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Healthcare infection

Raymond A Jean, Alex S Chiu, Jessica R Hoag, Justin D Blasberg, Daniel J Boffa, Frank C Detterbeck, Anthony W Kim
BACKGROUND: Readmissions after pulmonary lobectomy for lung cancer are important markers of healthcare quality for surgeons and hospitals. The implications on resources and quality are magnified when examining patients who require multiple readmissions within the perioperative period. METHODS: The Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) between 2013 and 2014 was investigated for patients with a primary diagnosis of lung cancer who underwent pulmonary lobectomy. Using adjusted hierarchical regression models, demographic and clinical factors during the index hospitalization were investigated for associations with single and multiple readmissions during the 90-day postoperative period...
October 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Michael R Charlton, Edward J Gane, Akash Shukla, Bekhbold Dashtseren, Davaadorj Duger, David H Muljono, Diana A Payawal, Ganbolor Jargalsaikhan, Hery D Purnomo, Ian H Cua, Irsan Hasan, Jose Sollano, Khin Maung Win, Laurentius A Lesmana, Mohammad Salih, Pham Thi Thu Thuy, Ravi Shankar, Vivek A Saraswat
BACKGROUND: The population of Asia exceeds 4.4 billion people. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Asia is characterized by specific distribution of genotypes, lack of access to specific therapeutic agents, relatively high cost of treatment, and lack of experienced healthcare providers. Clear consensus on the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of HCV infection specific to the Asian region is a major unmet need. The consensus guidelines documents that have been published to date by major medical societies presume access to an array of direct acting antiviral agents and diagnostic tests that are not broadly applicable to resource limited settings, including Asia...
October 17, 2018: Transplantation
Pete Dayananda, Mark H Wilcox
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the current understanding of the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and the role of the gut microbiome in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)-related postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). RECENT FINDINGS: PI-IBS is a recognized pathological entity and was estimated to affect 1 in 10 patients with infectious enteritis. CDI remains a major healthcare burden worldwide with a one in four chance of recurrence of symptoms following treatment...
October 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Jason P Burnham, Rebecca P Rojek, Marin H Kollef
Central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are responsible for ∼1/3 of all deaths from healthcare-associated infections in the United States. Of these, multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are responsible for 20% to 67%. However, whether catheter removal affects clinical outcomes for MDRO CLABSIs has not been studied. Our objective was to determine the relationship between failure to remove a central venous catheter (CVC) and 30-day all-cause mortality in patients with MDRO CLABSIs. We used a retrospective cohort from Barnes-Jewish Hospital (1/1/2009-10/1/2015) to study patients with a multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa CLABSI...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Fred Leland McClure, Justin K Niles, Harvey W Kaufman, Jeffrey Gudin
OBJECTIVES: Two epidemics in the United States are related: opioid drug injection and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study quantifies the relationship between illicit/prescription drug misuse and HCV infection in 3 population generations: baby boomers (born 1945-1965, inclusive), pre-baby boomers, and post-baby boomers. METHODS: This retrospective study included prescription drug consistency (March-December 2015) and HCV (2011-2015) patient test results performed at a large national clinical reference laboratory...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Nelesh P Govender, Rindidzani E Magobo, Ruth Mpembe, Mabatho Mhlanga, Phelly Matlapeng, Craig Corcoran, Chetna Govind, Warren Lowman, Marthinus Senekal, Juno Thomas
To determine the epidemiology of Candida auris in South Africa, we reviewed data from public- and private-sector diagnostic laboratories that reported confirmed and probable cases of invasive disease and colonization for October 2012-November 2016. We defined a case as a first isolation of C. auris from any specimen from a person of any age admitted to any healthcare facility in South Africa. We defined probable cases as cases where the diagnostic laboratory had used a nonconfirmatory biochemical identification method and C...
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ye Xu, Bin Liang, Chen Du, Xueshan Tian, Xingshan Cai, Yanjie Hou, Hui Li, Rongrong Zheng, Junlian Li, Yuqin Liu, Kaili Wang, Muhammad Ammar Athar, Yaoju Tan, Qingge Li
The sustained increase in nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection incidence and the difficulty in distinguishing these infections from tuberculosis constitute an urgent need for NTM species level identification. The MeltPro Myco assay is the first diagnostic system that identifies 19 clinically relevant mycobacteria in a single reaction based on multicolor melting curve analysis run on a real-time PCR platform. The assay was comprehensively evaluated regarding its analytical and clinical performances. The MeltPro Myco assay accurately identified 51 reference mycobacterial strains to the species/genus level and showed no cross-reactivity with 16 non-mycobacterial strains...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Joseph M Yabes, Serafim Perdikis, David B Graham, Ana Markelz
BACKGROUND: Aerococcus urinae is a gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic coccus bacterium primarily implicated in less than 1 % of all symptomatic urinary tract infections. Risk factors for disease include male gender, advanced age, and comorbid genitourinary tract pathology. Infections beyond the genitourinary tract are rare, though spondylodiscitis, perineal abscesses, lymphadenitis, bacteremia, meningitis, and endocarditis have been reported. Less than fifty cases of A. urinae infective endocarditis (IE) have been described in the literature...
October 17, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Eric Gluck, H Bryant Nguyen, Kishore Yalamanchili, Margaret McCusker, Jaya Madala, Frank A Corvino, Xuelian Zhu, Robert Balk
BACKGROUND: Sepsis management guidelines endorse use of biomarkers to support clinical assessment and treatment decisions in septic patients. The impact of biomarkers on improving patient outcomes remains uncertain. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of adult sepsis discharges between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015, from Premier Healthcare Database hospitals. Sepsis was defined by an All Patients Refined Diagnosis-Related Group code of 720 (septicemia and disseminated infections)...
2018: PloS One
Zhihao Li, Adam M Behrens, Nitzan Ginat, Stephany Y Tzeng, Xueguang Lu, Sarit Sivan, Robert Langer, Ana Jaklenec
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance poses a major challenge to healthcare. Probiotics offer a potential alternative treatment method but are often incompatible with antibiotics themselves, diminishing their overall therapeutic utility. This work uses biofilm-inspired encapsulation of probiotics to confer temporary antibiotic protection and to enable the coadministration of probiotics and antibiotics. Probiotics are encapsulated within alginate, a crucial component of pseudomonas biofilms, based on a simple two-step alginate cross-linking procedure...
October 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ryan K Dahlberg, Mary Elizabeth Lyvers, Thomas K Dahlberg
Salmonella vertebral discitis/osteomyelitis is a rare manifestation of Salmonella infection. Here, we report a case of a 54-year-old Caucasian male who presented with five weeks of progressively worsening bilateral low back, buttock, and lower extremity pain following an 8-foot fall onto concrete from a ladder. Initial workup following the fall included hip X-ray and MRI of the lumbar spine and revealed only mild lumbar facet arthropathy and moderate left neural foraminal stenosis at L3-L4 without any concomitant hip or spine fracture...
2018: Case Reports in Orthopedics
Fan Zhang, Olivia Ledue, Maria Jun, Cibelly Goulart, Richard Malley, Ying-Jie Lu
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. S. aureus colonizes 20 to 80% of humans at any one time and causes a variety of illnesses. Strains that are resistant to common antibiotics further complicate management. S. aureus vaccine development has been unsuccessful so far, largely due to the incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of protection against this pathogen. Here, we studied the role of different aspects of adaptive immunity induced by an S. aureus vaccine in protection against S...
October 16, 2018: MBio
T Carta, J P Gawaziuk, J Diaz-Abele, S Liu, M Jeschke, S Logsetty
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to identify what burn survivors and front-line staff indicate would improve satisfaction with burn dressings, and the ranking of importance of different burn dressing characteristics. These findings will guide the development of future dressings to meet these needs. METHODS: Burn survivors (including the person injured and their family) and front-line burn healthcare providers completed a questionnaire on the importance given to different burn dressing characteristics (non-stick, absorbent, able to wear for a long time, flexible, easy to put on, easy to take off, antimicrobial, and non-bulky), and about the adequacy of pain management during dressing changes...
October 13, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Khuondyla Pal, Vohith Khol, Say Sok, Pheak Chhoun, Laura Ferguson, Gitau Mburu
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV experience worse HIV care outcomes compared to adults, especially during transition from pediatric to adult care. However, data regarding adolescents are limited. This paper describes and compares characteristics of male and female adolescents living with HIV preparing for transition from pediatric to adult care in Cambodia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2016 among 328 adolescents aged 15-17, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics...
October 16, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Radhika Nair, Virginia S Haynes, Mir Siadaty, Nick C Patel, Adam S Fleisher, Derek Van Amerongen, Michael M Witte, AnnCatherine M Downing, Leslie Ann Hazel Fernandez, Vishal Saundankar, Daniel E Ball
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine patient characteristics and health care resource utilization (HCRU) in the 36 months prior to a confirmatory diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to a matched cohort without dementia during the same time interval. METHODS: Patients newly diagnosed with AD (with ≥2 claims) were identified between January 1, 2013 to September 31, 2015, and the date of the second claim for AD was defined as the index date...
October 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Samuel R Huntley, Sung Lee, Rishi Kalra, Gerald McGwin, Sameer Naranje, Ashish Shah
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSI) in orthopaedic surgery are common nosocomial complications that contribute significantly to patient morbidity and increased healthcare costs. While past studies support an increase in the incidence of SSI during the summer months in orthopaedic spine surgery and joint arthroplasty, there has not been any study examining the association between season and SSI in the setting of orthopaedic foot and ankle surgery. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from 2011-2015 was conducted...
May 2, 2018: Foot
Nabeel Khan, Chinmay Trivedi, Himanshu Kavani, Elina Medvedeva, James Lewis, Yu-Xiao Yang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The risk of herpes zoster virus infection is increased among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The herpes zoster vaccine (HZV) is therefore recommended for these patients, but little is known about its effectiveness, resulting in low use. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the national veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VAHS) from January 1, 2000 through June 30, 2016. We collected data from 39983 veterans with IBD who had not received the HZV by an age of 60 years...
October 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales, José Antonio Suárez, Alejandro Risquez, Lourdes Delgado-Noguera, Alberto Paniz-Mondolfi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Anne-Marie Salisbury, Kevin Woo, Sandip Sarkar, Greg Schultz, Matthew Malone, Dieter O Mayer, Steven L Percival
A biofilm is a community of microorganisms that adhere to each other and to surfaces and secrete extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) encasing themselves in a matrix. Biofilms are a major healthcare concern, as they can form on medical devices leading to infection. Additionally, there is growing evidence to show their ability to form in chronic wounds, which leads to delayed wound healing and inflammation. Due to a number of reasons, such as formation of the EPS resulting in sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials reaching the bacterial cells, slow growth rate of bacterial cells rendering some antibiotics ineffective, and the presence of persister cells, biofilms show increased tolerance to many antimicrobials and antibiotics...
October 16, 2018: Surgical Technology International
Satoshi Ogihara, Takashi Yamazaki, Hirohiko Inanami, Hiroyuki Oka, Toru Maruyama, Kota Miyoshi, Yuichi Takano, Hirotaka Chikuda, Seiichi Azuma, Naohiro Kawamura, Kiyofumi Yamakawa, Nobuhiro Hara, Yasushi Oshima, Jiro Morii, Rentaro Okazaki, Yujiro Takeshita, Sakae Tanaka, Kazuo Saita
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a significant complication after spinal surgery and is associated with increased hospital length of stay, high healthcare costs, and poor patient outcomes. Accurate identification of risk factors is essential to develop strategies to prevent wound infections. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine the independent factors associated with SSI in posterior lumbar surgeries without fusion (laminectomy and/or herniotomy) for degenerative diseases in adult patients...
2018: PloS One
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