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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496258/spatial-and-temporal-heterogeneities-of-district-level-typhoid-morbidities-in-ghana-a-requisite-insight-for-informed-public-health-response
#1
Frank Badu Osei, Alfred Stein, Sylvester Dodzi Nyadanu
Typhoid fever is estimated to cause between 9.9-24.2 million cases and 75,000-208,000 deaths per year globally. Low-income and middle-income countries report the majority of cases, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa. The epidemiology of typhoid fever is poorly understood, particularly in Ghana where there has been no study of the within-country variation. Our objective was to explore and analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of typhoid fever morbidities in Ghana. We used the global and local Moran's indices to uncover the existence of global and local spatial patterns, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30482180/hand-hygiene-in-hospitals-an-observational-study-in-hospitals-from-two-southern-states-of-india
#2
Mukta Tyagi, Claudia Hanson, Joanna Schellenberg, Swecha Chamarty, Samiksha Singh
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is a simple and low-cost measure to reduce healthcare associated infection yet it has always been a concern in low as well as high resource settings across the globe. Poor hand hygiene during intra-partum and newborn care may result in sepsis, which is a major cause of death among newborns and puts a financial burden on already strained health systems. METHODS: We conducted non-participatory observations in newborn care units and labour rooms from secondary and tertiary level, public and private hospitals, as part of a baseline evaluation of a quality improvement collaborative across two southern states of India...
November 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30469916/simultaneous-acquisition-of-complex-transmittance-and-birefringence-with-two-counter-rotating-circularly-polarized-thz-pulses
#3
Yoichi Kawada, Katsumasa Yoshioka, Yusuke Arashida, Ikufumi Katayama, Jun Takeda, Hironori Takahashi
Here we demonstrate simultaneous measurements of the complex transmittance and birefringence using left- and right-handed circularly polarized terahertz (THz) pulses. We change the polarization of the THz pulses periodically by modulating the polarization of the pump pulses directed onto a ZnTe (111) crystal, and we convert linear to circular polarization using a broadband THz quarter-wave retarder. By integrating the alternating-emission system with the polarization-sensitive terahertz time-domain spectrometer, we are able to obtain the electric-field vector of the transmitted terahertz pulses for both the left- and right-handed circular polarizations...
November 12, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30463537/clustering-of-diet-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-among-brazilian-adolescents-in-the-national-school-based-health-survey-pense-2015
#4
Thiago Sousa Matias, Kelly Samara Silva, Jaqueline Aragoni da Silva, Gabrielli Thais de Mello, Jo Salmon
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence regarding clusters of health-related behaviors among adolescents from low, lower-middle, and upper-middle income countries. This study aimed to identify clustering patterns of health-related behaviors (diet, physical activity [PA] and sedentary behavior [SB]) and association with sociodemographic variables among a population-based sample of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the 2015 National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE)...
November 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30461805/quarter-mode-spoof-plasmonic-resonator-for-a-microfluidic-chemical-sensor
#5
Rong Lin Shao, Yong Jin Zhou, Liu Yang
In this paper, we propose a microfluidic chemical sensor based on quarter-mode spoof plasmonic resonators with more compact overall size and higher sensitivity. First, a microfluidic channel engraved on polydimethylsiloxane is aligned to the upper part of the spoof plasmonic metal-insulator-metal (MIM) ring resonator where the strongest electric fields are observed at resonance. Although a resonant frequency shift of 270 MHz has been observed when the microfluidic channel is filled with pure ethanol, there is no resonant frequency shift when the ethanol concentration is changed from 40% to 60%...
October 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30454575/catalytic-hairpin-assembly-programmed-formation-of-clickable-nucleic-acids-for-electrochemical-detection-of-liver-cancer-related-short-gene
#6
Meiwen Wang, Yingying Tang, Yaoyao Chen, Ya Cao, Guifang Chen
DNA amplification usually takes place in an aqueous system to facilitate a highly efficient reaction. Therefore, it is a challenge to connect the DNA amplification with popular dry chemical methods, whose signal outputs usually come from a solid-liquid interface. Here, by linking catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) with electrochemical biosensors through clickable nucleic acids, we develop a facile method for the detection of liver cancer related short gene MXR7. On one hand, the method maintains the advantages of CHA especially its high efficiency by performing the whole process of CHA in aqueous phase...
January 3, 2019: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416523/the-epidemiology-and-trend-of-cancer-in-jordan-2000-2013
#7
Yousef S Khader, Ghazi F Sharkas, Kamal H Arkoub, Mahmoud A Alfaqih, Omar F Nimri, Albaraa M Khader
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the overall incidence, trend, and epidemiology of cancer among Jordanians from 2000 to 2013 using data extracted from Jordan's Cancer Registry (JCR). Methods: All cancer cases among Jordanians registered between 2000 and 2013 were analyzed using CanReg software and SPSS. The overall crude incidence rates (CIRs) and the age standardized rates (ASRs) of cancer per 100,000 were calculated. Results: A total of 58788 cancer cases were registered during the period 2000-2013...
2018: Journal of Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403295/the-c-terminal-region-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-like-weak-inducer-of-apoptosis-is-required-for-interaction-with-advanced-glycation-end-products
#8
Masahiro Watanabe, Takao Toyomura, Hidenori Wake, Keyue Liu, Kiyoshi Teshigawara, Hideo Takahashi, Masahiro Nishibori, Shuji Mori
Previously, we found that endogenously produced pro-inflammatory molecules, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), interact with tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), and attenuate its immunomodulatory function. In the present study, to elucidate the mechanism by which AGEs attenuate TWEAK function, we searched for regions responsible for TWEAK-AGE interaction using TWEAK deletion mutants. Pull-down assays with the TWEAK mutants and AGEs revealed that the C-terminal half of TWEAK, which is the region essential for receptor stimulation, was required for this interaction...
November 7, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388055/the-home-handedness-questionnaire-pilot-data-from-preschoolers
#9
Eliza L Nelson, Sandy L Gonzalez, Jose M El-Asmar, M Fouad Ziade, Reem S Abu-Rustum
While handedness questionnaires are widely used in adults, there is no comparable measure designed specifically for children. The current study developed the Home Handedness Questionnaire (HHQ), a new measure for preschoolers administered by parents using common household items. The HHQ has two scales that distinguish action types typically combined on other measures: actions performed with only the right or left hand (i.e., unimanual, such as holding a toothbrush), and actions performed with one hand holding the object for the other hand's action (i...
November 2, 2018: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30384797/results-on-sports-related-injuries-in-children-from-nhs-emergency-care-dataset-oxfordshire-pilot-an-ecological-study
#10
Graham Kirkwood, Thomas C Hughes, Allyson M Pollock
OBJECTIVES: To analyse and report on sports-related injuries using enhanced injury data collected by the testbed for the NHS emergency care injury data set and admissions data collected from inpatients. DESIGN: Ecological study design. SETTING: Two Oxfordshire NHS England hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Emergency department attendees and inpatients aged 0-19 years with sports injuries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were analysed from 1 January 2012 to 30 March 2014 by age, gender sport, injury location, injury mechanism and diagnosis including concussion/post-concussion, bone fractures and ligament damage...
November 1, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374740/selective-laryngeal-reinnervation-can-rerouting-of-the-thyrohyoid-nerve-simplify-the-procedure-by-avoiding-the-use-of-a-nerve-graft
#11
Frédéric Crampon, Fabrice Duparc, Olivier Trost, Jean-Paul Marie
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to record the descriptive and metric anatomical characteristics of the thyrohyoid nerve with the aim of rerouting it in a selective laryngeal reinnervation procedure. METHODS: An anatomical study was performed on ten formalin-embalmed cadavers. The origin of the thyrohyoid nerve and the superior root of the ansa cervicalis, the location of the thyrohyoid nerve ending in the thyrohyoid muscle, and the recurrent laryngeal nerve were established...
October 29, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30372411/everybody-hands-on-to-avoid-eskape-effect-of-sustained-hand-hygiene-compliance-on-healthcare-associated-infections-and-multidrug-resistance-in-a-paediatric-hospital
#12
Daniela De la Rosa-Zamboni, Sara A Ochoa, Almudena Laris-González, Ariadnna Cruz-Córdova, Gerardo Escalona-Venegas, Georgina Pérez-Avendaño, Margarita Torres-García, Roselia Suaréz-Mora, Carmen Castellanos-Cruz, Yadhira V Sánchrez-Flores, Adalberto Vázquez-Flores, Rosalinda Águila-Torres, Israel Parra-Ortega, Miguel Klünder-Klünder, José Arellano-Galindo, Rigoberto Hernández-Castro, Juan Xicohtencatl-Cortes
PURPOSE: Hand hygiene is the most important strategy for preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs); however, the impact of hand hygiene in middle-income countries has been poorly described. In this work, we describe the impact of the programme 'Let's Go for 100' on hand hygiene adherence, HCAIs rates and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, including the molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. METHODOLOGY: A multimodal, hospital-wide hand hygiene programme was implemented from 2013...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30371402/marrying-digital-and-analog-with-generation-z-confronting-the-moral-panic-of-digital-learning-in-late-modern-society
#13
Shahid Alvi
In some quarters, the implementation of digital technologies continues to be touted as the solution to educational challenges faced by contemporary post-secondary instructors and their students. In this paper, I examine the veracity of the claims made by the purveyors of "edu-tech," particularly in relation to what we know about learning and in light of the characterization of traditional pedagogical strategies as vestigial. The arguments advanced in that context include the ideas that "digital natives" no longer can be taught effectively by "digital immigrants," that instructors must "meet students where they live," and that changes to pedagogy go hand in glove with an understanding of the putative characteristics of today's young learners...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30356246/milk-microbiome-diversity-and-bacterial-group-prevalence-in-a-comparison-between-healthy-holstein-friesian-and-rendena-cows
#14
Paola Cremonesi, Camilla Ceccarani, Giulio Curone, Marco Severgnini, Claudia Pollera, Valerio Bronzo, Federica Riva, Maria Filippa Addis, Joel Filipe, Massimo Amadori, Erminio Trevisi, Daniele Vigo, Paolo Moroni, Bianca Castiglioni
Dry and early lactation periods represent the most critical phases for udder health in cattle, especially in highly productive breeds, such as the Holstein Friesian (HF). On the other hand, some autochthonous cattle breeds, such as the Rendena (REN), have a lower prevalence of mastitis and other transition-related diseases. In this study, milk microbiota of 6 HF and 3 REN cows, all raised on the same farm under the same conditions, was compared. A special focus was placed on the transition period to define bacterial groups' prevalence with a plausible effect on mammary gland health...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352582/integrating-a-diabetes-and-hypertension-case-management-package-within-primary-health-care-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-study-in-bangladesh
#15
R Huque, S Nasreen, F Ahmed, J P Hicks, J Walley, J N Newell, H Elsey
BACKGROUND: Almost three quarters of non-communicable disease (NCD) deaths, and 82% of premature NCD deaths, occur in low- and middle-income countries. Bangladesh has an estimated 7 million hypertensives and 10 million diabetics, and primary care is struggling to respond. Our aim was to develop and support implementation of a diabetes and hypertension case management package, and assess its appropriateness, feasibility and acceptability in two NCD clinics within two primary-care centres in Bangladesh...
October 23, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336266/an-evaluation-of-collaboration-in-the-tb-and-hiv-control-programme-in-oromia-region-ethiopia-seven-years-of-retrospective-data
#16
Solomon Sisay, Ayehu Mekonen, Adugna Abera, Yifru Berhan, Tadele Kebede, Abebe Ferede
BACKGROUND: Globally, HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are a leading cause of death if they occur as co-morbidities in affected individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the collaboration between TB and HIV control activities by determining the co-morbidity rate in Oromia Region, Ethiopia, during the period 2009-2015. METHODS: A retrospective health facility-based study was conducted. Data were collected from health facilities implementing the directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) strategy in the region...
December 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321204/the-softhand-pro-functional-evaluation-of-a-novel-flexible-and-robust-myoelectric-prosthesis
#17
Sasha Blue Godfrey, Kristin D Zhao, Amanda Theuer, Manuel G Catalano, Matteo Bianchi, Ryan Breighner, Divya Bhaskaran, Ryan Lennon, Giorgio Grioli, Marco Santello, Antonio Bicchi, Karen Andrews
Roughly one quarter of active upper limb prosthetic technology is rejected by the user, and user surveys have identified key areas requiring improvement: function, comfort, cost, durability, and appearance. Here we present the first systematic, clinical assessment of a novel prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro (SHP), in participants with transradial amputation and age-matched, limb-intact participants. The SHP is a robust and functional prosthetic hand that minimizes cost and weight using an underactuated design with a single motor...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315429/integrated-next-step-counseling-insc-for-sexual-health-and-prep-use-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-implementation-and-observations-from-atn110-113
#18
K Rivet Amico, Jessica Miller, Christopher Balthazar, Pedro Alonso Serrano, Jennifer Brothers, Sarah Zollweg, Sybil Hosek
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men is a critical part of the HIV prevention landscape in the US. Given the unique challenges and resources of young MSM negotiating safer sex practices, including PrEP, counseling and supportive discussions to optimize both PrEP use and sexual health protection more generally may facilitate reaching HIV prevention goals. Within the context of a large, open-label PrEP study (ATN110/113), support for sexual health promotion and PrEP use was provided through use of integrated Next Step Counseling (iNSC) as part of study visits...
October 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311276/street-food-research-worldwide-a-scoping-review
#19
REVIEW
K Abrahale, S Sousa, G Albuquerque, P Padrão, N Lunet
BACKGROUND: Street foods vary with respect to their nutritional value and safety characteristics and contribute to a sizable proportion of food intake in many populations worldwide. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the coverage in the scientific literature of different health-related and socio-economic aspects of street food consumption and trading. METHODS: Three electronic databases (searched from inception to 16 October 2017), a hand-search of relevant journals and backward citation tracking were used to identify eligible scientific articles with a main objective of investigating or reporting specific results on health-related or socio-economic aspects of street food...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306442/stage-specific-testicular-protein-levels-of-the-oestrogen-receptors-er%C3%AE-and-er%C3%AE-and-cyp19-and-association-with-oestrogenic-contamination-in-the-lambari-astyanax-rivularis-pisces-characidae
#20
André Alberto Weber, Davidson Peruci Moreira, Rafael Magno Costa Melo, Augusto Bicalho Cruz Vieira, Nilo Bazzoli, Elizete Rizzo
Oestrogens participate in various biological processes such as oogenesis, vitellogenesis and testicular development, but studies regarding the distribution and protein levels of oestrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) and aromatase (Cyp19) in testis are rarely investigated in fish species. The aim of the present study was to analyse the expression pattern of ERα, ERβ and Cyp19 in testis of Astyanax rivularis and, in addition, to verify if oestrogenic contamination interferes in the expression levels of these proteins...
December 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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