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Hepatic parasite

Rafa S Almeer, Manal F El-Khadragy, Semlali Abdelhabib, Ahmed E Abdel Moneim
Schistosomiasis is a widespread parasitic infection that affects humans, as well as wild and domestic animals. It ranks second after malaria, with a significant health and socio-economic impact in the developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the anti-schistosomal impact of Ziziphus spina-christi leaf extract (ZLE) on Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis in CD-1 Swiss male albino mice. S. mansoni infection was achieved by dipping of mouse tails in schistosomal cercariae. ZLE treatment was initiated at 46 days post-infection by administering a dose of the extract on a daily basis for 10 consecutive days...
2018: PloS One
Burcin Atak, Gulali Aktas, M Zahid Kocak, Tuba Duman, Edip Erkus, Kamil Gurel, Haluk Savli
Hydatid cyst is a parasitic infection which causes enormous morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenic organism responsible for hydatid cyst is Echinococcus granulosus. Despite the fact that the characteristic cysts of the disease usually occur in liver and lungs, they may also occur in aberrant localisations. Subjects either present with symptoms of infection itself or local complications due to compressive mass effect of the cyst. Here, we report a case of secondary hypertension due to extrinsic compression of the right renal artery by a giant hepatic hydatid cyst...
October 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Chiara Spertilli Raffaelli, Barbara Rossetti, Lorenzo Zammarchi, David Redi, Francesca Rinaldi, Andrea De Luca, Francesca Montagnani
The case reports multiple helmintiasis and chronic hepatitis caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis D virus (HDV) in an immunocompetent immigrant male. It highlights the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of neglected infectious diseases in low endemic areas, besides difficulties that Western countries encounter in responding to immigrants' health needs.
September 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Beata Świątkowska, Wojciech Hanke
BACKGROUND: The aim of the paper is to present statistical data on the occurrence of occupational diseases among healthcare and social workers in Poland in 2009-2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cards certifying that a case of occupational disease had been diagnosed in a patient belonging to this occupational group, received by the Central Register of Occupational Diseases, served as the basis of the study. Data is presented in absolute numbers and incidence rates...
August 23, 2018: Medycyna Pracy
Kalpana Chauhan, Gurpreet Kaur, Sukhbir Kaur
The current treatment approach for leishmaniasis has been questioned in terms of development of the resistance and life threatening side-effects. The utility of the drug can only be confirmed by inspecting its safety window along with its impact against different strains of parasite including the resistant ones. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of a flavonoid, rutin (RTN) against sodium stibogluconate (SSG) sensitive (S-) and resistant (R-) strain of L. donovani. RTN exhibited its anti-promastigote activity via arresting the cells at sub G0 /G1 phase...
September 20, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Ana Carolina Silveira Rabelo, Daniela Caldeira Costa
Plant-based systems continue to play an essential role in healthcare, and their use by different cultures has been extensively documented. Baccharis trimera, popularly known as carqueja, is a plant widely distributed in South America and has been traditionally used for treating several diseases particularly associated with hepatic and gastric disorders. The present study aimed to provide a general review of the available literature on phytochemical and biological data related to the species B. trimera as a potential source of new compounds with biological activity...
September 18, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Camila O S Souza, Milena S Espíndola, Caroline Fontanari, Morgana K B Prado, Fabiani G Frantz, Vanderlei Rodrigues, Luiz G Gardinassi, Lúcia H Faccioli
Infection with Schistosoma mansoni causes a chronic parasitic disease that progress to severe liver and gastrointestinal damage, and eventually death. During its development into mammalian hosts, immature schistosomula transit through the lung vasculature before they reach the liver to mature into adult worms. A low grade inflammatory reaction is induced during this process. However, molecules that are required for efficient leukocyte accumulation in the lungs of S. mansoni -infected subjects are unknown. In addition, specific leukocyte subsets that mediate pulmonary response during S...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Olga L Murillo-Palacios, Carmen Pedroza, Claudia Bolaños, Elvis Del Toro, Joddy Cubillos, Pablo Chaparro, Miladys Mosquera
OBJECTIVES : To describe the epidemiological and clinical cases of complicated malaria and to establish the concordance of this information in the surveillance system. METHODOLOGY : Information was obtained from medical records of cases reported in 2011 in the surveillance system and the Hospital San Francisco. We selected a clinical sample of 62 stories of 113 cases and health professionals reviewed the information. The presence of positive thick drop with one or more criteria of complication was taken into account to define if the clinical history corresponded to complicated malaria, according to guide national clinic and tab of the surveillance system...
January 2018: Revista de Salud Pública
Maja Beus, Zrinka Rajić, Dusica Maysinger, Zvonimir Mlinarić, Maja Antunović, Inga Marijanović, Diana Fontinha, Miguel Prudêncio, Jana Held, Sureyya Olgen, Branka Zorc
We report the synthesis of SAHAquines and related primaquine (PQ) derivatives. SAHAquines are novel hybrid compounds that combine moieties of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), an anticancer agent with weak antiplasmodial activity, and PQ, an antimalarial drug with low antiproliferative activity. The preparation of SAHAquines is simple, cheap, and high yielding. It includes the following steps: coupling reaction between primaquine and a dicarboxylic acid monoester, hydrolysis, a new coupling reaction with O -protected hydroxylamine, and deprotection...
August 2018: ChemistryOpen
Usman Gilani, Memoona Shaukat, Arisha Rasheed, Mehak Shahid, Fareeda Tasneem, Muhammad Arshad, Naeem Rashid, Naveed Shahzad
It is evidenced that 20% of all tumors in humans are caused by oncoviruses, including human papilloma viruses, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma virus, human polyomaviruses, human T-lymphotrophic virus-1, and hepatitis B and C viruses. Human immunodeficiency virus is also involved in carcinogenesis, although not directly, but by facilitating the infection of many oncoviruses through compromising the immune system. Being intracellular parasites with the property of establishing latency and integrating into the host genome, these viruses are a therapeutic challenge for biomedical researchers...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Weidong Zhang, Adebayo J Molehin, Juan U Rojo, Justin Sudduth, Pramodh K Ganapathy, Eunjee Kim, Arif J Siddiqui, Jasmin Freeborn, Souad R Sennoune, Jordan May, Samra Lazarus, Catherine Nguyen, Whitni K Redman, Gul Ahmad, Workineh Torben, Souvik Karmakar, Loc Le, Kameswara R Kottapalli, Pratibha Kottapalli, Roman F Wolf, James F Papin, David Carey, Sean A Gray, Jenn D Bergthold, Raymond T Damian, Bryan T Mayer, Florian Marks, Steven G Reed, Darrick Carter, Afzal A Siddiqui
Schistosomiasis is of public health importance to an estimated one billion people in 79 countries. A vaccine is urgently needed. Here, we report the results of four independent, double-blind studies of an Sm-p80-based vaccine in baboons. The vaccine exhibited potent prophylactic efficacy against transmission of Schistosoma mansoni infection and was associated with significantly less egg-induced pathology, compared with unvaccinated control animals. Specifically, the vaccine resulted in a 93.45% reduction of pathology-producing female worms and significantly resolved the major clinical manifestations of hepatic/intestinal schistosomiasis by reducing the tissue egg-load by 89...
August 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Claudia Mendoza-Pinto, Mario García-Carrasco, Ricard Cervera
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by the development of thrombotic events and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). An infectious etiology for this syndrome has been postulated. The present review is aimed to summarize recent evidence about the role of infections and vaccines in the pathogenesis of the APS (including its catastrophic variant). RECENT FINDINGS: There is an increased risk of developing aPL in various infections, particularly in viral infections...
August 20, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Nalini Bansal, Vivek Vij, Mukul Rastogi, Manav Wadhawan, Ajay Kumar
Echinococcus multilocularis (EM) is the most virulent species of the genus Echinococcus. It causes a highly lethal helminthic disease in humans. The disease may present as hepatic mass mimicking a malignant neoplasm. Due to the vascular and neural invasion, protean clinical manifestations including Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) may be the clinical presentation of this condition. We herein report three cases of Echinococcus multilocularis; the first case presenting as multiple hepatic space-occupying lesions, second as liver mass infiltrating the nerve bundles, and the third as a hepatic mass infiltrating the large vessels including inferior vena cava and right hepatic vein presenting as BCS...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Sami Akbulut, Tevfik Tolga Sahin, Mehmet Kolu, Burak Isik, Yasar Bayindir, Sezai Yilmaz
The major advantage of preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is that living liver donor candidates with complicated biliary tracts may not be exposed to unnecessary laparotomy. To the best of our knowledge, the case presented here features a condition so far not seen by the Liver Transplantation Society. A 27-year-old woman who presented to our clinic as a living liver donor candidate was evaluated but did not have a preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography due to technical factors...
August 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
T Kumanan, V Sujanitha, S Balakumar, N Sreeharan
Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) seen commonly in the tropics is predominantly confined to adult males, especially those who consume locally brewed alcohol, although intestinal amoebiasis occurs in all age groups and in both genders. Whether the role of alcohol in the development of ALA is incidental and casual or whether alcohol is causally implicated has been debated. It has been argued that socioeconomic factors and poor sanitary conditions are the primary culprits that casually link alcohol to ALA. However, there has emerged an abundance of data that implicates alcohol in a more causal role in facilitating the extraintestinal invasion of the infective protozoan and the subsequent development of ALA...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Młgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
OBJECTIVE OF THE ARTICLE: This is for the year 2016 subsequent annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland as part of the Epidemiological Chronicle of the Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to summarize the collective incidence of infectious diseases and to indicate potential threats to the health of populations from communicable diseases occurring in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The basic source of epidemiological information for this summary is a summary of data from reports of the State Sanitary Inspection, contained in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2016” and “Protective Vaccination in Poland in 2016” (1, 2)...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
John D Chan, Timothy A Day, Jonathan S Marchant
Conventional approaches for antiparasitic drug discovery center upon discovering selective agents that adversely impact parasites with minimal host side effects. Here, we show that agents with a broad polypharmacology, often considered 'dirtier' drugs, can have unique efficacy if they combine deleterious effects on the parasite with beneficial actions in the host. This principle is evidenced through a screen for drugs to treat schistosomiasis, a parasitic flatworm disease that impacts over 230 million people...
July 30, 2018: ELife
Stefanie A Krumm, Katie J Doores
Glycosylation is an important post-translational modification that is required for structural and stability purposes and functional roles such as signalling, attachment and shielding. Many human pathogens such as bacteria display an array of carbohydrates on their surface that are non-self to the host; others such as viruses highjack the host-cell machinery and present self-carbohydrates sometimes arranged in a non-self more immunogenic manner. In combination with carrier proteins, these glycan structures can be highly immunogenic...
July 26, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Junhua Wang, Rita Cardoso, Nelson Marreros, Norbert Müller, Britta Lundström-Stadelmann, Myriam Siffert, Dominique A Vuitton, Franck Boué, Renyong Lin, Hao Wen, Bruno Gottstein
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal disease caused by infection with the metacestode stage of the helminth Echinococcus multilocularis , which develops into a tumor-like mass in susceptible intermediate hosts. The growth potential of this parasite stage is directly linked to the nature of the surrounding periparasitic immune-mediated processes. In a first step (experiment 1), mice were orally infected with E. multilocularis eggs, to be used for assessing the hepatic expression profiles of 15 selected cytokine and chemokine genes related to acquired immunity from 21 to 120 days post infection...
July 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Lei Liu, Mengmeng Jin, Qing Tao, Li Yu, Jian Du, Cong Wang, Qingli Luo, Tian Xing, Yuanhong Xu, Jilong Shen, Deyong Chu
Our previous investigations indicated that in vitro polarization of mouse macrophages by Toxoplasma gondii type II strain dense granule protein 15 (GRA15 II ), one of the genotype-associated effectors of T. gondii , induced the phenotypes of classically activated macrophage (M1). Transfusion of the cells to mice may effectively alleviated hepatic fibrosis caused by schistosomiasis. The purpose of the study was to identify whether liver macrophages can be in vivo driven to M1 macrophages by lentiviral vector (LV) carrying GRA15 II gene (LV- gra15 II ) and to explore the potential mechanism by which the LV- gra15 II -activated liver macrophage (LV- gra15 II -M) ameliorates the hepatic fibrosis in schistosomiasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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