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Sexuality gender studies sexual orientation

John E Pachankis
The time has arrived for psychological science to translate the accumulating empirical research regarding sexual and gender minority (SGM) mental health into evidence-based affirmative treatments for this population. Far from the unscientific, homophobic theories of the early 20th century, several recent efforts in psychological science are starting to pave the way for evidence-based SGM-affirmative mental health treatments. These efforts include (a) identifying clear treatment targets for SGM, (b) conducting treatment studies that test the efficacy of therapy for SGM populations, (c) increased reporting of sexual orientation and gender diversity in existing randomized controlled trials conducted with the general population, and (d) reducing stigma itself, which has heretofore impeded the resources necessary to produce scientific evidence about SGM-affirmative treatments...
December 2018: American Psychologist
Swagata Banik, Brian Dodge, Megan Schmidt-Sane, Murugesan Sivasubramanian, Jessamyn Bowling, Shruta Mengle Rawat, Alpana Dange, Vivek Anand
Research examining the sexual identities, behaviors, and experiences of bisexual men outside of Western contexts (including in India) is limited. Individuals who self-identify as bisexual due to their orientation toward partners of more than one gender face distinct psychosocial challenges relative to exclusively heterosexual, gay/lesbian, or other individuals. We conducted four focus group discussions (n = 22) and in-depth interviews (n = 50) with self-identified bisexual men (age 18 years and older) who were recruited from the metropolitan area of Mumbai, India, between June and August 2013...
December 3, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Adi Nugroho, Robert W S Coulter, Vicki Erasmus, Pipiet A Laksmono, Tengku S Mihari, Jan Hendrik Richardus
Implementers of outreach program in Indonesia often provide formal training for their outreach workers (OWs) only at the startup. We believe continuous training can be provided by experienced OWs at any time if an appropriate training package is available. Using a one-group pre-test-post-test study design; we developed, implemented and evaluated an OW-informed training program aimed at increasing OWs' knowledge and skills for outreaching to men who have sex with men and transgender women. We analyzed longitudinal data from 75 OWs from 7 Indonesian cities using one-way within-subjects ANOVA to examine the effects of the training program on participants' knowledge and perceived skills over time Average overall knowledge among participants increased from pre-test to immediate post-test (P < 0...
December 1, 2018: Health Education Research
Katharine J McCarthy, Ruchi Mehta, Nicole A Haberland
INTRODUCTION: Harmful gender norms, views on the acceptability of violence against women, and power inequities in relationships have been explored as key drivers of male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet such antecedents have been inconsistently measured in the empirical literature. This systematic review aimed to identify which measures of gender inequitable norms, views, relations and practices are currently being used in the field, and which are most closely tied with male IPV perpetration...
2018: PloS One
Smita C Banerjee, Jessica M Staley, Koshy Alexander, Chasity B Walters, Patricia A Parker
A compelling touted strategy for reducing discrimination towards lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients is improving communicative competence of health care providers (HCPs); however, evidence base for describing communication practices between HCPs and LGBT patients is scarce. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine HCP experiences and perspectives as they relate to patient sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) disclosure, perceived communication and structural/administrative challenges in interactions with LGBT patients, and suggestions for improving care of LGBT patients...
November 22, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Kevin L Nadal
Microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, intentional or unintentional, that demonstrate bias toward members of historically marginalized groups. While numerous quantitative studies on racial microaggressions have emerged in recent years, studies on sexual orientation and gender identity microaggressions have been mostly qualitative-likely due to limited measures of anti-LGBTQ microaggressions. In this three-part study, the Sexual Orientation Microaggressions Scale (SOMS) and the Gender Identity Microaggressions Scale (GIMS) are introduced to empirically explore the multifaceted experiences of microaggressions toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) people and transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
O A Oginni, E J Robinson, A Jones, Q Rahman, K A Rimes
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority youth have elevated suicidal ideation and self-harm compared with heterosexual young people; however, evidence for mediating mechanisms is predominantly cross-sectional. Using a longitudinal design, we investigated self-esteem and depressive symptoms as mediators of increased rates of suicidal ideation or self-harm (SISH) among sexual minority youth, and the roles of childhood gender nonconformity (CGN) and sex as moderators of these relationships. METHOD: In total, 4274 youth from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort reported sexual orientation at age 15 years, and past-year SISH at age 20 years...
November 23, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Dustin T Duncan, Sophia Zweig, H Rhodes Hambrick, Joseph J Palamar
INTRODUCTION: The opioid epidemic in the U.S. continues to increase in severity, and misuse of prescription opioids is of particular concern since it commonly precedes heroin use. This study examined whether sexual orientation (i.e., sexual identity and sexual attraction) is a risk factor for prescription opioid misuse and use disorder among a nationally representative sample of adults in the U.S. METHODS: This study used data from adult participants (ages ≥18 years) in the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health...
November 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Karisa K Harland, Corinne Peek-Asa, Audrey F Saftlas
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in an emergency department (ED) by sexual orientation and gender identification. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adult patients ( n = 1,136) presenting to a Level I Trauma Center ED from November 2015 to November 2016. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of reporting any IPV or IPV subtypes (physical or sexual IPV or battering) by sexual orientation and gender identification, controlling for confounders...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Alain Yéo, Belinda Kouamé-Blavo, Clarisse E Kouamé, Abdoulaye Ouattara, Ahou C Yao, Brigitte D Gbedé, Francis Bazan, Hortense Faye-Ketté, Mireille Dosso, Teodora Wi, Magnus Unemo
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is compromising the treatment of gonorrhea globally. Recent AMR data are extremely limited in Africa, and mainly totally lacking in Western Africa including Côte d'Ivoire. This study i) established a quality-assured gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (GASP), according to WHO quality criteria, ii) investigated the AMR to eight therapeutic antimicrobials in gonococcal isolates from 2014 to 2017, and iii) provided evidence for updating the national STD syndromic management guidelines in Côte d'Ivoire...
November 19, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Julia M Robertson, Barbara E Kingsley
An increasing body of research focusing on gender-related traits has utilized faciometrics in order to consider sexual dimorphism: Aspects as diverse as social heuristics, facial attractiveness, sexual orientation, aggression, and trustworthiness have all been investigated. However, the majority of these studies have tended to focus on White or Caucasian student populations and have paid little regard to either older populations or racial background. The current study therefore investigated sexual dimorphism in 450 participants (225 women) from a Black population across four age groups (20s, 30s, 40s, and 50s)...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Darren L Whitfield, Robert W S Coulter, Lisa Langenderfer-Magruder, Daniel Jacobson
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) college students experience disproportionate rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) compared with their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. Some studies report rates of IPV among lesbian, gay, and bisexual college students as high as 50%, and 9 times greater among transgender students compared with their cisgender peers. Few studies have investigated the impact of intersectional identity on experiencing different types of IPV, such as emotional, physical, and sexual IPV...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
George Gillett
Why are the diagnostic criteria of some psychiatric disorders standardised by gender while others are not? Why standardise symptom questionnaires by gender but not other personal characteristics such as ethnicity, socioeconomic class or sexual orientation? And how might our changing attitudes towards gender, born from scientific research and changing societal narratives, alter our opinion of these questions? This paper approaches these dilemmas by assessing the concept of diagnosis in psychiatry itself, before analysing two common approaches to the study of psychiatric diagnosis; the naturalist and constructivist views...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Russell B Toomey, Amy K Syvertsen, Melissa Flores
Sexual orientation disparities in suicide behavior are well-documented. Yet, few studies have examined how developmental assets - key values, self-perceptions, skills, relationships, and opportunities that have been identified as the building blocks of positive youth development - are associated with suicide behaviors, particularly among sexual minority youth. This study examined concurrent associations between young people's developmental assets and suicidal behavior by sexual orientation using a large sample of 116,925 in-school U...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Jillian Burk, Minjeong Park, Elizabeth M Saewyc
School interventions to address sexual orientation discrimination can be important tools for fostering inclusive school climate, and improving student wellbeing. In this study, we empirically evaluated a film-based intervention, Out in Schools, designed to reduce sexual orientation prejudice and foster inclusive school attitudes. Our evaluation mapped data about Out in Schools presentations onto student data from the random cluster-stratified, province-wide 2013 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (BCAHS) as well as potential confounding variables of Gay-Straight Alliance clubs (GSAs) and inclusive school policies...
November 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shuai Chen, Jan C van Ours
We analyze Dutch panel data to investigate whether partnership has a causal effect on subjective well-being. As in previous studies, we find that, on average, being in a partnership improves well-being. Well-being gains of marriage are larger than those of cohabitation. The well-being effects of partnership formation and disruption are symmetric. We also find that marriage improves well-being for both younger and older cohorts, whereas cohabitation benefits only the younger cohort. Our main contribution to the literature is on well-being effects of same-sex partnerships...
November 1, 2018: Demography
Nina T Harawa, Russell Brewer, Victoria Buckman, Santhoshini Ramani, Aditya Khanna, Kayo Fujimoto, John A Schneider
BACKGROUND: Because Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) experience high rates of both HIV and incarceration relative to other groups, the various stages of criminal justice involvement may serve as important intervention points for addressing HIV and related conditions in this group. Although systematic reviews of HIV interventions targeting MSM in general and BMSM in particular exist, no review has explored the range and impact of HIV, sexually transmitted infection (STI), and substance use prevention and care continuum interventions focused on criminal justice-involved (CJI) populations...
November 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Chelsea L Shover, Michelle A DeVost, Matthew R Beymer, Pamina M Gorbach, Risa P Flynn, Robert K Bolan
OBJECTIVES: To quantify sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) disparities in incidence of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and viral hepatitis. METHODS: We performed a records-based study of 19 933 patients visiting a federally qualified health center in Los Angeles, California, between November 2016 and October 2017 that examined HIV, STIs, and viral hepatitis incidence proportions. We created multivariable logistic regression models to examine the association between incidence proportions and SOGI among people living with HIV and HIV-negative patients...
November 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Vera Lucia Marques da Silva
The subculture of BDSM (Bondage, Discipline, Domination, Submission, Sadism, Masochism) is organized around dissident erotic practices based on consent. Starting with a netnography survey, this study seeks to understand how adepts of BDSM present themselves from the standpoint of identity in cyberspace. In this sense, blogs and sites related to BDSM, as well as social networks, have been observed. Added to this material are interviews of adepts in other media. Techniques of Saturation Sampling and Discourse Analysis were applied...
October 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Amanda M Pollitt, Andrew L Brimhall, Melanie E Brewster, Lori E Ross
Bisexuality has been critically understudied despite decades of research demonstrating pronounced disparities among bisexual populations. To better understand the state of bisexual research in the field of LGBTQ psychology, we conducted a content analysis of abstracts published in the Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity ( PSOGD ). Of 223 articles published in PSOGD , less than 1% were focused on bisexual populations. Many studies used "bisexuality" in their titles or as a keyword even when they contained little to no focus on bisexuality...
June 2018: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
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