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Soil-transmitted parasites

Jean Claude Dejon-Agobé, Jeannot Fréjus Zinsou, Yabo Josiane Honkpehedji, Ulysse Ateba-Ngoa, Jean-Ronald Edoa, Bayodé Roméo Adegbite, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Michael Ramharter, Peter Gottfried Kremsner, Bertrand Lell, Martin Peter Grobusch, Ayôla Akim Adegnika
BACKGROUND: Malaria burden remains high in the sub-Saharan region where helminths are prevalent and where children are often infected with both types of parasites. Although the effect of helminths on malaria infection is evident, the impact of these co-infections is not clearly elucidated yet and the scarce findings are conflicting. In this study, we investigated the effect of schistosomiasis, considering soil-transmitted helminths (STH), on prevalence and incidence of Plasmodium falciparum infection...
August 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lan-Gui Song, Xing-Da Zeng, Yan-Xia Li, Bei-Bei Zhang, Xiao-Ying Wu, Dong-Juan Yuan, Ai He, Zhong-Dao Wu
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of parasitic diseases leads to millions of deaths and disabilities each year in developing countries. China has also been greatly affected by parasitic infections, including filariasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted nematodosis. However, the situation in China improved dramatically after comprehensive parasitic disease control efforts were strengthened, leading to the elimination of filariasis in 2006 and to significant control over other diseases...
August 3, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Marta S Palmeirim, Mamadou Ouattara, Clémence Essé, Véronique A Koffi, Rufin K Assaré, Eveline Hürlimann, Jean T Coulibaly, Nana R Diakité, Kouassi Dongo, Bassirou Bonfoh, Jürg Utzinger, Eliézer K N'Goran, Giovanna Raso
BACKGROUND: Parasitic worms (helminths) are common infections in low- and middle-income countries. For most helminth species, school-aged children are at highest risk of infection and morbidity, such as impaired cognitive and physical development. Preventive chemotherapy is the current mainstay for helminthiases control. Sanitation improvement and hygiene-related education are important complementary strategies, which act by altering children's behaviour. However, little is known about the effect of improved knowledge on the risk of helminth infection...
August 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Pokkamol Laoraksawong, Oranuch Sanpool, Rutchanee Rodpai, Tongjit Thanchomnang, Wanida Kanarkard, Wanchai Maleewong, Ratthaphol Kraiklang, Pewpan M Intapan
BACKGROUND: Two important helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis (an intestinal roundworm) and Opisthorchis viverrini (a liver fluke), are endemic in northeast Thailand. There have been national campaigns in place aimed at the control and eradication of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and opisthorchiasis in Thailand for several decades. However, these helminths still exist and raise concerns regarding public health. This study aimed to evaluate the current prevalence of S. stercoralis and O...
July 31, 2018: BMC Public Health
Andrew W Nute, Tekola Endeshaw, Aisha E P Stewart, Eshetu Sata, Belay Bayissasse, Mulat Zerihun, Demelash Gessesse, Ambahun Chernet, Melsew Chanyalew, Zerihun Tedessse, Jonathan D King, Paul M Emerson, E Kelly Callahan, Scott D Nash
BACKGROUND: From 2011 to 2015, seven trachoma impact surveys in 150 districts across Amhara, Ethiopia, included in their design a nested study to estimate the zonal prevalence of intestinal parasite infections including soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni. METHODS: A multi-stage cluster random sampling approach was used to achieve a population-based sample of children between the ages of 6 and 15 years. Stool samples of approximately 1 g were collected from assenting children, preserved in 10 ml of a sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin solution, and transported to the Amhara Public Health Research Institute for processing with the ether concentration method and microscopic identification of parasites...
July 24, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
T Thanchomnang, P M Intapan, O Sanpool, R Rodpai, L Sadaow, I Phosuk, C Somboonpatarakun, S Laymanivong, S Tourtip, W Maleewong
Strongyloides fuelleborni is a soil-transmitted nematode parasite of non-human primates. The worm is prevalent also in human populations in Africa and South-East Asia. In this study, we amplified and sequenced a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) and of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of Strongyloides adult males recovered from faecal samples from long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand and Lao PDR. The prevalence in Thailand was 31.1% (55/177) and in Lao PDR it was 62...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Ibrahim N Mwangi, Eric L Agola, Robert M Mugambi, Esther A Shiraho, Gerald M Mkoji
Human intestinal schistosomiasis is caused by the blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. With intensified efforts to control schistosomiasis by mass drug administration using praziquantel (PZQ), there is an urgent need to have accessible, quality-assured diagnostic tests for case detection and disease surveillance and for monitoring efficacy of treatment and other interventions. Current diagnostic tools are limited by suboptimal sensitivity, slow turn-around-time, affordability, and inability to distinguish current from past infections...
2018: Journal of Parasitology Research
Frederick A Partridge, Ruth Forman, Nicky J Willis, Carole J R Bataille, Emma A Murphy, Anwen E Brown, Narinder Heyer-Chauhan, Bruno Marinič, Daniel J C Sowood, Graham M Wynne, Kathryn J Else, Angela J Russell, David B Sattelle
The human whipworm Trichuris trichiura is a parasite that infects around 500 million people globally, with consequences including damage to physical growth and educational performance. Current drugs such as mebendazole have a notable lack of efficacy against whipworm, compared to other soil-transmitted helminths. Mass drug administration programs are therefore unlikely to achieve eradication and new treatments for trichuriasis are desperately needed. All current drug control strategies focus on post-infection eradication, targeting the parasite in vivo...
July 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Liesbeth Frias, Danica J Stark, Milena Salgado Lynn, Senthilvel Kss Nathan, Benoit Goossens, Munehiro Okamoto, Andrew J J MacIntosh
Within host communities, related species are more likely to share common parasitic agents, and as a result, morphological similarities have led researchers to conclude that parasites infecting closely related hosts within a community represent a single species. However, genetic diversity within parasite genera and host range remain poorly investigated in most systems. Strongyloides is a genus of soil-transmitted nematode that has been reported from several primate species in Africa and Asia, and has been estimated to infect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, although no precise estimates are available...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Dennis Adu-Gyasi, Kwaku Poku Asante, Margaret T Frempong, Dennis Konadu Gyasi, Louisa Fatahiya Iddrisu, Love Ankrah, David Dosoo, Elisha Adeniji, Oscar Agyei, Stephaney Gyaase, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Ben Gyan, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Background: Helminths are among the most widespread infectious agents prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the developing world defined by inadequate sanitation, poverty and unsafe water sources. This study was carried out to describe the distribution of helminth and malaria parasite infections in the middle-belt of Ghana in sub-Saharan Africa where disease burden, including anaemia is rife and helminths are perceived to be significant contributors of the burden. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 1826 residents located in the middle belt of Ghana where no or very little previous community-based helminth work had been carried out...
August 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
Kerla Joeline Lima Monteiro, Elis Regina Chaves Dos Reis, Beatriz Coronato Nunes, Lauren Hubert Jaeger, Deiviane Aparecida Calegar, Jéssica Pereira Dos Santos, Alexander de Oliveira Maia, Samanta Cristina das Chagas Xavier, Márcio Neves Bóia, Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa
This study aims to describe the prevalence, distribution, and factors associated with soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) in rural localities in Piaui, Brazil. Two cross-sectional surveys (n=605 subjects; 172 families) were carried out in order to obtain socio-demographic, anthropometric, spatial and parasitological data. Parasites were evaluated using Kato-Katz and centrifugal sedimentation techniques. Eggs were measured to assess infection with zoonotic Strongylida parasites. Kernel maps were constructed with Q-GIS...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Susana Vaz Nery, Jessica Qi, Stacey Llewellyn, Naomi E Clarke, Rebecca Traub, Darren J Gray, Andrew J Vallely, Gail M Williams, Ross M Andrews, James S McCarthy, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) including Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp. and Trichuris trichiura are cause of significant global morbidity. To mitigate their disease burden, at-risk groups in endemic regions receive periodic mass drug administration using anthelmintics, most commonly albendazole and mebendazole. Assessing the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs is important for confirming that these regimens are working effectively and that drug resistance has not emerged...
June 28, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ayodele O Majekodunmi, Charles Dongkum, Christopher Idehen, Dachung Tok Langs, Susan C Welburn
Fulani pastoralists in Nigeria lack adequate access to good quality veterinary services and often resort to treating their animals themselves. There are several negative aspects to this, including poor treatment outcomes, misuse of veterinary drugs and subsequent resistance, and further barriers to good relations between pastoralists and veterinary services. A participatory epidemiology survey was undertaken in Fulani communities, to examine their ability to diagnose and treat bovine diseases. Qualitative participatory epidemiology techniques including semi-structured interviews, ranking and participant and non-participant observations were used for data collection...
June 2018: One Health
Roger A C Jones
The capacity to spread by diverse transmission pathways enhances a virus' ability to spread effectively and survive when circumstances change. This review aims to improve understanding of how plant and insect viruses spread through natural and managed environments by drawing attention to 12 novel or neglected virus transmission pathways whose contribution is underestimated. For plant viruses, the pathways reviewed are vertical and horizontal transmission via pollen, and horizontal transmission by parasitic plants, natural root grafts, wind-mediated contact, chewing insects, and contaminated water or soil...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Giovanna Raso, Clémence Essé, Kouassi Dongo, Mamadou Ouattara, Fabien Zouzou, Eveline Hürlimann, Veronique A Koffi, Gaoussou Coulibaly, Virginie Mahan, Richard B Yapi, Siaka Koné, Jean Tenena Coulibaly, Aboulaye Meïté, Marie-Claire Guéhi-Kabran, Bassirou Bonfoh, Eliézer Kouakou N'Goran, Jürg Utzinger
BACKGROUND: The global strategy to control helminthiases (schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis) emphasizes preventive chemotherapy. However, in the absence of access to clean water, improved sanitation, and adequate hygiene, reinfection after treatment can occur rapidly. Integrated approaches might be necessary to sustain the benefits of preventive chemotherapy and make progress toward interruption of helminthiases transmission. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess and quantify the effect of an integrated control package that consists of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation, and health education on soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis, intestinal protozoa infection, and diarrhea in rural Côte d'Ivoire...
June 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Tadesse Hailu, Megbaru Alemu, Bayeh Abera, Wondemagegn Mulu, Endalew Yizengaw, Ashenafi Genanew, Fetlework Bereded
Background: Soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan countries. The highest burden of the disease resides in school-age children. Poor water sanitation and hygiene are believed to be the major contributing factors for the high prevalence. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in rural Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2017-June 2017 among 409 randomly selected primary school children...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Sam H Farrell, Luc E Coffeng, James E Truscott, Marleen Werkman, Jaspreet Toor, Sake J de Vlas, Roy M Anderson
Background: Considerable efforts have been made to better understand the effectiveness of large-scale preventive chemotherapy therapy for the control of morbidity caused by infection with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs): Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the 2 hookworm species, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for STH control include mass drug administration (MDA) programs based on prevalence measurements, aiming at reducing morbidity in pre-school-aged children (pre-SAC) and school-aged children (SAC) by lowering the prevalence of moderate- to heavy-intensity infections to <1%...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Abdolali Moshfe, Nasir Arefkhah, Bahador Sarkari, Saadat Kazemi, Ahmad Mardani
Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne protozoan that can be transmitted through infected blood containing tachyzoite form of the parasite. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of T. gondii infection and related risk factors among healthy blood donors in Boyer-Ahmad County, southwest Iran. Blood samples were taken from 285 healthy blood donors who voluntarily agreed to participate in this study. Sera and buffy coat were isolated from the blood samples for serological and molecular evaluations...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
A J Cooper, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Intestinal nematode infections affect a huge proportion of the world's population. Increasingly these infections, particularly amongst the poorest communities, are controlled through mass drug treatment programs. Seasonal variations of climate and behaviour in these regions can be significant, but their impact on the dynamics of infection and implications for the effectiveness of any mass drug treatment program (a pulsed reduction in worm burden in hosts) is not clearly understood. Here the effect of seasonality on the dynamics of the soil-based helminth, Ascaris lumbricoides, is investigated using a reformulated version of the Anderson-May model for macro-parasitic infections...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K Nielsen, Raffi V Aroian
BACKGROUND: The soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs) or helminths (hookworms, whipworms, large roundworms) infect the intestines of ~1.5 billion of the poorest peoples and are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only one class of anthelmintic or anti-nematode drugs, the benzimidazoles, is currently used in mass drug administrations, which is a dangerous situation. New anti-nematode drugs are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B is a powerful, promising new candidate...
May 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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