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Cells Signaling Nutrients

Fabien Hubert, Sandy M Payan, Francesca Rochais
Essential muscular organ that provides the whole body with oxygen and nutrients, the heart is the first organ to function during embryonic development. Cardiovascular diseases, including acquired and congenital heart defects, are the leading cause of mortality in industrialized countries. Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are involved in a variety of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Among the 22 human/mouse FGFs, the secreted FGF10 ligand through the binding of its specific receptors (FGFR1b and FGFR2b) and subsequent activation of downstream signaling is known to play essential role in cardiac development, homeostasis and disease...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Beatrix Pfanzagl, Victor F Zevallos, Detlef Schuppan, Roswitha Pfragner, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
The P-STS human ileal neuroendocrine tumor cells, as a model for gut enterochromaffin cells, are strongly and synergistically activated by histamine plus acetylcholine (ACh), presumably via histamine 4 receptors, and weakly activated by histamine alone. Sensing these signals, enterochromaffin cells could participate in intestinal intolerance or allergic reactions to food constituents associated with elevated histamine levels. In this study we aimed to analyze the underlying molecular mechanisms. Inhibition by mepyramine and mibefradil indicated that histamine alone caused a rise in [Ca2+ ]i via histamine 1 receptors involving T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs)...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Qingcai Meng, Jin Xu, Chen Liang, Jiang Liu, Jie Hua, Yiyin Zhang, Quanxing Ni, Si Shi, Xianjun Yu
Given the dense stroma and poor vascularization, access to nutrients is limited in the microenvironment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). PDA cells can efficiently recycle various metabolic substrates through the activation of different rescuing pathways, including the autophagy pathway. However, the precise roles of autophagy in cancer metabolism are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we first monitored the effect of glucose deprivation on autophagy and on the expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) in PDA cells under the glucose-free environment...
December 11, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Bogdan Beirowski
The Liver kinase B1 with its downstream target AMP activated protein kinase (LKB1-AMPK), and the key nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) form two signaling systems that coordinate metabolic and cellular activity with changes in the environment in order to preserve homeostasis. For example, nutritional fluctuations rapidly feed back on these signaling systems and thereby affect cell-specific functions. Recent studies have started to reveal important roles of these strategic metabolic regulators in Schwann cells for the trophic support and myelination of axons...
December 11, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Fareen Sami, Husna Siddiqui, Shamsul Hayat
Energy acts as a primary prerequisite for plant growth like all the other organisms. Soluble sugars function in providing enough supply of nutrients which further helps in building macromolecules and energy to carry out specific and coordinated development. Sugars functions as nutrient as well as signaling molecule to promote cell division and differentiation in plants. Intriguingly, glucose has emerged as a crucial signaling molecule where hexokinase1 acts as the conserved glucose sensor. On the molecular scale, an extensive crosstalk between glucose and phytohormone signaling has been observed where glucose signals trigger multiple hexokinase1-dependent as well as hexokinase1-independent pathways to mediate diverse developmental, physiological and molecular mechanisms...
November 26, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Eleonora Guadagnin, Debalina Bagchi, Indranil Sinha, Ronald L Neppl
Skeletal muscle regeneration following injury is a complex multi-stage process involving the recruitment of inflammatory cells, the activation of muscle resident fibroblasts, and the differentiation of activated myoblasts into myocytes. Dysregulation of these cellular processes is associated with ineffective myofiber repair and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins leading to fibrosis. PI3K/Akt signaling is a critical integrator of intra- and intercellular signals connecting nutrient availability to cell survival and growth...
December 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ilaria Matarazzo, Elena Toniato, Iole Robuffo
Recently gut bacterial populations seem to be involved in many functions and in the pathogenesis of several medical conditions. Traditionally the intestinal microbiome has been recognized to play an important role in metabolizing food compounds in simpler chemical structures for the absorption of different nutrients, and in maintenance control on gastrointestinal pathogens species. Bacterial populations are implicated in a complicated network of interactions within the immune system, epithelial cells, local endocrine system, that affects the peripheral and the central nervous system, via blood circulation...
December 10, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Giovanna Berto, Sébastien Ferreira-Cerca, Peter De Wulf
The atypical Rio1 protein kinases/ATPases, which exist in most archaea and eukaryotes, have been studied intensely to understand how they promote small ribosomal subunit (SSU) maturation. However, mutant and knockdown phenotypes in various organisms suggested roles in activities beyond SSU biogenesis, including the regulation of cell cycle progression (DNA transcription, replication, condensation, and segregation), cell division, metabolism, physiology, and development. Recent work with budding yeast, indeed, revealed that Rio1 (RIOK1 in metazoans) manages a large signaling network at the protein and gene levels via which it stimulates or restricts growth and division in response to nutrient availability...
December 4, 2018: Current Genetics
Yaoyao Xia, Shuai Chen, Guoqiang Zhu, Ruilin Huang, Yulong Yin, Wenkai Ren
Betaine is a critical nutrient for mammal health, and has been found to alleviate inflammation by lowering interleukin (IL)-1β secretion; however, the underlying mechanisms by which betaine inhibits IL-1β secretion remain to be uncovered. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about the mechanisms of betaine in IL-1β production and release. For IL-1β production, betaine affects canonical and non-canonical inflammasome-mediated processing of IL-1β through signaling pathways, such as NF-κB, NLRP3 and caspase-8/11...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Elizabeth A Cameron, Meredith M Curtis, Aman Kumar, Gary M Dunny, Vanessa Sperandio
Enteric pathogens have complex interactions with the gut microbiota. Most of what is known about them has focused on microbiota-derived metabolites or small molecules that serve as nutrients and/or signals to aid in growth or transcriptionally regulate virulence gene expression. A common virulence strategy is to express a type III secretion system (T3SS), which is a molecular syringe deployed by many Gram-negative pathogens to hijack host cell function. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) requires its T3SS to colonize the intestinal tract and cause disease...
December 4, 2018: MBio
Daohua Shi, Di Zhao, Peiguang Niu, Yanting Zhu, Jintuo Zhou, Huajiao Chen
BACKGROUND: Autophagy occurs in cells that undergoing nutrient deprivation. Glycolysis rapidly supplies energy for the proliferation of cancer cells. Cardamonin inhibits proliferation and enhances autophagy by mTORC1 suppression in ovarian cancer cells. Here, we investigate the relationship between cardamonin-triggered autophagy and glycolysis inhibition via mTORC1 suppression. METHODS: Treated with indicated compounds, ATP content and the activity of hexokinase (HK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were analyzed by the assay kits...
December 4, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Matteo Spinelli, Salvatore Fusco, Claudio Grassi
Diet is the main environmental stimulus chronically impinging on the organism throughout the entire life. Nutrients impact cells via a plethora of mechanisms including the regulation of both protein post-translational modifications and gene expression. Palmitoylation is the most-studied protein lipidation, which consists of the attachment of a molecule of palmitic acid to residues of proteins. S -palmitoylation is a reversible cysteine modification finely regulated by palmitoyl-transferases and acyl-thioesterases that is involved in the regulation of protein trafficking and activity...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Songtao Jiu, Muhammad Salman Haider, Mahantesh M Kurjogi, Kekun Zhang, Xudong Zhu, Jinggui Fang
In higher plants, sugars are nutrients and important signal molecules. Sugar transporters (STs) facilitate sugar transport across membranes and are associated with loading and unloading of the conducting complex. Strawberry ( Duchesne ex Rozier) is one of the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop and a model plant among fleshy fruits worldwide. In this study, 66 woodland strawberry ( L.) ST (FvST) genes were identified and further classified into eight distinct subfamilies in the woodland strawberry genome based on the phylogenetic analysis...
November 2018: Plant Genome
Yongting Luo, Wenyi Xu, Guannan Li, Wei Cui
In all eukaryotes, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling emerges as a master regulator of homeostasis, which integrates environmental inputs, including nutrients, energy, and growth factors, to regulate many fundamental cellular processes such as cell growth and metabolism. mTOR signaling functions through two structurally and functionally distinct complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), which correspond to two major branches of signal output. While mTORC1 is well characterized for its structure, regulation, and function in the last decade, information of mTORC2 signaling is only rapidly expanding in recent years, from structural biology, signaling network, to functional impact...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Christopher M Rice, Luke C Davies, Jeff J Subleski, Nunziata Maio, Marieli Gonzalez-Cotto, Caroline Andrews, Nimit L Patel, Erika M Palmieri, Jonathan M Weiss, Jung-Min Lee, Christina M Annunziata, Tracey A Rouault, Scott K Durum, Daniel W McVicar
Neutrophils are a vital component of immune protection, yet in cancer they may promote tumour progression, partly by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) that disrupts lymphocyte functions. Metabolically, neutrophils are often discounted as purely glycolytic. Here we show that immature, c-Kit+ neutrophils subsets can engage in oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. With limited glucose supply, oxidative neutrophils use mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation to support NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production. In 4T1 tumour-bearing mice, mitochondrial fitness is enhanced in splenic neutrophils and is driven by c-Kit signalling...
November 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Claudia Hinze, Emmanuel Boucrot
Endocytosis mediates nutrient uptake, receptor internalization and the regulation of cell signaling. It is also hijacked by many bacteria, viruses and toxins to mediate their cellular entry. Several endocytic routes exist in parallel, fulfilling different functions. Most studies on endocytosis have used transformed cells in culture. However, as the majority of cells in an adult body have exited the cell cycle, our understanding is biased towards proliferating cells. Here, we review the evidence for the different pathways of endocytosis not only in dividing, but also in quiescent, senescent and terminally differentiated cells...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Oleh Lushchak, Olha M Strilbytska, Ihor Yurkevych, Alexander M Vaiserman, Kenneth B Storey
Every organism must adapt and respond appropriately to the source of nutrients available in its environment. Different mechanisms and pathways are involved in detecting the intracellular and extracellular levels of macronutrients including amino acids. Detection of amino acids in food sources is provided by taste cells expressing T1R1 and T1R3 type receptors. Additionally, cells of the intestine, pancreas or heart sense amino acids extracellularly. Neuronal and hormonal regulation integrates and coordinates the signals at the organismal level...
November 28, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Isaac Tamargo-Gómez, Guillermo Mariño
Eukaryotic cells have developed mechanisms that allow them to link growth and proliferation to the availability of energy and biomolecules. AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) is one of the most important molecular energy sensors in eukaryotic cells. AMPK activity is able to control a wide variety of metabolic processes connecting cellular metabolism with energy availability. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic pathway whose activity provides energy and basic building blocks for the synthesis of new biomolecules...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Erin Diane Lewis, Simin Nikbin Meydani, Dayong Wu
Vitamin E, a potent lipid-soluble antioxidant, found in higher concentration in immune cells compared to other cells in blood, is one of the most effective nutrients known to modulate immune function. Vitamin E deficiency has been demonstrated to impair normal functions of the immune system in animals and humans, which can be corrected by vitamin E repletion. Although deficiency is rare, vitamin E supplementation above current dietary recommendations has been shown to enhance the function of the immune system and reduce risk of infection, particularly in older individuals...
November 30, 2018: IUBMB Life
Chandrabose Selvaraj, Ramanathan Bharathi Priya, Sanjeev Kumar Singh
Gram-positive bacteria signify a surface organelle that decorates the cell surfaces using Sortase enzymes. The mechanism of SrtC lings to the formation of amide or peptide bonds between cell surface proteins that sorting signal to strategically positioned amino groups. Sorting signals linked to peptidoglycan function as the principal architects of cell wall and facilitate each microbe to effectively interact with its host environment. These enzymes play a fundamental role in microbial physiology and interestingly, sequence analysis on Gram-positive bacteria implies that approximately 60% of sortases are categorized into six families, and from that SrtA and SrtC are widely investigated in various literatures...
November 30, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
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