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Healthcare infection

Anand Wagh, Ajay Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare-associated infections put a tremendous burden on health services around. In the last few decades, there has been a tremendous advancement in foetal and maternal care, and it has led to premature babies born as early as 25 weeks of gestation being nursed and cared for in neonatal and paediatric intensive care units. However, these children can pick up a number of uncommon and rare hospital-acquired infections including central nervous system (CNS) infections. METHODS: The authors have given their own insight as to the prevention of healthcare-associated infections in paediatric intensive care settings and reviewed the current literature on the topic...
August 18, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Justine Benevent, Caroline Hurault-Delarue, Mélanie Araujo, Jean-Louis Montastruc, Isabelle Lacroix, Christine Damase-Michel
INTRODUCTION: The POMME (PrescriptiOn Médicaments Mères Enfants) cohort has been implemented for the evaluation of the long-term consequences of medicine prenatal exposure. It holds anonymous medical information as well as information on medicine and healthcare reimbursement to the children, from the first day of intra-uterine life until childhood. OBJECTIVE: This article provides a description of the cohort regarding its structure and content and presents an outlook of the studies that could be performed with this new data source...
August 19, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Nagham Khanafer, Philippe Vanhems, Frédéric Barbut, Catherine Eckert, Michel Perraud, François Vandenesch, Christine Luxemburger, Clarisse Demont
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) produces a variety of clinical presentations ranging from mild diarrhea to severe infection with fulminant colitis, septic shock, and death. CDI puts a heavy burden on healthcare systems due to increased morbidity and mortality, and higher costs. We evaluated the clinical impact of CDI in terms of complications and mortality in a French university hospital compared with patients with diarrhea unrelated to CDI. A 3-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted in a French university hospital...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Ellen W Evans, Elizabeth C Redmond
OBJECTIVES: To explore awareness of foodborne infection risk during chemotherapy treatment, to assess knowledge of risk-reducing food safety practices in patients with cancer and their family caregivers, and to determine self-reported food-handling practices. SAMPLE & SETTING: A convenience sample of 121 patients receiving chemotherapy and 51 family caregivers of patients receiving chemotherapy in the United Kingdom recruited in the community and using online advertising...
September 1, 2018: Oncology Nursing Forum
Logan L Vincent, Catherine M Otto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infective endocarditis remains a highly mortal disease, yet the diagnosis often is missed or made only late in the disease course. The spectrum of patients presenting with endocarditis is shifting with different risk factors, predisposing patient characteristics, and treatment recommendations than in the past. This review addresses changes in the epidemiology of infective endocarditis, along with current diagnostic imaging modalities, treatment recommendations, and mortality trends...
August 16, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Yu Lü, Min Hong Cai, Jian Cheng, Kun Zou, Qian Xiang, Jia Yu Wu, Dao Qiong Wei, Zhong Hua Zhou, Hui Wang, Chen Wang, Jing Chen
Background: In 2018, the Chinese government demanded nationwide implementation of medical insurance payment methods based on Single-Disease Payment (SDP), but during the operation process the medical insurance system did not fully consider the extra economic burden caused by healthcare-associated infection (HAI). HAIs can prolong the length of stay and increase the hospitalization costs, but only a few studies have been conducted in Sichuan province, China. We evaluated the hospitalization costs and length of stay due to HAI in Sichuan province based on the prevalence survey, and provided data reference for China's medical insurance reform...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Josep M Llibre, María José Fuster-Ruizdeapodaca, Antonio Rivero, Emma Fernández
There has been a significant change in the clinical characteristics of people living with HIV, with new needs arising that must be tackled. The life expectancy of a subject diagnosed early with HIV infection and recei-ving suppressive antiretroviral therapy is currently on a par with the life expectancy of the general popula-tion. HIV is now a chronic treatable disease and requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes both the hospital medicine specialties and primary care physicians. The fragmented model to provide social and medical healthcare hinders the proper management of patients with HIV infection...
September 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Mónica Morán Arribas, Antonio Rivero, Emma Fernández, Toni Poveda, Joan A Caylá
In Spain, HIV incidence has remained stable and higher than the European average since 2000 due to insuf-ficient prevention measures. An estimated 130,000-160,000 people are believed to be living with HIV in Spain, including 18% who do not know they are infected, and half are late diagnoses, with a poorer clinical course, lower quality of life and life expectancy, as well as higher costs. Late diagnosis is more common in heterosexuals, intravenous drug users, people over 50 years of age and immigrants, whereas men who have sex with men are the only group where the rate of new diagnoses is increasing...
September 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Daniel Álvarez Cabo, Antonio Alemany, José Manuel Martínez Sesmero, Santiago Moreno Guillén
This chapter reviews the current model of HIV patient care and its economic impact. There are clinical and geographical differences in the care HIV patients receive and a need to develop new models of comprehen-sive HIV care has been identified. HIV infection in Spain is an important and expensive public health problem. The main costs are due to an-tiretroviral therapy, indirect costs and the cost of admission, consultation and diagnostic testing. A strong correlation between severity and cost has been identified...
September 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Yu-Jhen Fan, Minh Tan Pham, Chun-Jen Huang
Biomaterials-associated infections (BAIs) are related to bacterial colonization on medical devices, which lead to a serious medical burden, such as increased healthcare cost, prolonged hospital stays, high mortality and morbidity. To reduce the risk of infections, in this work, a new approach which make use of a bio-inspired coating with dual antimicrobial and antifouling functions was developed through rapid deposition of functional polydopamine (pDA) and antimicrobial copper ions, and subsequent conjugation of zwitterionic antifouling sulfobetaine (SB) moieties by the aza-Michael addition reaction...
August 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Robert C Cope, Joshua V Ross, Monique Chilver, Nigel P Stocks, Lewis Mitchell
Understanding the epidemiology of seasonal influenza is critical for healthcare resource allocation and early detection of anomalous seasons. It can be challenging to obtain high-quality data of influenza cases specifically, as clinical presentations with influenza-like symptoms may instead be cases of one of a number of alternate respiratory viruses. We use a new dataset of confirmed influenza virological data from 2011-2016, along with high-quality denominators informing a hierarchical observation process, to model seasonal influenza dynamics in New South Wales, Australia...
August 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Alex H S Harris, Alfred C Kuo, Kevin J Bozic, Edmund Lau, Thomas Bowe, Shalini Gupta, Nicholas J Giori
BACKGROUND: The American Joint Replacement Registry (AJRR) Total Joint Risk Calculator uses demographic and clinical parameters to provide risk estimates for 90-day mortality and 2-year periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). The tool is intended to help surgeons counsel their Medicare-eligible patients about their risk of death and PJI after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). However, for a predictive risk model to be useful, it must be accurate when applied to new patients; this has yet to be established for this calculator...
September 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Parissa Massahikhaleghi, Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi, Sayed Ataullah Saeedzai, Sayyed Musa Hossaini, Sayed Amin Hamedi, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher J L Murray, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: Afghanistan is one of the low-income countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region with young population and myriad of healthcare needs. We aim to report the burden of diseases and injuries in Afghanistan between 1990 and 2016. METHODS: We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016 study for estimates of deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost, years of life lived with disability, maternal mortality ratio (MMR), neonatal mortality rates (NMRs) and under 5 mortality rates (U5MR) in Afghanistan...
August 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Yin Ren, Rosh K V Sethi, Konstantina M Stankovic
OBJECTIVE: Complications due to acute otitis media (AOM), while rare, are associated with significant morbidity and are not well characterized from an epidemiological perspective. We analyze the pattern of presentation and emergency department (ED) utilization in patients with AOM and associated complications. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from 2009 to 2011. SETTING: Emergency Department...
September 2018: Otology & Neurotology
C S Moura, E Rahme, W P Maksymowych, M Abrahamowicz, L Bessette, S Bernatsky
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of hospitalized infection among initiators of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and/or anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHOD: We studied AS patients, new users of anti-TNF drugs and/or DMARDs between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2011. Cohort entry was defined as the date of first prescription of any of these drugs. We used Cox regression with three time-varying drug exposures: current use of DMARDs without biologics, current use of anti-TNF agents alone or in combination with DMARDs (anti-TNF ± DMARDs), and current non-use...
August 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
Vidhi Jain, Chinmoy Sahu, Nayani Amrin Fatema Afzal Hussain, Malay Ghar, Kashi Nath Prasad
Background: Chryseobacterium indologenes is a hospital environment contaminant and can cause healthcare-associated infections. Methods: Patients with C. indologenes infections in a tertiary care center in North India for 6 months were evaluated for susceptibility patterns, comorbidities, mechanical devices, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. The organism was provisionally identified phenotypically, and identification was confirmed by the BD Phoenix automated microbiology system...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Young Ah Kim, Yoon Soo Park, Taemi Youk, Hyukmin Lee, Kyungwon Lee
National antimicrobial usage and prescription patterns during the 12 years from 2002 to 2013 were analyzed using the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. Antimicrobial usage was analyzed by major illness, sex, age, area of residence, income rank, diagnosis, and type of medical institution for each year. Total antimicrobial prescriptions increased from 15.943 daily defined dose (DDD)/1,000 inhabitants/day in 2002 to 24.219 in 2013. In 2013, 72% of total prescriptions were administered in clinics...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gigil Daniel Marme
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in many countries. There is a greater threat of exposure to TB in congregate settings including healthcare facilities, prisons and households where health workers treat patients with TB. In healthcare facilities, the key areas of risk of infection include settings where people with undiagnosed TB, including multidrug-resistant TB, congregate, such as outpatient waiting areas, pathology waiting areas, radiology departments and pharmacies, and wards where untreated patients await investigation results...
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Jan Walter, Sebastian Haller, Chantal Quinten, Tommi Kärki, Benedikt Zacher, Tim Eckmanns, Muna Abu Sin, Diamantis Plachouras, Pete Kinross, Carl Suetens, Ecdc Pps Study Group
An aim of the ECDC point prevalence survey (PPS) in European Union/European Economic Area acute care hospitals was to acquire standardised healthcare-associated infections (HAI) data. We analysed one of the most common HAIs in the ECDC PPS, healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP). Standardised HAI case definitions were provided and countries were advised to recruit nationally representative subsets of hospitals. We calculated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) around prevalence estimates and adjusted for clustering at hospital level...
August 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Erik Snesrud, Patrick McGann, Edward Walsh, Ana Ong, Rosslyn Maybank, Yoon Kwak, Jean Campbell, Anthony Jones, Kelly Vore, Mary Hinkle, Emil Lesho
Elizabethkingia spp are Gram-negative bacteria associated with neonatal meningitis. In 2015-2016, an outbreak of Elizabethkingia anophelis infection that involved 63 patients and 18 deaths occurred in Wisconsin. Despite a multistate investigation, as of September 2016 the source remained undetermined, and experts warned of reemergence. We describe here the first cases of E anophelis infection in New York, including the case of a healthy infant without previous healthcare contact.
August 10, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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