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Soil-transmitted parasites

Niaré Doumbo Safiatou, Aissata Ongoïba, Didier Doumtabe, M Tran Tuan, Abdrahamane Traoré, Jules Sangala, Kassoum Kayentao, D Compton Peter, Boubacar Traoré, K Doumbo Ogobara
Soil transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are neglected tropical diseases (NTD), affecting the health status of endemic Malian populations. Mali has a national NTD elimination program using the mass drug administration (MDA) strategy combining Albendazole, Ivermectinand Praziquantel. Malaria still remains a public health problem in Mali. The Community health Center (CSCOM) in Kalifabougouvillage in the Kati health district has benefited from such MDA program since 2010. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence rate of malaria, intestinal and urinary parasite infections in the local population...
2018: Le Mali Médical
Neil A Mabbott
Parasites have evolved a wide range of mechanisms that they use to evade or manipulate the host's immune response and establish infection. The majority of the in vivo studies that have investigated these host-parasite interactions have been undertaken in experimental animals, especially rodents, which were housed and maintained to a high microbiological status. However, in the field situation it is increasingly apparent that pathogen co-infections within the same host are a common occurrence. For example, chronic infection with pathogens including malarial parasites, soil-transmitted helminths, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and viruses such as HIV may affect a third of the human population of some developing countries...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
K J L Monteiro, D A Calegar, F A Carvalho-Costa, L H Jaeger
Despite the reduction in the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiases in many regions of the world, morbidity rates remain high in some rural regions. The Kato-Katz technique is a simple, inexpensive and field-applicable tool commonly used for the diagnosis and worm-burden characterization of these infections. Molecular studies have revolutionized our understanding of the epidemiology and evolutionary genetics of parasites. In this study we recovered helminthic DNA from Kato-Katz slides (n = 93) prepared in 2011 in the Brazilian Amazon...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Astra S Bryant, Elissa A Hallem
Infection with gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes is a major cause of chronic morbidity and economic burden around the world, particularly in low-resource settings. Some parasitic nematode species, including the human-parasitic threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis and human-parasitic hookworms in the genera Ancylostoma and Necator, feature a soil-dwelling infective larval stage that seeks out hosts for infection using a variety of host-emitted sensory cues. Here, we review our current understanding of the behavioral responses of soil-dwelling infective larvae to host-emitted sensory cues, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate these responses...
October 26, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Yasmin Sultana, Sabina Karim, Gouri Rani Banik, Harunor Rashid, Rogan Lee
The burden of parasitic infections among children with disability in resource poor settings has not been summarised through a focused review. Here, we have summarised the key studies reporting the burden of parasitic infections among children without and with disability. In most instances, among children without disability giardia or soil-transmitted helminths dominate the epidemiology, while among disabled individuals enteric protozoa are the predominant parasites to be reported in both resource-rich and resource-poor countries...
October 21, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
D A Oyebamiji, A N Ebisike, J O Egede, A A Hassan
Ancylostoma duodenale , Necator americanus , Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura , the four major Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and also Strongyloides stercoralis infect humans worldwide. Most studies on Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) carried out in Ibadan were faecal examination based while relatively few soil examination based studies were carried out mostly around school premises using limited number of sampling locations. This study was therefore designed to assess the level of soil contamination with STH and associated risk factors in the eleven local government areas of Ibadan...
November 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
Michele Spinicci, Fabio Macchioni, Simona Gabrielli, David Rojo, Herlan Gamboa, Ana Liz Villagrán, Yolanda Vallejos, Marianne Strohmeyer, Mimmo Roselli, Gabriella Cancrini, Piero Olliaro, Antonio Montresor, Alessandro Bartoloni
Tropical anemia can have multiple causes, whether socioeconomic, dietary, or infectious. In the Bolivian Chaco, soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), malaria, and Chagas disease are potential infectious causes of anemia among school-aged children (SAC). Following years of preventive chemotherapy with mebendazole, the prevalence of STH among SAC living in that area is now negligible, whereas protozoan infections are still highly prevalent (81%); Hymenolepis nana is the most frequent intestinal helminth (∼13%)...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Carla Muñoz-Antoli, Paloma Pérez, Aleyda Pavón, Rafael Toledo, Jose-Guillermo Esteban
The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in schoolchildren from Corn Islands (Nicaragua) were examined to detect mono- or poly-STH infected children, measuring different intensity levels, and to elucidate measurably increased odds of being anemic. A total of 341 stool samples provided by 2- to 15-year-old children were examined using a concentration technique and a Kato-Katz slide. Intensity of infection was expressed as eggs per gram (epg) of feces to classify light, moderate, or heavy intensity infection...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Luis Caraballo, Nathalie Acevedo, Josefina Zakzuk
Ascariasis is the most frequent soil transmitted helminthiasis and, as well as other helminth infections, is expected to influence the clinical presentation of allergic diseases such as asthma. Indeed, several clinical and experimental works have shown an important impact either increasing or suppressing symptoms, and the same effects have been detected on the underlying immune responses. In this review we analyze the work on this field performed in Colombia, a Latin American tropical country, including aspects such as the molecular genetics of the IgE response to Ascaris; the allergenic activity of Ascaris IgE-binding molecular components and the immunological and clinical influences of ascariasis on asthma...
October 8, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Almea Matanock, Xin Lu, Gordana Derado, Victoria M Cuéllar, Patricia Juliao, Maricruz Alvarez, Beatriz López, Fredy Muñoz, Andrew Thornton, Jaymin C Patel, Gerard Lopez, Lissette Reyes, Wences Arvelo, Anna J Blackstock, Kim A Lindblade, Sharon L Roy
Improved water quality reduces diarrhea, but the impact of improved water quality on Ascaris and Trichuris, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) conveyed by the fecal-oral route, is less well described. To assess water quality associations with diarrhea and STH, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in households of south-eastern Guatemala. Diarrhea was self-reported in the past week and month. STH was diagnosed by stool testing using a fecal parasite concentrator method. We explored associations between Escherichia coli-positive source water (water quality) and disease outcomes using survey logistic regression models...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Tadesse Kebede, Yohanis Negash, Berhanu Erko
Background & objectives: The transmission of schistosomiasis, caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, relies on freshwater snails that act as an intermediate host while human and other mammalian act as the definitive hosts. Many non-human primates (NHPs) such as Chlorocebus aethiops (vervet) and Papio anubis (baboon) are reported to be infected with Schistosoma mansoni in Ethiopia, but the role they play in parasite maintenance and transmission is still not clear. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of S...
April 2018: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Tian Luo, Shanshan Hou, Li Yang, Gaofu Qi, Xiuyun Zhao
Root-knot nematodes are obligate parasites that feed on plant roots and cause serious crop losses worldwide. Bacillus species (Bacilliaceae) can produce nematicidal metabolites and have shown good potential for biological control of nematodes. In this study, Bacillus mycoides strain R2 isolated from rhizosphere soil of tomato plants exhibited high nematicidal activity against the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In a pot experiment, control efficiency of B...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Akina Shrestha, Christian Schindler, Peter Odermatt, Jana Gerold, Séverine Erismann, Subodh Sharma, Rajendra Koju, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Infections with soil-transmitted helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa pose a considerable public health burden, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, including Nepal. We assessed the extent of intestinal parasite infections among schoolchildren in two districts of Nepal and determined underlying risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and May 2015 in the districts of Dolakha and Ramechhap, Nepal...
September 29, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Antony P Page
Parasitic nematodes represent formidable pathogens of humans, livestock and crop plants. Control of these parasites is almost exclusively dependent on a small group of anthelmintic drugs, the most important of which belong to the macrocyclic lactone class. The extensive use of these drugs to control the ubiquitous trichostrongylid parasites of grazing livestock has resulted in the emergence of both single and multi-drug resistance. The expectation is that this resistance will eventually occur in the human parasites such as the common and debilitating soil transmitted nematodes and vector-borne filarial nematodes...
November 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
L A Tchuem Tchuenté, D R Eloundou Ombede, C Dongmo Noumedem, G N Djomkam Chuinteu, B Fesuh Nono, A C Nguepkap Lemegne, U Femoe Membe, N Feussom Gipwe, C M Kenfack, S K Ngang, M E Ndonou Tchoumdop, L J Cunningham, J R Stothard
In Cameroon, there is a national programme engaged in the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. In certain locations, the programme is transitioning from morbidity control towards local interruption of parasite transmission. The volcanic crater lake villages of Barombi Mbo and Barombi Kotto are well-known transmission foci and are excellent context-specific locations to assess appropriate disease control interventions. Most recently they have served as exemplars of expanded access to deworming medications and increased environmental surveillance...
November 2018: Parasitology
Johanna Kurscheid, Dan Bendrups, Joko Susilo, Courtney Williams, Salvador Amaral, Budi Laksono, Donald E Stewart, Darren J Gray
'Rama and the Worm' is a shadow puppet production targeting neglected diseases in Central Java. It is an entertainment-based intervention study to promote health by reducing the impact of parasitic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminths (STH). The study uses traditional Javanese shadow puppetry ( wayang kulit ) as a vehicle in village communities to disseminate health messages and promote behaviour change to prevent diseases caused, primarily, by inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. The health education messages contained in the play, although using traditional characters and themes, required the creation of a completely new narrative script, using characters and plot lines familiar to the wayang kulit repertoire, but placing them in new situations that relate specifically to health promotion objectives...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
José Ángel Hernández, Cristiana Filipa Cazapal-Monteiro, Jaime Sanchís, Rita Sánchez-Andrade, Adolfo Paz-Silva, María Sol Arias
The usefulness of a strategy involving the biological control of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) with zoonotic potential is tested. A blend of spores of two filamentous fungi, Mucor circinelloides and Duddingtonia flagrans, was provided to one group (G-2) of puppies (five Griffon bleu de Gascogne and five Gascon Saintongeois) shedding eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, and Ancylostoma caninum. Other identical group (G-1) remained without spores. Fecal samples were collected daily and divided into two portions, one sample was immediately analyzed by the flotation test and the other was examined 28 days later...
September 19, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Martha E Chico, Maritza G Vaca, Alejandro Rodriguez, Philip J Cooper
There is considerable interest as to potential protective effects of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) against allergy and allergic diseases. Here we discuss findings of studies done of the effects of STH parasites on atopy and allergic diseases in Ecuador. While cross-sectional studies have consistently shown a reduced prevalence of allergen skin prick test (SPT) reactivity among infected schoolchildren, the removal of these infections by repeated deworming did not affect SPT prevalence over the short-term (i...
September 19, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Luciana Werneck Zuccherato, Luis Fernando Furtado, Celi da Silva Medeiros, Carina da Silva Pinheiro, Élida M Rabelo
Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus are soil-transmitted parasites with global geographic distribution, and they represent some of the most common and neglected infections in the world. Periodic treatment with mass drug administration (MDA) in endemic areas is the recommended action put forth by the World Health Organization. However, MDA can cause the selection of subpopulations that possess the genetic ability to overcome the mechanism of drug action. In fact, beta-tubulin gene mutations (codons 167, 198 and 200) are correlated with benzimidazole resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance...
September 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Chuchard Punsawad, Nonthapan Phasuk, Suchirat Bunratsami, Kanjana Thongtup, Parnpen Viriyavejakul, Sarawoot Palipoch, Phanit Koomhin, Somchok Nongnaul
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are among the most common type of infections worldwide and are widely distributed in tropical areas. In rural areas of southern Thailand where most land is used for agriculture, children are at risk of acquiring parasites, especially STHs. Assessing the current situation regarding parasitic infection in these areas is a prerequisite for developing appropriate control measures. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections, the intensity of STH infections and the associated risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Nopphitam District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand...
September 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
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