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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326501/behavioral-and-pharmacotherapy-weight-loss-interventions-to-prevent-obesity-related-morbidity-and-mortality-in-adults-updated-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#1
Erin S LeBlanc, Carrie D Patnode, Elizabeth M Webber, Nadia Redmond, Megan Rushkin, Elizabeth A O'Connor
Importance: Overweight and obesity have been associated with adverse health effects. Objective: To systematically review evidence on benefits and harms of behavioral and pharmacotherapy weight loss and weight loss maintenance interventions in adults to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed Publisher-Supplied Records, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies published through June 6, 2017; ClinicalTrials...
September 18, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326482/perioperative-hypotensive-crisis-in-an-adolescent-with-a-pancreatic-vipoma-and-men1-gene-variant
#2
Alejandra Acosta-Gualandri, Kung-Ting Kao, Tiffany Wong, Eric Webber, Linlea Armstrong, Constadina Panagiotopoulos
BACKGROUND: Vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting tumours (VIPomas) lead to high-volume secretory diarrhoea with hypokalaemia, as well as hyperglycaemia and hypercalcaemia. Diagnosis is often delayed. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a 13-year-old girl with a distal pancreatic VIPoma diagnosed on her second hospital presentation who became severely hypotensive on anaesthetic induction prior to tumour removal, likely due to the vasodilatory effect of supraphysiological VIP levels...
October 16, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326477/gut-microbial-product-predicts-cardiovascular-risk-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#3
Adil Jadoon, Anna V Mathew, Jaeman Byun, Crystal A Gadegbeku, Debbie S Gipson, Farsad Afshinnia, Subramaniam Pennathur
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is altered in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular risk increases with progressive CKD. This study examined the potential link between short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are produced by the gut microbiota, and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD. METHODS: SCFAs were measured using a targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform in baseline plasma samples from 214 patients with CKD enrolled in the Clinical Phenotyping Resource and Biobank Core; 81 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 133 without CAD were randomly assigned to training and validation subsets...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326405/hyperuricemia-and-endothelial-function-from-molecular-background-to-clinical-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Tatsuya Maruhashi, Ichiro Hisatome, Yasuki Kihara, Yukihito Higashi
Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism catalyzed by xanthine oxidase in humans. In the process of purine metabolism, reactive oxygen species, including superoxide, are generated concomitantly with uric acid production, which may deteriorate endothelial function through the reaction of superoxide with nitric oxide (NO), leading to decreased NO bioavailability and increased production of peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant. Therefore, xanthine oxidase may be a therapeutic target in the treatment of endothelial dysfunction...
October 6, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326071/retinal-and-cerebral-microvasculopathy-relationships-and-their-genetic-contributions
#5
Jacoba A van de Kreeke, H Ton Nguyen, Elles Konijnenberg, Jori Tomassen, Anouk den Braber, Mara Ten Kate, Carole H Sudre, Frederik Barkhof, Dorret I Boomsma, H Stevie Tan, Frank D Verbraak, Pieter Jelle Visser
Purpose: Retinal microvasculopathy may reflect small vessel disease in the brain. Here we test the relationships between retinal vascular parameters and small vessel disease, the influence of cardiovascular risk factors on these relationships, and their common genetic background in a monozygotic twin cohort. Methods: We selected 134 cognitively healthy individuals (67 monozygotic twin pairs) aged ≥60 years from the Netherlands Twin Register for the EMIF-AD PreclinAD study...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326043/association-of-genetically-enhanced-lipoprotein-lipase-mediated-lipolysis-and-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-lowering-alleles-with-risk-of-coronary-disease-and-type-2-diabetes
#6
Luca A Lotta, Isobel D Stewart, Stephen J Sharp, Felix R Day, Stephen Burgess, Jian'an Luan, Nicholas Bowker, Lina Cai, Chen Li, Laura B L Wittemans, Nicola D Kerrison, Kay-Tee Khaw, Mark I McCarthy, Stephen O'Rahilly, Robert A Scott, David B Savage, John R B Perry, Claudia Langenberg, Nicholas J Wareham
Importance: Pharmacological enhancers of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) are in preclinical or early clinical development for cardiovascular prevention. Studying whether these agents will reduce cardiovascular events or diabetes risk when added to existing lipid-lowering drugs would require large outcome trials. Human genetics studies can help prioritize or deprioritize these resource-demanding endeavors. Objective: To investigate the independent and combined associations of genetically determined differences in LPL-mediated lipolysis and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism with risk of coronary disease and diabetes...
September 19, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325976/impact-of-interactions-among-metabolic-syndrome-components-on-the-development-of-cardiovascular-disease-among-kazakhs-in-xinjiang
#7
Wenwen Yang, Xiang Gao, Xianghui Zhang, Yunhua Hu, Heng Guo, Kui Wang, Yizhong Yan, Jia He, Jingyu Zhang, Jiaolong Ma, Lei Mao, Lati Mu, Jiaming Liu, Shugang Li, Yusong Ding, Mei Zhang, Rulin Ma, Shuxia Guo
BACKGROUND: Few prospective studies have explored the effect of interactions among metabolic syndrome (MS) components on the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Kazakh population in Xinjiang Province of China. METHOD: As of December 2016, 2,644 participants who completed a baseline survey over a period of 5 years or more were included in the study. The multiplicative interactions among MS components were evaluated by incorporation of the product terms into a logistic regression model...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325968/cardiovascular-risk-profile-in-individuals-initiating-treatment-for-overactive-bladder-challenges-and-learnings-for-comparative-analysis-using-linked-claims-and-electronic-medical-record-databases
#8
E Vonesh, K L Gooch, V Khangulov, C R Schermer, K M Johnston, S M Szabo, J S Rumsfeld
For managing overactive bladder (OAB), mirabegron, a β3 adrenergic receptor agonist, is typically used as second-line pharmacotherapy after antimuscarinics. Therefore, patients initiating treatment with mirabegron and antimuscarinics may differ, potentially impacting associated clinical outcomes. When using observational data to evaluate real-world safety and effectiveness of OAB treatments, residual bias due to unmeasured confounding and/or confounding by indication are important considerations. Falsification analysis, in which clinically irrelevant endpoints are tested as a reference, can be used to assess residual bias...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325774/mild-renal-impairment-is-associated-with-calcified-plaque-parameters-assessed-by-ct-angiography-in-people-living-with-hiv
#9
Lediya T Cheru, Kathleen V Fitch, Charles F Saylor, Michael Lu, Udo Hoffmann, Janet Lo, Steven K Grinspoon
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of mild renal impairment and coronary plaque in people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHODS: PLHIV and non-HIV controls with serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL were investigated. eGFR (calculated by CKD-EPI formula) was related to coronary plaque indices obtained by CT angiography. RESULTS: 184 PLHIV (HIV viral load, 49 [47,49] copies/mL, CD4+ count, median 536 [370, 770] cells/mm, duration HIV, 15 ± 7 years) and 72 HIV-negative controls without known cardiovascular disease (CVD) were studied...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325490/response-to-clopidogrel-and-of-the-cytochrome-cyp2c19-gene-polymorphism
#10
Rim Charfi, Khadija Mzoughi, Miriam Boughalleb, Henda Hosni, Soumaya Kouidhi, Imen Sfar, Nadia Hammami, Ihsen Zaïri, Manel Limam, Chekib Zedini, A Mrabet, Anis Klouz, Yousr Gorgi, Maher Kharrat, Hédi Baccar, Sameh Trabelsi
INTRODUCTION: Clopidogrel (clopi) is a prodrug widely prescribed in the management of coronary artery disease and requires the intervention of hepatic cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) for its activation. However, there is interindividual variability in response to clopi despite the use of recommended doses. Thus, the studies have highlighted the effect of the CYP2C19 gene polymorphism or Cyp2C19 gene on the response to clopi and particularly Cyp2C19 * 2 which may be associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events or MACE...
March 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325426/association-of-myocardial-fibrosis-and-cardiovascular-events-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#11
Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Chia-Ying Liu, Yuan-Chang Liu, Sirisha Donekal, Yoshiaki Ohyama, Ravi K Sharma, Colin O Wu, Wendy S Post, Gregory W Hundley, David A Bluemke, João A C Lima
Aims: We used contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) to evaluate differences in myocardial fibrosis measured at the year-10 examination between participants with and without cardiovascular (CV) events accrued in a large population based study over the preceding 10-year follow-up period in this retrospective study. Methods and results: The MESA study enrolled 6814 participants free of CV disease at baseline (2000-2002). We included MESA participants who underwent contrast-enhanced CMR at the MESA year-10 exam (N = 1840)...
October 16, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325425/male-patients-with-diabetes-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-have-increased-major-adverse-cerebral-and-cardiovascular-events
#12
Xiaojie Liu, Wenyuan Zhang, Lijuan Wang, Sudena Wang, Yang Yu, Sipeng Chen, Hushan Ao
OBJECTIVES: The role of body mass index (BMI) in the prognosis of patients with diabetes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been of great interest for a long time. However, the precise relationship between BMI and major adverse cerebral and cardiovascular events (MACCEs) in these patients is still unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the outcome of patients with diabetes with different BMIs undergoing CABG and the results from the 5-year follow-up. METHODS: This study included 771 patients with diabetes undergoing CABG from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2009...
October 15, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325422/contextualizing-selection-bias-in-mendelian-randomization-how-bad-is-it-likely-to-be
#13
Apostolos Gkatzionis, Stephen Burgess
Background: Selection bias affects Mendelian randomization investigations when selection into the study sample depends on a collider between the genetic variant and confounders of the risk factor-outcome association. However, the relative importance of selection bias for Mendelian randomization compared with other potential biases is unclear. Methods: We performed an extensive simulation study to assess the impact of selection bias on a typical Mendelian randomization investigation...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325407/social-isolation-and-mortality-in-us-black-and-white-men-and-women
#14
Kassandra I Alcaraz, Katherine S Eddens, Jennifer L Blase, W Ryan Diver, Alpa V Patel, Lauren R Teras, Victoria L Stevens, Eric J Jacobs, Susan M Gapstur
Social isolation is associated with higher mortality in studies of mostly white adults, yet associations among black adults is unclear. This prospective cohort study evaluated whether associations of social isolation with all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality differ by race and sex. Adults enrolled into Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982/1983 were followed for mortality through 2012 (n = 580,182). Sex- and race-specific multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for associations of a five-point social isolation score with risk of death...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325358/the-relationship-between-workplace-environment-and-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Hwee-Soo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is recognized as an important health problem. OBJECTIVE: To investigated whether the workplace environment was associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study using medical records and workplace environment reports of 1297 blue-collar Korean male workers who exposed to work hazards in one workplace. The metabolic syndrome was confirmed using the NCEP ATP III...
October 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325017/anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-for-diabetic-macular-oedema-a-network-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Gianni Virgili, Mariacristina Parravano, Jennifer R Evans, Iris Gordon, Ersilia Lucenteforte
BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a common complication of diabetic retinopathy. Antiangiogenic therapy with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) can reduce oedema, improve vision and prevent further visual loss. These drugs have replaced laser photocoagulation as the standard of care for people with DMO. OBJECTIVES: The 2014 update of this review found high-quality evidence of benefit with anti-VEGF modalities, compared to laser photocoagulation, for the treatment of DMO...
October 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325012/physical-activity-and-association-between-frailty-and-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortality-in-older-adults-population-based-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Sara Higueras-Fresnillo, Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez, Esther Lopez-Garcia, Irene Esteban-Cornejo, José R Banegas, Kabir P Sadarangani, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, David Martinez-Gomez
OBJECTIVES: To examine the separate and joint association between physical activity and frailty and long-term all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in older adults. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: Cohort representative of the noninstitutionalized Spanish population. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 60 and older (N=3,896) in 2000-01. MEASUREMENTS: Participants reported their physical activity using a validated instrument, and frailty was ascertained using the Fatigue, low Resistance, limitation in Ambulation, Illness and weight Loss (FRAIL) scale...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324988/lipid-profile-in-schizophrenia-case-control-study
#18
Ahmed Mhalla, Walid Bel Hadj Salah, Rim Mensi, Badii Amamou, Amal Messaoud, Leila Gassab, Wahiba Douki, Med Fadhel Najjar, Lotfi Gaha
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are common co morbidities of schizophrenia and constitute the main factors of high mortality in this pathology. Cardiovascular damages are favored by some risk factors, of which one of the most important is dyslipidemia. In this context, a study of lipid profile in schizophrenia is interesting.  The aims of this study were to compare the lipid profile of patients with schizophrenia to healthy controls and to investigate the associations between lipid parameters and demographics, clinical and treatment characteristics of the patients...
January 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324866/non-invasive-ultrasound-based-imaging-of-atherosclerosis
#19
Mathias Kaspar, Iris Baumgartner, Daniel Staub, Heinz Drexel, Christoph Thalhammer
Early detection of vascular damage in atherosclerosis and accurate assessment of cardiovascular risk factors are the basis for appropriate treatment strategies in cardiovascular medicine. The current review focuses on non-invasive ultrasound-based methods for imaging of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is an accepted early manifestation of atherosclerosis. The most widely used technique to study endothelial function is non-invasive, flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery under high-resolution ultrasound imaging...
October 16, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324777/characterization-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-young-adults-and-assessment-of-long-term-outcomes
#20
Ahmad Hassan, Ronen Jaffe, Ronen Rubinshtein, Basheer Karkabi, David A Halon, Moshe Y Flugelman, Barak Zafrir
BACKGROUND: Contemporary data on clinical profiles and long-term outcomes of young adults with coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk profile, presentation, and outcomes of young adults undergoing coronary angiography. METHODS: A retrospective analysis (2000-2017) of patients aged ≤ 35 years undergoing angiography for evaluation and/or treatment of CAD was conducted. RESULTS: Coronary angiography was performed in 108 patients (88% males): 67 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 41 non-ACS chest pain syndromes...
October 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
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