-cytotoxicity-genotoxicity-and-mutagenicity-of-smoked-cigarette-butt-leachate-by-using-allium-cepa-as-test-system
#18
Mateus Flores Montalvão, Lorrana Lucas Gomes Sampaio, Huan Henrique Ferreira Gomes, Guilherme Malafaia
Smoked cigarette butt (SCB) discharged in the environment became an issue of unknown consequences for plants. Thus, we aim at assessing the impact of water containing SBC leachate on the meristem cells of Allium cepa roots. We defined the following experimental groups: negative control (water), positive control (cyclophosphamide); water with SCB leachate at environmental concentration (1.9 μg/L of nicotine) (EC1× group) and water with SCB leachate concentration 1000 times higher than EC1 (EC1000× group)...
November 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30459618/metabolism-and-bioactivation-of-corynoline-with-characterization-of-the-glutathione-cysteine-conjugate-and-evaluation-of-its-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#19
Ruijuan Liu, Fang Zhou, He He, Jingyao Wei, Xin Tian, Li Ding
Corynoline (CRL), an isoquinoline alkaloid, is the major constituent derived from Corydalis bungeana Herba, which is a well-known Chinese herbal medicine widely used in many prescriptions. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively investigate the metabolism and bioactivation of CRL, and identify the CYP450 isoforms involved in reactive ortho -benzoquinone metabolites formation and evaluate its hepatotoxicity in mice. Here, high resolution and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry were used for studying the metabolism of CRL...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455777/advances-in-the-diagnosis-of-gerd-using-the-esophageal-ph-monitoring-gastro-esophageal-impedance-ph-monitoring-and-pitfalls
#20
REVIEW
Mojgan Forootan, Homayoun Zojaji, Mohammad Javad Ehsani, Mohammad Darvishi
PH monitoring is not capable of detecting all types of reflux, especially when the amount of acid is very low or not at all in the refluxate. Multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH) is used as a new method to assess bolus transport. The types of reflexes including acid, weak acid and weak alkaline MII-pH is capable of distinguishing more reflux episodes based upon use of physical and chemical parameters of the refluxate, leads to a diagnosis of normal acid reflux from abnormal nonacidic reflux...
October 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
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