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Exercise And Physical Activity

Hamish Fibbins, Louise Czosnek, Robert Stanton, Kade Davison, Oscar Lederman, Rachel Morell, Philip Ward, Simon Rosenbaum
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) significantly improves physical health and clinical symptoms across mental disorders. Accredited Exercise Physiologists (AEPs) are trained to lead PA interventions for people with mental illness, but referrals to AEPs are low. AIMS: To determine the knowledge and attitudes of delegates attending the 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) conference toward physical health monitoring and exercise interventions for people with mental illness...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
Beata Pożarowszczyk, Artur Gołaś, Aiguo Chen, Adam Zając, Adam Kawczyński
The purpose of this study is to examine and further understand the effects of post activation potentiation on Achilles tendon (AT) thickness, elasticity and stiffness among basketball players. Basketball is one of the world's most popular and widely viewed sports. One of the main factors which athletes depend on during their performance is elastic energy coming straight from the AT. Contractile activity increases the muscular force and is known in science as post activation potentiation (PAP). Twelve basketball players (aged 21...
October 12, 2018: Sports
John S Y Chan, Guanmin Liu, Danxia Liang, Kanfeng Deng, Jiamin Wu, Jin H Yan
In contemporary society, people experience considerable stress in their daily lives. Therefore, developing effective approaches and convenient means to cope with their mood problems is important nowadays. Physical activity has been consistently reported as a cost-effective way to improve physical fitness, prevent mental illnesses, and alleviate mood problems. In this systematic review, the effects of exercise intensity, duration, and modality on mood change are discussed. Results show that moderate-intensity anaerobic exercise is associated with greater mood improvements...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Psychology
Vera van den Berg, Emi Saliasi, Jelle Jolles, Renate H M de Groot, Mai J M Chinapaw, Amika S Singh
Participation in structured physical activity is assumed to have a positive effect on cognitive and academic performance. A single bout of moderate to vigorous exercise has been found to have a small acute positive effect on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the dose-response effects of exercise duration are largely unknown. Therefore, the current study examined the acute effects of moderate-to-vigorous exercise with a duration of either 10, 20, or 30 min on selective attention and working memory performance of young adolescents...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shaun Porter, Noah D Silverberg, Naznin Virji-Babul
OBJECTIVES: To examine the neurophysiological correlates and brain network organization underlying physical and cognitive exertion in active young adults. DESIGN: Repeated measures. METHODS: Thirteen healthy adults completed three exertion tasks in a counterbalanced order: a graded working memory task (anti-saccade and serial addition task (ASAT)), a graded exercise task (cycling on a stationary bicycle) (EX) and a combined graded working memory and exercise task (ASAT+EX)...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Nicolle Kränkel, Martin Bahls, Emeline M Van Craenenbroeck, Volker Adams, Luis Serratosa, Erik Ekker Solberg, Dominique Hansen, Marcus Dörr, Hareld Kemps
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) - a clustering of pathological conditions, including abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycaemia - is closely associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and a high risk of cardiovascular disease. A combination of multigenetic predisposition and lifestyle choices accounts for the varying inter-individual risk to develop MetS and T2DM, as well as for the individual amount of the increase in cardiovascular risk in those patients. A physically active lifestyle can offset about half of the genetically mediated cardiovascular risk...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Éva Kovács, András Simon, Anna N Petridisz, Réka L Erdős, Franciska Rozs, Anikó Virág
AIM: This study aimed to reveal the effects of a complex exercise programme on gait among older people through analysing the gait parameters in three groups: (1) older individuals participating in complex execise programme called 60+; (2) older individuals who were physically inactive; and (3) young individuals. METHODS: Fifty seven community-living individuals were enrolled in this study. Variability of step length, step time, step width, and double support ratio as well as automaticity were measured...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Rima Solianik, Vytautas Streckis, Daiva Imbrasiene, Alvydas Paunksnis
BACKGROUND: Although changes in retinal vessel diameter is a new biomarker for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors, limited information is available regarding the effects of endurance exercises on retinal microcirculation. Thus, we aimed to evaluate both chronic and acute effects of soccer game on the diameters of retinal vessels in middle-aged players. METHODS: Retinal vessel diameters were measured in 12 middle-aged amateur players (44.4 ± 7.0 years of age) with more than four years of soccer playing experience and 12 age matched sedentary adults (49...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Andrew Buskard, Brian Zalma, Nicholes Cherup, Catherine Armitage, Craig Dent, Joseph F Signorile
BACKGROUND: Periodization is a systematic training calendar designed to provide variations in performance targeting, while maximizing results and reducing the potential for overtraining. When provided across multiple weeks, termed a mesocycle, it may also incorporate active recovery periods using specified drills designed to translate neuromuscular gains into targeted functional abilities. There are a number of models that can be used when applying periodization to resistance training (RT)...
October 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Susann Weihrauch-Blüher, Susanna Wiegand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes our current understanding of factors associated with childhood obesity, including latest prevalence rates, effectiveness of intervention strategies, and risk for concomitant disease later in life. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity has reached global dimensions, and prevalence of childhood obesity has increased eightfold since 1975. Interventions for obesity prevention have mainly focused on behavioral settings to date, i.e., interventions that have focused on behavioral changes of the individuum such as increasing daily physical exercise or optimizing diet...
October 13, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
Nils Haller, Sonja Lorenz, Daniel Pfirrmann, Cora Koch, Klaus Lieb, Ulrich Dettweiler, Perikles Simon, Patrick Jung
BACKGROUND: Due to the high prevalence of depressive disorders, it is mandatory to develop therapeutic strategies that provide universal access and require limited financial and human resources. Web-based therapeutic approaches fulfill these conditions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a supervised, individualized 8-week Web-based exercise intervention conducted for patients with moderate to severe depression...
October 12, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
M I Chushkin, S Y Mandrykin, N L Karpina, L A Popova
A growing body of data demonstrates that exercise capacity is a potentially stronger predictor of mortality than established risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, obesity, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Individuals who maintain a regular program of PA that is longer in duration, of greater intensity, or both are likely to derive greater benefit than those who engage in lesser amounts. In this review, the authors have shown the possibility of assessing physical activity and the main provisions of the appointment of physical training to improve and preserve the cardiorespiratory fitness...
2018: Kardiologiia
Danielle A N Chapa, Kelsey E Hagan, Kelsie T Forbush, Victoria L Perko, Daria A Sorokina, Ahmed Y Alasmar, Carolyn B Becker, Roberta T Sherman, Ron A Thompson, Jennifer G Farrell, Tiffany M Stewart
OBJECTIVE: Several studies indicate that eating-disorder (ED) psychopathology is elevated in athletes compared to non-athletes. The assessment of excessive exercise among athletes is a challenge because, compared to non-athletes, athletes are required to train at higher intensities and for longer periods of time. However, individuals participating in competitive sports are still susceptible to unhealthy physical-activity patterns. Most ED assessments were developed and normed in non-athlete samples and, therefore, do not capture the nuances of athletes' training experiences...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Takuya Fukushima, Jiro Nakano, Shun Ishii, Ayumi Natsuzako, Junya Sakamoto, Minoru Okita
This study aimed to investigate the effects of low-intensity exercise therapy (LIET) on the physical and mental symptoms and functions in patients with haematological malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. Forty-four patients hospitalised for chemotherapy performed LIET. The exercise intensity of LIET was defined as achieving <40% of the predicted maximum heart rate calculated using the Karvonen formula. LIET consisted of aerobic and resistance training, which was carried out on weekdays. The intervention was omitted in the case of poor general health status and strong patient refusal...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
Marc Francaux, Louise Deldicque
During the course of life, muscle mass undergoes many changes in terms of quantity and quality. Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue able to hypertrophy or atrophy according to growth, ageing, physical activity, nutrition and health state. The purpose of the present review is to present the mechanisms by which exercise can induce changes in human skeletal muscle mass by modulating protein balance and regulating the fate of satellite cells. Exercise is known to exert transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulations as well as to induce epigenetic modifications and to control messenger RNA stability, which all contribute to the regulation of protein synthesis...
October 11, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Maxence Bobin, Margarita Anastassova, Mehdi Boukallel, Mehdi Ammi
This paper presents a new platform to monitor the arm and hand activity of stroke patients during rehabilitation exercises in the hospital and at home during their daily living activities. The platform provides relevant data to the therapist in order to assess the patients physical state and adapt the rehabilitation program if necessary. The platform consists of a self-contained smart cup that can be used to perform exercises that are similar to everyday tasks such as drinking. The first smart cup prototype, the design of which was based on interviews regarding the needs of therapists, contains various sensors that collect information about its orientation, the liquid level, its position compared to a reference target and tremors...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Fang-Hui Li, Lei Sun, Min Zhu, Tao Li, Hao-En Gao, Da-Shuai Wu, Ling Zhu, Rui Duan, Timon Cheng-Yi Liu
Sarcopenia is associated with loss of muscle mass and function as well as oxidative stress, chronic low-grade inflammatory status, and adipocytokine dysfunction. It has been reported that sarcopenia can be attenuated by exercise training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether long-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) protocols could differentially modulate changes in body composition, physical performance, inflammatory parameters, and adipocytokines in fat tissues and serum, as well as oxidative parameters and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in skeletal muscle tissue of aged rats...
October 9, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
S B Birtwistle, G Ashcroft, R Murphy, I Gee, H Poole, P M Watson
Exercise referral schemes aim to increase physical activity amongst inactive individuals with or at risk of long-term health conditions. Yet many patients referred to these schemes (by health professionals) fail to take up the exercise opportunities on offer. Understanding factors influencing uptake to exercise referral schemes may help improve future attendance. Using the Socio-Ecological Model as a framework, this qualitative study aimed to explore factors influencing uptake to an exercise referral scheme based in the North West of England...
October 10, 2018: Health Education Research
Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Cindy K Barha, John R Best
Physical activity is a promising strategy for dementia prevention and disease modification. Here, we provide a narrative review of the current evidence from epidemiological and intervention studies on the role of physical activity and exercise in promoting cognitive health in older adults both without and with cognitive impairment. We highlight some of the potential underlying mechanisms and discuss biological sex as a potential moderating factor. We conclude with limitations and future directions for this rapidly expanding line of research...
October 11, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Thomas Bandholm, Thomas W Wainwright, Henrik Kehlet
Exercise-based interventions applied before and after total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA, respectively) have been investigated for a number of years, based on the assumption that they will enhance post-operative recovery. Although recent studies suggest that high-volume, pre-operative exercise may enhance post-operative recovery after TKA, studies of post-operative exercise-based interventions, have not found superiority of one exercise regime over another. It seems, however, that post-operative, exercise-based, rehabilitation is superior to no or minimal rehabilitation after THA and TKA...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
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