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Hepatic parasite

Sami Akbulut, Tevfik Tolga Sahin, Mehmet Kolu, Burak Isik, Yasar Bayindir, Sezai Yilmaz
The major advantage of preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is that living liver donor candidates with complicated biliary tracts may not be exposed to unnecessary laparotomy. To the best of our knowledge, the case presented here features a condition so far not seen by the Liver Transplantation Society. A 27-year-old woman who presented to our clinic as a living liver donor candidate was evaluated but did not have a preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography due to technical factors...
August 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
T Kumanan, V Sujanitha, S Balakumar, N Sreeharan
Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) seen commonly in the tropics is predominantly confined to adult males, especially those who consume locally brewed alcohol, although intestinal amoebiasis occurs in all age groups and in both genders. Whether the role of alcohol in the development of ALA is incidental and casual or whether alcohol is causally implicated has been debated. It has been argued that socioeconomic factors and poor sanitary conditions are the primary culprits that casually link alcohol to ALA. However, there has emerged an abundance of data that implicates alcohol in a more causal role in facilitating the extraintestinal invasion of the infective protozoan and the subsequent development of ALA...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Młgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
OBJECTIVE OF THE ARTICLE: This is for the year 2016 subsequent annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland as part of the Epidemiological Chronicle of the Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to summarize the collective incidence of infectious diseases and to indicate potential threats to the health of populations from communicable diseases occurring in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The basic source of epidemiological information for this summary is a summary of data from reports of the State Sanitary Inspection, contained in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2016” and “Protective Vaccination in Poland in 2016” (1, 2)...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
John D Chan, Timothy A Day, Jonathan S Marchant
Conventional approaches for antiparasitic drug discovery center upon discovering selective agents that adversely impact parasites with minimal host side effects. Here, we show that agents with a broad polypharmacology, often considered 'dirtier' drugs, can have unique efficacy if they combine deleterious effects on the parasite with beneficial actions in the host. This principle is evidenced through a screen for drugs to treat schistosomiasis, a parasitic flatworm disease that impacts over 230 million people...
July 30, 2018: ELife
Stefanie A Krumm, Katie J Doores
Glycosylation is an important post-translational modification that is required for structural and stability purposes and functional roles such as signalling, attachment and shielding. Many human pathogens such as bacteria display an array of carbohydrates on their surface that are non-self to the host; others such as viruses highjack the host-cell machinery and present self-carbohydrates sometimes arranged in a non-self more immunogenic manner. In combination with carrier proteins, these glycan structures can be highly immunogenic...
July 26, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Junhua Wang, Rita Cardoso, Nelson Marreros, Norbert Müller, Britta Lundström-Stadelmann, Myriam Siffert, Dominique A Vuitton, Franck Boué, Renyong Lin, Hao Wen, Bruno Gottstein
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal disease caused by infection with the metacestode stage of the helminth Echinococcus multilocularis , which develops into a tumor-like mass in susceptible intermediate hosts. The growth potential of this parasite stage is directly linked to the nature of the surrounding periparasitic immune-mediated processes. In a first step (experiment 1), mice were orally infected with E. multilocularis eggs, to be used for assessing the hepatic expression profiles of 15 selected cytokine and chemokine genes related to acquired immunity from 21 to 120 days post infection...
July 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Lei Liu, Mengmeng Jin, Qing Tao, Li Yu, Jian Du, Cong Wang, Qingli Luo, Tian Xing, Yuanhong Xu, Jilong Shen, Deyong Chu
Our previous investigations indicated that in vitro polarization of mouse macrophages by Toxoplasma gondii type II strain dense granule protein 15 (GRA15 II ), one of the genotype-associated effectors of T. gondii , induced the phenotypes of classically activated macrophage (M1). Transfusion of the cells to mice may effectively alleviated hepatic fibrosis caused by schistosomiasis. The purpose of the study was to identify whether liver macrophages can be in vivo driven to M1 macrophages by lentiviral vector (LV) carrying GRA15 II gene (LV- gra15 II ) and to explore the potential mechanism by which the LV- gra15 II -activated liver macrophage (LV- gra15 II -M) ameliorates the hepatic fibrosis in schistosomiasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Wenjie Su, Xiaofan Deng, Xiangkui Li, Jia Deng, Peng Li, Mengchang Yang
Objectives Hepatic echinococcosis (HE) is a severe parasitic disease that occurs worldwide, and radical surgery is the recommended therapy. This study was performed to investigate the efficacy of using a transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block during surgery on postoperative pain and recovery of patients with HE under the guidelines of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol. Methods Fifty-eight patients from the Tibetan plateau who underwent surgery for treatment of HE by the same surgeons under the guidance of ERAS were included in the present study...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Tycha Bianca Sabaini Pavan, Jamiro Wanderley da Silva, Luiz Cláudio Martins, Sandra Cecília Botelho Costa, Eros Antônio de Almeida
Chagas disease (Cd) is the third most common parasitic disease that causes damage to human health. Even a century after its description by Carlos Chagas and advances in its control, it remains a neglected disease. To eradicate the parasite or reduce the parasitic load, specific treatment for Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is advisable; benznidazole (BNZ) is the drug that is currently prescribed. The purpose of this study is to report the adverse events (AE) due to the use of BNZ as a specific treatment for Cd, with a particular focus on hepatic changes...
2018: PloS One
Janina Bruening, Lisa Lasswitz, Pia Banse, Sina Kahl, Carine Marinach, Florian W Vondran, Lars Kaderali, Olivier Silvie, Thomas Pietschmann, Felix Meissner, Gisa Gerold
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the malaria parasite Plasmodium use the membrane protein CD81 to invade human liver cells. Here we mapped 33 host protein interactions of CD81 in primary human liver and hepatoma cells using high-resolution quantitative proteomics. In the CD81 protein network, we identified five proteins which are HCV entry factors or facilitators including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Notably, we discovered calpain-5 (CAPN5) and the ubiquitin ligase Casitas B-lineage lymphoma proto-oncogene B (CBLB) to form a complex with CD81 and support HCV entry...
July 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Norma Arteiro Filgueira, Camilla Maria de Alencar Saraiva, Norma Thomé Jucá, Matheus Filgueira Bezerra, Claudio Moura Lacerda
Schistosomiasis affects approximately 207 million people in 76 countries. The association between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and Schistosoma mansoni infection (SMI) has been investigated. Studies using animal models suggest that the parasite may accelerate the oncogenic process when combined with other factors, such as hepatitis C virus infection or exposure to a carcinogen. Herein, we report a case series of six HCC patients from Northeast Brazil, with negative serology for both hepatitis B and C virus, submitted to liver transplantation, whose explant showed evidence of schistosomal liver fibrosis (SLF)...
July 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Anna Kozajda
BACKGROUND: Paper presents the intentional use of biological agents for industrial, diagnostic and research purposes in enterprises in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The source of data is the National Register of Biological (in Polish KRCB) - the type of the database that gathers data about the intentional use of biological agents at work in Poland. The analysis includes tabular summaries of the data as of December 2017. RESULTS: Notifications were sent by 598 enterprises for: diagnostic - 67...
July 16, 2018: Medycyna Pracy
Ralf Weiskirchen, Sabine Weiskirchen, Frank Tacke
Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by the formation and deposition of excess fibrous connective tissue, leading to progressive architectural tissue remodeling. Irrespective of the underlying noxious trigger, tissue damage induces an inflammatory response involving the local vascular system and the immune system and a systemic mobilization of endocrine and neurological mediators, ultimately leading to the activation of matrix-producing cell populations. Genetic disorders, chronic viral infection, alcohol abuse, autoimmune attacks, metabolic disorders, cholestasis, alterations in bile acid composition or concentration, venous obstruction, and parasite infections are well-established factors that predispose one to hepatic fibrosis...
2018: F1000Research
Ngoc Minh Pham, Walter Karlen, Hans-Peter Beck, Emmanuel Delamarche
Malaria, together with HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and hepatitis are the four most deadly infectious diseases globally. Progress in eliminating malaria has saved millions of lives, but also creates new challenges in detecting the 'last parasite'. Effective and accurate detection of malaria infections, both in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals are needed. In this review, the current progress in developing new diagnostic tools to fight malaria is presented. An ideal rapid test for malaria elimination is envisioned with examples to demonstrate how innovative technologies can assist the global defeat against this disease...
July 11, 2018: Malaria Journal
Maiara Voltarelli Providello, Zumira Aparecida Carneiro, Gisele Bulhões Portapilla, Gabriel Tavares do Vale, Ricardo Souza Camargo, Carlos Renato Tirapelli, Sérgio de Albuquerque
The acute phase of Chagas disease (CD) is characterized by high parasitic proliferation and intense inflammation, exacerbating the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively). These reactive molecules are also increased by the metabolism of the nitroheterocyclic compounds Benznidazole (BZ) and Nifurtimox, the only drugs available for the treatment of CD. This oxidative environment, associated with the intracellular multiplication of Trypanosoma cruzi, leads to tissue destruction, triggering the pathogenic process...
July 9, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kristen L Lokken, Annica R Stull-Lane, Kikkie Poels, Renée M Tsolis
Disseminated infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are a significant cause of child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. NTS infection in children is clinically associated with malaria, suggesting that malaria compromises control of disseminated NTS infection. To study the mechanistic basis for increased NTS susceptibility, we utilized a model of concurrent infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and Plasmodium yoelii Underlying malaria blunted monocyte expression of Ly6C, a marker for inflammatory activation, and impaired recruitment of inflammatory cells to the liver...
July 9, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Anne-Claire Langlois, Carine Marinach, Giulia Manzoni, Olivier Silvie
Sporozoite forms of the malaria parasite Plasmodium are transmitted by mosquitoes and first infect the liver for an initial round of replication before parasite proliferation in the blood. The molecular mechanisms involved during sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes remain poorly understood. In previous studies, two receptors of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the tetraspanin CD81 and the Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI), were shown to play an important role during entry of Plasmodium sporozoites into hepatocytic cells...
2018: PloS One
Khalid B Beshir, Nouhoum Diallo, Colin J Sutherland
Recurrent parasitaemia during follow up of clinical trials of antimalarial drug efficacy results from either recrudescence of parasites surviving treatment or from parasites newly emerging from the hepatic stage of infection. Nested PCR is used to distinguish these two possibilities and the technique is difficult to standardise. There is risk of both false positive and false negative results, leading to misclassification errors. The high-resolution melt (HRM) assay was developed with pairs of conserved primers targeting blocks of merozoite surface protein 1 and 2 (msp1 and msp2) genes, and polymorphisms were compared using sequence-confirmed Plasmodium falciparum DNA samples from laboratory isolates...
July 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sergey Sokolov, Daria Lebedeva
This paper is the first report on the molecular characterisation of myxozoan parasites from the odontobutid fish Chinese (Amur) sleeper (Perccottus glenii Dybowski, 1877). The authors determined the partial 18S rDNA sequence of Myxidium shedkoae Sokolov, 2013 from the gallbladder of the fish. Phylogenies reconstructed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis revealed that M. shedkoae belongs to the hepatic biliary group of myxozoans (after Kristmundsson and Freeman, 2013) as a member of the clade consisting of Zschokkella sp...
June 2018: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Zhiyong Ma, Xia Liu, Huifen Dong, Dong Xia, Lixia Wang, Yu Chen, Yong Xiong
Liver fibrosis is an important process that occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases and often results in the end stage of liver diseases, such as cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Sorafenib, a multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit liver fibrosis in multiple experimental fibrosis mouse and rat models. The aim of this study was to test the therapeutic effect of sorafenib on liver fibrosis induced by infection with a parasite, Schistosoma japonicum, in mice...
June 27, 2018: Parasitology Research
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