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Public Health And Physical Activity

Timothy J Cunningham, Fang Xu, Machell Town
In recent decades, public health awareness of health disparities among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations has increased (1). Healthy People 2020 included objectives to improve health of LGBT persons.† Five key health-related behaviors were found to be likely associated with reduced all-cause mortality: never smoking, performing regular physical activity, consuming no or moderate amounts of alcohol, having a normal body weight, and obtaining sufficient sleep daily (2). CDC estimated these five health-related behaviors among adults aged ≥21 years by sexual orientation and transgender status using data from the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 25 U...
August 17, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Annie Madden, Max Hopwood, Joanne Neale, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection provide the possibility of eliminating HCV as a public health threat. This focus on HCV elimination through treatment, however, is also driving a concomitant focus on 'achieving cure' as the primary outcome of treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore what people who inject drugs consider to be important in relation to outcomes of HCV treatment, and whether there are outcomes 'beyond cure' that might be important to understand as part of improving engagement in treatment...
August 15, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Alexei Christodoulides, Neha Gupta, Vahe Yacoubian, Neil Maithel, Jordan Parker, Theodoros Kelesidis
Mycoplasma infections, such as walking pneumonia or pelvic inflammatory diseases, are a major threat to public health. Despite their relatively small physical and genomic size, mycoplasmas are known to elicit strong host immune responses, generally inflammatory, while also being able to evade the immune system. The mycoplasma membrane is composed of approximately two-thirds protein and one-third lipid and contains several lipoproteins that are known to regulate host immune responses. Herein, the immunomodulatory effects of mycoplasma lipoproteins are reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Silvia R S Ouakinin, David P Barreira, Carlos J Gois
Literature on depression and obesity describes the relevance of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation, and inflammatory processes as well as the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Recent investigation in obesity highlights the involvement of several regulation systems, particularly in white adipose tissue. The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, gonadal, growth hormone, leptin, sympathetic nervous system and adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotoninergic central pathways, all seem interconnected and involved in obesity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Amber E Vaughn, Rachel Bartlett, Courtney T Luecking, Heidi Hennink-Kaminski, Dianne S Ward
Although social marketing principles have been successfully employed in school-based interventions to prevent obesity, use in early care and education (ECE) settings has been limited. This paper describes the use of the social marketing approach to develop an ECE-based intervention that encourages an ECE provider-parent partnership to improve the quality of preschool children's diets and their level of physical activity. A six-step social marketing approach for public health interventions guided the development of this ECE-based intervention...
August 10, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
K Milton, J Chau, B McGill, A Bauman
OBJECTIVES: The media is a substantial vehicle for conveying public health messages to the public. This study examined the extent to which the publication of special issues in a high-impact medical journal in 2012 and 2016 generated media interest in physical activity and health in the UK and explored the main issues that were reported. STUDY DESIGN: This is a systematic narrative review of print media. METHODS: Relevant print news articles were identified by searching Factiva and Google News...
August 11, 2018: Public Health
Phalakorn Suebsamran, Taksin Pimpak, Patnapa Thani, Parinya Chamnan
BACKGROUND: Although metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a significant public health problem worldwide, little evidence exists to describe the prevalence of MetS in school children using MetS different classifications, and its association with health-related behaviors. METHODS: Using data on 393 children and adolescents aged 13-16 years participating in the Ubon Ratchathani Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescent (UMeSIA) Project, the prevalence of MetS was determined using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) 2007 definition and other three classifications reported in the previous literature...
August 14, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Chin Yi Chan, Norazlina Mohamed, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana, Kok-Yong Chin
Osteoporosis is a major public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Increasing knowledge, correcting health belief and promoting osteoprotective practices are effective measures for building and maintaining strong bone throughout ones' life-span. This review aims to summarize the contemporary evidence on the knowledge, beliefs and practice of adolescents and young adults on bone health. We performed literature searches using the PubMed and Scopus databases to identify original studies from 2008 to May 2018 using the search terms "(knowledge OR beliefs OR attitude OR practice OR behaviours OR physical activity OR exercise OR diet OR nutrition) AND (young OR youth OR adolescents OR children OR young adults OR students OR teenager) AND (osteoporosis OR bone health)"...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Bart N Green, Claire D Johnson, Scott Haldeman, Edward J Kane, Michael B Clay, Erin A Griffith, Juan M Castellote, Matthew Smuck, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran, Eric L Hurwitz, Margareta Nordin, Kristi Randhawa, Hainan Yu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop recommendations for prevention interventions for spinal disorders that could be delivered globally, but especially in underserved areas and in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We extracted risk factors, associations, and comorbidities of common spinal disorders (e.g., back and neck pain, spinal trauma, infection, developmental disorders) from a scoping review of meta-analyses and systematic reviews of clinical trials, cohort studies, case control studies, and cross-sectional studies...
August 11, 2018: European Spine Journal
Katie L Stone, Qian Xiao
Many aspects of sleep and circadian rhythms change as people age. Older adults usually experience decrease in sleep duration and efficiency, increase in sleep latency and fragmentation, high prevalence of sleep disorders, and weakened rest-activity rhythms. Research evidence suggests that women are more likely to report aging-related sleep problems. This review presents epidemiologic and clinical evidence on the relationships between sleep deficiency and physical and mental outcomes in older women, explores potential mechanisms underlying such relationships, points out gaps in the literature that warrant future investigations, and considers implications in clinical and public health settings...
September 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
Ione Avila-Palencia, Luc Int Panis, Evi Dons, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Elisabeth Raser, Thomas Götschi, Regine Gerike, Christian Brand, Audrey de Nazelle, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Esther Anaya-Boig, Erik Stigell, Sonja Kahlmeier, Francesco Iacorossi, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
BACKGROUND: Transport mode choice has been associated with different health risks and benefits depending on which transport mode is used. We aimed to evaluate the association between different transport modes use and several health and social contact measures. METHODS: We based our analyses on the Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) longitudinal study, conducted over a period of two years in seven European cities. 8802 participants finished the baseline questionnaire, and 3567 answered the final questionnaire...
August 8, 2018: Environment International
Cora Janzen, Josh Marko, Michael Schwandt
BACKGROUND: Population health approaches are visible among multidisciplinary methods used in urban design and planning, but attention to health equity is not always an explicit focus. Population and Public Health-Saskatoon Health Region recognized the need for frameworks to prioritize, integrate and measure health equity within local built environments. SETTING: A cross-department healthy built environment (HBE) initiative coordinated activities involving Health Promotion, Environmental Public Health, Public Health Observatory, and Medical Health Officers engaged with municipal, academic and community partners in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan...
August 10, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Pembi Emmanuel, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Stephen John, Juntra Karbwang, Kenji Hirayama
BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a chronic mutilating disease of the skin and the underlying tissues caused by fungi or bacteria. Although recently included in the list of neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization, strategic control and preventive measures are yet to be outlined. Thus, it continues to pose huge public health threat in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. If not detected and managed early, it results into gruesome deformity of the limbs. Its low report and lack of familiarity may predispose patients to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment initiation...
August 10, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Nathan M Murata, Ross Oshiro, Troy Furutani, William T Tsushima
Concussions have become a public health issue. This public health concern has drawn the attention of many states in which laws were created to address concussions safety, recognition of signs and symptoms, immediate removal, medical clearance, and return to play protocols. The vast majority of state legislation focused on student athletes participating in organized sports. However the rise in concussion can be directly attributed to children, youth and adolescents participating in non-sports related events...
August 9, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Jon E Grant, Sarah A Redden, Katherine Lust, Samuel R Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: This study sought to examine the occurrence of the nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (amphetamines and methylphenidate) in a university sample and their associated physical and mental health correlates, including potential relationships with risky sexual practices. METHODS: A 156-item anonymous online survey was distributed via e-mail to a sample of 9449 university students. Current use of alcohol and drugs, psychological and physical status, and academic performance were assessed, along with questionnaire-based measures of impulsivity and compulsivity...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Antonio Videira-Silva, Luís Sardinha, Helena Fonseca
Background: Adolescent overweight is a major public health concern, as it is associated with several short-run and long-run adverse health outcomes. Inappropriate health behaviours may be at the front of this epidemic. There is widespread need for new strategies that may positively influence dietary and physical activity behaviours. This trial (NCT02941770) was designed to investigate the impact of a physical activity consultation, based on motivational interview technique, on physical activity behaviour and weight status among overweight adolescents followed at a tertiary paediatric care centre...
2018: BMJ Paediatrics Open
Rohit Kumar Verma, Thomas Paraidathathu, Nur Akmar Taha, Wei Wen Chong
Background: Obesity is now widely regarded as a main contributor to poor health. Involvement of community pharmacists can be a valuable tool in obesity management. However, there is still a lack of data in Malaysia on the potential involvement of and opportunities for community pharmacists in providing weight management services. Thus, it is essential to investigate the perceptions of the general public on weight management services in the community pharmacy setting. To evaluate the general public's perceptions on weight management services by community pharmacists in terms of perceived availability, utilization and factors influencing acceptability of services...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Lisa M Daly, Dell Horey, Philippa F Middleton, Frances M Boyle, Vicki Flenady
BACKGROUND: Perinatal morbidity and mortality are significant public health issues with an enduring impact on the health and well-being of women and their families. Millions of pregnant women now download and use mobile applications to access, store, and share health information. However, little is known about the consequences. An investigation of their impact on perinatal health outcomes is particularly topical. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of mobile app interventions during pregnancy on influencing healthy maternal behavior and improving perinatal health outcomes...
August 9, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Elisa Maia Dos Santos, Roger de Moraes, Eduardo Vera Tibiriça, Grazielle Vilas Bôas Huguenin, Annie Seixas Belo Moreira, Andrea Rocha De Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is an important public health problem, considered a new epidemic with high morbidity and mortality. The progression of HF often determines weight reduction, muscle mass loss, and reduced physical ability. Whey protein supplementation may increase the effects of exercise on strength and muscle mass, in addition to promoting improved endothelial function, body composition and quality of life. However, studies are needed to evaluate its benefits in patients with HF...
August 8, 2018: Trials
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Joseph Firth, Tine Van Damme, Ai Koyanagi
BACKGROUND: Depression is common and burdensome in adolescents. Understanding modifiable environmental risk factors is essential. There is evidence that physical activity is protective of depression. However, the impact of sedentary behavior (SB) on depression is relatively under-researched especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this cross-sectional study, we explored the association between SB and depressive symptoms in adolescents from 30 LMICs, controlling for confounders including physical activity...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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