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Cells Signaling Nutrients

Dehua Liao, Shuangshuang Wang, Miaomiao Cui, Jinhui Liu, Aiqun Chen, Guohua Xu
Most terrestrial plants are able to form a root symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for enhancing the assimilation of mineral nutrients. AM fungi are obligate symbionts that depend on host plants as their sole carbon source. Development of an AM association requires a continuous signal exchange between the two symbionts, which triggers coordinated differentiation of both partners, to enable their interaction within the root cells. The control of the AM symbiosis involves a finely-tuned process, and an increasing number of studies have pointed to a pivotal role of several phytohormones, such as strigolactones (SLs), gibberellic acids (GAs), and auxin, in the modulation of AM symbiosis, through the early recognition of events up to the final arbuscular formation...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Panagiotis D Velentzas, Lejie Zhang, Gautam Das, Tsun-Kai Chang, Charles Nelson, William R Kobertz, Eric H Baehrecke
Nutrient availability influences the production and degradation of materials that are required for cell growth and survival. Autophagy is a nutrient-regulated process that is used to degrade cytoplasmic materials and has been associated with human diseases. Solute transporters influence nutrient availability and sensing, yet we know little about how transporters influence autophagy. Here, we screen for solute transporters that are required for autophagy-dependent cell death and identify CG11665/hermes. We show that hermes is required for both autophagy during steroid-triggered salivary gland cell death and TNF-induced non-apoptotic eye cell death...
October 9, 2018: Developmental Cell
Kaori Yamamoto, Nishiho Makino, Masayoshi Nagai, Yoshimi Honma, Hiroyuki Araki, Takashi Ushimaru
Accurate DNA replication is at the heart of faithful genome transmission in dividing cells. DNA replication is strictly controlled by various factors. However, how environmental stresses such as nutrient starvation impact on these factors and DNA replication is largely unknown. Here we show that DNA replication is regulated by target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) protein kinase, which is a central regulator of cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients. TORC1 inactivation reduced the levels of various proteins critical for DNA replication initiation, such as Mcm3, Orc3, Cdt1, and Sld2, and retarded DNA replication...
October 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jésica Flores-Martín, Luciana Reyna, Mariano Cruz Del Puerto, María L Rojas, Graciela M Panzetta-Dutari, Susana Genti-Raimondi
StarD7 is a lipid binding protein involved in the delivery of phosphatidylcholine to the mitochondria whose promoter is activated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Although the majority of glucose enters glycolysis, ~ 2-5% of it can be metabolized via the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). Considering that HBP has been implicated in the regulation of β-catenin we explored if changes in glucose levels modulate StarD7 expression by the HBP in trophoblast cells. We found an increase in StarD7 as well as in β-catenin expression following high-glucose (25 mM) treatment in JEG-3 cells; these effects were abolished in the presence of HBP inhibitors...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Sheng Li, Xiaoqiang Yu, Qili Feng
The insect fat body is analogous to vertebrate adipose tissue and liver. In this review, the new and exciting advancements made in fat body biology in the last decade are summarized. Controlled by hormonal and nutritional signals, insect fat body cells undergo mitosis during embryogenesis, endoreplication during the larval stages, and remodeling during metamorphosis and regulate reproduction in adults. Fat body tissues are major sites for nutrient storage, energy metabolism, innate immunity, and detoxification...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Miao Chen, Songbo Xie
Similar to bacteria, yeast, and other organisms that have evolved pathways to respond to environmental stresses, cancer cells develop mechanisms that increase genetic diversity to facilitate adaptation to a variety of stressful conditions, including hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, exposure to DNA-damaging agents, and immune responses. To survive, cancer cells trigger mechanisms that drive genomic instability and mutation, alter gene expression programs, and reprogram the metabolic pathways to evade growth inhibition signaling and immune surveillance...
October 12, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Yuhao Wang, Benjamin Bonavida
The complexities of molecular signaling in cancer cells have been hypothesized to mediate cross-network alterations of oncogenic processes such as uncontrolled cell growth, proliferation, acquisition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, and resistance to cytotoxic therapies. The two biochemically exclusive processes/proteins examined in the present review are the metastasis suppressor Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) and the cell-intrinsic system of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy)...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Sumira Jan, Nazia Abbas, Muhammad Ashraf, Parvaiz Ahmad
Plant leaves offer an exclusive windowpane to uncover the changes in organs, tissues, and cells as they advance towards the process of senescence and death. Drought-induced leaf senescence is an intricate process with remarkably coordinated phases of onset, progression, and completion implicated in an extensive reprogramming of gene expression. Advancing leaf senescence remobilizes nutrients to younger leaves thereby contributing to plant fitness. However, numerous mysteries remain unraveled concerning leaf senescence...
October 11, 2018: Protoplasma
Catheryn W Gray, Adelle C F Coster
Akt/PKB is an important crosstalk node at the junction between a number of major signalling pathways in the mammalian cell. As a significant nutrient sensor, Akt plays a central role in many cellular processes, including cell growth, cell survival and glucose metabolism. The dysregulation of Akt signalling is implicated in the development of many diseases, from diabetes to cancer. The translocation of Akt from cytosol to plasma membrane is a crucial step in Akt activation. Akt is initially synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum, but translocates to the plasma membrane (PM) in response to insulin stimulation, where it may be activated...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Giuseppina Arbore, Erin E West, Jubayer Rahman, Gaelle Le Friec, Nathalie Niyonzima, Mehdi Pirooznia, Ilker Tunc, Polychronis Pavlidis, Nicholas Powell, Yuesheng Li, Poching Liu, Aude Servais, Lionel Couzi, Veronique Fremeaux-Bacchi, Leo Placais, Alastair Ferraro, Patrick R Walsh, David Kavanagh, Behdad Afzali, Paul Lavender, Helen J Lachmann, Claudia Kemper
The induction of human CD4+ Th1 cells requires autocrine stimulation of the complement receptor CD46 in direct crosstalk with a CD4+ T cell-intrinsic NLRP3 inflammasome. However, it is unclear whether human cytotoxic CD8+ T cell (CTL) responses also rely on an intrinsic complement-inflammasome axis. Here we show, using CTLs from patients with CD46 deficiency or with constitutively-active NLRP3, that CD46 delivers co-stimulatory signals for optimal CTL activity by augmenting nutrient-influx and fatty acid synthesis...
October 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Suresh Awale, Dya Fita Dibwe, Chandrasekar Balachandran, Shaimaa Fayez, Doris Feineis, Blaise Kimbadi Lombe, Gerhard Bringmann
PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells are characterized by their ability to proliferate aggressively under hypovascular and hypoxic conditions in the tumor microenvironment, displaying a remarkable tolerance to nutrition starvation. The antiausterity strategy is a new approach in anticancer drug discovery aiming at the identification of potent agents that inhibit preferentially the survival of tumor cells during a limited supply of nutrients and oxygen. The new 5,8'-coupled naphthyldihydroisoquinoline alkaloid ancistrolikokine E3 (4), isolated from the Congolese liana Ancistrocladus likoko, showed potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 cells under nutrient-deprived conditions, with a PC50 value of 2...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Emma Madden, Susan E Logue, Sandra J Healy, Serge Manie, Afshin Samali
Tumour cells endure both oncogenic and environmental stresses during cancer progression. Transformed cells must meet increased demands for protein and lipid production needed for rapid proliferation and must adapt to exist in an oxygen and nutrient deprived environment. To overcome such challenges, cancer cells exploit intrinsic adaptive mechanisms such as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is a pro-survival mechanism triggered by accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a condition referred to as ER stress...
October 10, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Oliver A Stone, Mohamed El-Brolosy, Kerstin Wilhelm, Xiaojing Liu, Ana M Romão, Elisabetta Grillo, Jason K H Lai, Stefan Günther, Sylvia Jeratsch, Carsten Kuenne, I-Ching Lee, Thomas Braun, Massimo M Santoro, Jason W Locasale, Michael Potente, Didier Y R Stainier
Despite their inherent proximity to circulating oxygen and nutrients, endothelial cells (ECs) oxidize only a minor fraction of glucose in mitochondria, a metabolic specialization that is poorly understood. Here we show that the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) limits glucose oxidation, and maintains the growth and epigenetic state of ECs. We find that loss of PKM2 alters mitochondrial substrate utilization and impairs EC proliferation and migration in vivo. Mechanistically, we show that the NF-κB transcription factor RELB is responsive to PKM2 loss, limiting EC growth through the regulation of P53...
October 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Oh Yoen Kim, Su Mi Lee, Won Suk An
Fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutrients and main constituents of cell membranes that are involved in the signaling pathway and associated with health conditions. We investigated if blood or erythrocyte membrane FAs can predict the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and related complications. Omega-3 ( n -3) FAs are important predictors for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, CVD, and CKD risks, and the n -3 index is also a good biomarker for sudden cardiac death in coronary artery disease...
October 7, 2018: Nutrients
Katherine Beebe, Carl S Thummel
Nutrients play a central role in controlling the form and function of the intestinal epithelium. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Mattila et al. (2018) and Obniski et al. (2018) uncover important mechanisms by which Drosophila intestinal stem cells respond to dietary signals, linking nutrients to tissue homeostasis.
October 8, 2018: Developmental Cell
Wolfgang Bernhard, Christian F Poets, Axel R Franz
BACKGROUND: Choline is an essential nutrient, with increased requirements during development. It forms the headgroup of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in all membranes and many secretions. Phosphatidylcholine is linked to cell signaling as a phosphocholine donor to synthesize sphingomyelin from ceramide, a trigger of apoptosis, and is the major carrier of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma. Acetylcholine is important for neurodevelopment and the placental storage form for fetal choline supply...
October 8, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Hiroki Kabata, Kazuyo Moro, Shigeo Koyasu
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play critical roles in the induction of type 2 inflammation, response to parasite infection, metabolic homeostasis, and tissue repair. These multifunctional roles of ILC2s are tightly controlled by complex regulatory systems in the local microenvironment, the disruption of which may cause various health problems. This review summarizes up-to-date knowledge regarding positive and negative regulators for ILC2s based on their function and signaling pathways, including activating cytokines (IL-33, IL-25; MAPK, NF-κB pathways), co-stimulatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-7, IL-9, TSLP; STAT5, IL-4; STAT6, TNF superfamily; MAPK, NF-κB pathways), suppressive cytokines (type1 IFNs, IFN-γ, IL-27; STAT1, IL-10, TGF-β), transdifferentiation cytokines (IL-12; STAT4, IL-1β, IL-18), lipid mediators (LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, PGD2; Ca2+ -NFAT pathways, PGE2, PGI2; AC/cAMP/PKA pathways, LXA4, LTB4), neuropeptides (NMU; Ca2+ -NFAT, MAPK pathways, VIP, CGRP, catecholamine, acetylcholine), sex hormones (androgen, estrogen), nutrients (butyrate; HDAC inhibitors, vitamins), and cell-to-cell interactions (ICOSL-ICOS; STAT5, B7-H6-NKp30, E-cadherin-KLRG1)...
November 2018: Immunological Reviews
Erik Slade, Laura Williams, Jeffrey Gagnon
Ghrelin is a stomach-derived hormone that regulates several metabolic functions including growth hormone release, appetite, adiposity, and gastric motility. Nutrients, the autonomic nervous system, and other metabolic hormones have all been implicated in the regulation of ghrelin secretion. Despite this, ongoing efforts to develop modulators of ghrelin secretion in human diseases are still underway. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a gaseous signaling molecule that is produced both endogenously in many tissues and by the gut microbiome...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Clair Crewe, Nolwenn Joffin, Joseph M Rutkowski, Min Kim, Fang Zhang, Dwight A Towler, Ruth Gordillo, Philipp E Scherer
We have uncovered the existence of extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated signaling between cell types within the adipose tissue (AT) proper. This phenomenon became evident in our attempts at generating an adipocyte-specific knockout of caveolin 1 (cav1) protein. Although we effectively ablated the CAV1 gene in adipocytes, cav1 protein remained abundant. With the use of newly generated mouse models, we show that neighboring endothelial cells (ECs) transfer cav1-containing EVs to adipocytes in vivo, which reciprocate by releasing EVs to ECs...
October 3, 2018: Cell
Cheng-Cai Zhang, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Robert L Burnap, Ling Peng
Carbon and nitrogen are the two most abundant nutrient elements for all living organisms, and their metabolism is tightly coupled. What are the signaling mechanisms that cells use to sense and control the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) metabolic balance following environmental changes? Based on studies in cyanobacteria, it was found that 2-phosphoglycolate derived from the oxygenase activity of Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) and 2-oxoglutarate from the Krebs cycle act as the carbon- and nitrogen-starvation signals, respectively, and their concentration ratio likely reflects the status of the C/N metabolic balance...
October 3, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
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