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Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The number of bacterial cells living within the human body is approximately equal to, or greater than, the total number of human cells. This dynamic population of microorganisms, termed the human microbiota, resides mainly within the gastrointestinal tract. It is widely accepted that highly diverse and stable microbiota promote overall human health. Colonization of the gut with maladaptive and pathogenic microbiota, a state also known as dysbiosis, is associated with a variety of peripheral diseases ranging from type 2 diabetes mellitus to cardiovascular and inflammatory bowel disease...
August 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Jin Zhou, Chunyan Zhu, Hanwen Luo, Lang Shen, Jun Gong, Yimeng Wu, Jacques Magdalou, Liaobin Chen, Yu Guo, Hui Wang
Epidemiologic studies showed that low birth weight is associated with high cholesterol and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. This study aimed to elucidate the intrauterine programming mechanisms of adult hypercholesterolemia. The results showed that prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) caused intrauterine growth retardation and hypercholesterolemia in male adult offspring rats. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis and output were deceased in utero but increased in adults; hepatic reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) persistently deceased before and after birth...
August 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Abdullah Gandomkar, Hossein Poustchi, Fatemeh Malekzadeh, Masoud M Malekzadeh, Maryam Moini, Mohsen Moghadami, Hadi Imanieh, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Mohammad Mahdi Sagheb, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Reza Malekzadeh
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is an important risk factor for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among Iranians. We aimed to estimate its prevalence, correlates, and its rate of awareness, treatment, and control in South of Iran. METHODS: The Pars Cohort Study (PCS) was launched in a district of Fars province. All residents between 40 and 75 years old in the district were recruited from 2012 to 2014. Hypertension was defined as either systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Hg or taking medications...
August 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
J Huart, C Visée, A Colassin, P Maréchal, K Hafraoui, L Davin
We report the clinical case of a patient presenting with an acute myocardial infarction with ST- segment elevation. The patient is affected by polycythemia vera for many years and doesn't have any other cardiovascular risk factors. The frequency of thrombotic events in polycythemia vera (and more particularly myocardial infarction), their predictive factors, pathophysiology and treatment will be discussed.
July 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
Pai-Feng Hsu, Shih-Hsien Sung, Hao-Min Cheng, Shyi-Jang Shin, Kun-Der Lin, Keong Chong, Fu-Shun Yen, Ben-Hui Yu, Chi-Ting Huang, Chih-Cheng Hsu
Context: Althoughα-glucosidase inhibitor (AGI) has been shown to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), the cardiovascular benefits of AGI in type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. Objective: We aimed to compare clinical outcomes of adding acarbose versus sulfonylureas to metformin therapy in T2D patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study population was drawn from the database of the Diabetes Pay-for-Performance (P4P) Program in Taiwan...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jodie B Hillen, Agnes Vitty, Gillian E Caughey
Objective: To describe medication-related quality of care (MRQOC) for Australian aged care residents. Design: Retrospective cohort using an administrative healthcare claims database. Setting: Australian residential aged care. Participants: A total of 17 672 aged care residents who were alive at 1 January 2013 and had been a permanent resident for at least 3 months. Main outcome measures: Overall, 23 evidence-based MRQOC indicators which assessed the use of appropriate medications in chronic disease, exposure to high-risk medications and access to collaborative health services...
August 3, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Grace Huang, Sara Cherkerzian, Eric B Loucks, Stephen L Buka, Robert J Handa, Bill L Lasley, Shalender Bhasin, Jill M Goldstein
Background: Growing preclinical evidence suggests that hormonal programming by androgens in utero may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in adult offspring. However, data linking prenatal androgens to cardiometabolic outcomes in the human population, especially their potential differential impact on male versus female offspring, has not been well-studied. Methods: Adult offspring (n=274) of mothers enrolled in the New England birth cohorts of the Collaborative Perinatal Project were assessed at ages 39-50...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Bert Andersson, Lilin She, Ru-San Tan, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Krzysztof Mokrzycki, Matthias Siepe, Alexander Romanov, Liliana E Favaloro, Ljubomir T Djokovic, P Krishnam Raju, Piotr Betlejewski, Normand Racine, Adam Ostrzycki, Weerachai Nawarawong, Siuli Das, Jean L Rouleau, George Sopko, Kerry L Lee, Eric J Velazquez, Julio A Panza
Aims: Hypertension (HTN) is a well-known contributor to cardiovascular disease, including heart failure (HF) and coronary artery disease, and is the leading risk factor for premature death world-wide. A J- or U-shaped relationship has been suggested between blood pressure (BP) and clinical outcomes in different studies. However, there is little information about the significance of BP on the outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the relationship between BP and mortality outcomes in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy...
August 2, 2018: European Heart Journal
Lars Lind, Johan Sundström
OBJECTIVE: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is related to a poor prognosis. We aimed to determine how left ventricular (LV) geometry changes over time, and how this relates to future cardiovascular disease. METHODS: In the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors study, 1016 individuals were investigated with echocardiography at age 70. This was repeated after 5 and 10 years. Incident cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure, n = 163) was recorded over 10 years...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Susanne Jung, Christian Ott, Marina V Karg, Agnes Bosch, Michael Schmid, Christian Schlundt, Stephan Achenbach, Roland E Schmieder
OBJECTIVE: In patients with resistant hypertension, percutaneous placement of an iliac arteriovenous coupler device leads to a reduction of blood pressure (BP) via decreased total vascular resistance and improved arterial compliance. However, long-term efficacy and safety need to be further explored. We report on the first case of 3.5-year follow-up in a patient who underwent implantation of an iliac arteriovenous coupler device. RESULTS: A patient with resistant hypertension was admitted to hospital...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Agustin J Ramirez, Maria J Sanchez, Ramiro A Sanchez
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension control reduces cardiovascular and renal risks in type 2 diabetes. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors prevent renal glucose reabsorption and decrease glucose plasma levels, blood pressure (BP) and weight reduction. Treatment of hypertension and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 are able to improve arterial stiffness. AIMS: To evaluate, in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, the effects of 6 months treatment with canagliflozin, or perindopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, on central BP and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV)...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Dunya Tomic, William W Kemp, Stuart K Roberts
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent liver disease in the world. It involves a spectrum of conditions from hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis, and is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is defined by presence of steatosis in 5% of hepatocytes or more in the absence of other causes of fatty liver. The metabolic syndrome is the major known risk factor for NAFLD. Dietary contributors such as high fructose intake and coffee consumption appear to increase and decrease the risk of disease respectively, but these links are unclear...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Elyse Ross, Rebecca Barnett, Rebecca Tudhope, Kamini Vasudev
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe mental illness are at risk of medical complications, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Given this vulnerability, combined with metabolic risks of antipsychotics, physical health monitoring is critical. Inpatient admission is an opportunity to screen for medical comorbidities. Our objective was to improve the rates of physical health monitoring on an inpatient psychiatry unit through implementation of an electronic standardized order set...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Salvatore Carbone, Dave L Dixon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Hadii M Mamudu, Arsham Alamian, Timir Paul, Pooja Subedi, Liang Wang, Antwan Jones, Ali E Alamin, David Stewart, Gerald Blackwell, Matthew Budoff
AIM: To examine the association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with and their cumulative effect on coronary artery calcium in hard-to-reach asymptomatic patients with diabetes. METHODS: A total of 2563 community-dwelling asymptomatic subjects from Central Appalachia participated in coronary artery calcium screening at a heart centre. Binary variable was used to indicate that coronary artery calcium was either present or absent. Independent variables consisted of demographic and modifiable risk factors and medical conditions...
August 16, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Sandra L Murray, Mark D Seery, Veronica M Lamarche, Cheryl Kondrak, Sarah Gomillion
A new model is proposed to explain how automatic partner attitudes affect how couples cope with major life transitions. The automatic partner attitudes in transition (APAT) model assumes that people simultaneously possess contextualized automatic attitudes toward their partner that can differ substantively in valence pre- and posttransition. It further assumes that evaluatively inconsistent pre- and posttransition automatic partner attitudes elicit heightened behavioral angst or uncertainty, self-protective behavior in response to risk, and relationship distress...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
So Young Park, Sang Ook Chin, Sang Youl Rhee, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong Taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Suk Chon
BACKGROUND: Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and ankle-brachial index (ABI) are commonly used surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a complement to the baPWV, which is affected by blood pressure. However, it is unclear which marker is the most sensitive predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). METHODS: This was a retrospective non-interventional study that enrolled 219 patients with T2DM...
July 27, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Mohammad Alkhalil
Statins have been a major keystone in the management of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The benefits of inhibiting HMG CoA reductase, via statins, were translated into reduction in LDL-c (cholesterol) with proportionate decrease in cardiovascular events in response to the magnitude of LDL-c reduction. Despite major advances in pharmacological treatments, including the use of high-dose statins, there are urgent need to further reduce future cardiovascular risk. This is in particularly important since 1 out of 5 high-risk atherosclerotic patients who achieve low LDL-c return with a second cardiovascular event within five years...
August 16, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Devon J Boyne, Alexis T Mickle, Darren R Brenner, Christine M Friedenreich, Winson Y Cheung, Karen L Tang, Todd A Wilson, Diane L Lorenzetti, Matthew T James, Paul E Ronksley, Doreen M Rabi
Cardiovascular disease has been identified as one of the late complications of cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to quantify the long-term risk of cardiovascular mortality among lymphoma survivors relative to that of the general population. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Articles were identified in November 2016 by searching EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CINAHL databases. Observational studies were included if they assessed cardiovascular mortality in patients with lymphoma who survived for at least 5 years from time of diagnosis or if they had a median follow-up of 10 years...
August 15, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Claudia R L Cardoso, Juliana V Melo, Guilherme C Salles, Nathalie C Leite, Gil F Salles
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The prognostic importance of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in individuals with diabetes is controversial. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the ABI and the occurrence of micro- and macrovascular complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The ABI was measured at baseline in 668 individuals with type 2 diabetes, and the individuals were followed-up for a median of 10 years. Multivariate Cox analysis was used to examine associations between the ABI and the occurrence of microvascular (retinopathy, microalbuminuria, renal function deterioration and peripheral neuropathy) and macrovascular (total cardiovascular events, major adverse cardiovascular events [MACE] and cardiovascular mortality) complications, and all-cause mortality...
August 15, 2018: Diabetologia
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