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Chao Xing, Zhengzhai Cai, Jian Gong, Jun Zhou, Jingjing Xu, Feng Guo
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Increasing studies have indicated that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play critical roles in cancer progression. They have shown great potential to be useful markers and therapeutic targets. METHODS: Bioinformatics analysis was conducted to detect mRNA and ncRNAs' expression changes between tumor samples and adjacent non-tumor samples. The gene expression profiles were obtained from the national center of biotechnology information gene expression omnibus (GEO)...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Manal S Fawzy, Fatima I Al Beladi
BACKGROUND: As the seventh leading cause of death by 2030, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considered the most common chronic metabolic disease worldwide. Vitamin D metabolic axis players were identified as good candidates for T2DM. We aimed to analyze the circulating levels of total 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD), vitamin D receptor (VDR) transcript and VD-binding protein (VDBP) in a sample of Saudi T2DM and to correlate these profiles with diabetic nephropathy and insulin resistance...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
A Vieira, C F Galinha, A Oehmen, G Carvalho
Few attempts have been made in previous studies to link the microbial community structure and function with nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions at full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this work, high-throughput sequencing and reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR) was applied to activated sludge samples from three WWTPs for two seasonal periods (winter and summer) and linked with the N2 O emissions and wastewater characteristics. The total N2 O emissions ranged from 7.2 to 937.0 g N-N2 O/day, which corresponds to an emission factor of 0...
October 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nicolas Dusart, Joëlle Gérard, Didier Le Thiec, Christelle Collignon, Yves Jolivet, Marie-Noëlle Vaultier
Ozone (O3 ) and drought increase tree oxidative stress. To protect forest health, we need to improve risk assessment, using metric model such as the phytotoxic O3 dose above a threshold of y nmol·m-2 ·s-1 (PODy), while taking into account detoxification mechanisms and interacting stresses. The impact of drought events on the effect of O3 pollution deserves special attention. Water deficit may decrease O3 entrance into the leaves by reducing stomatal opening; however, water deficit also induces changes in cell redox homeostasis...
October 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sri H Kanuri, Joseph Ipe, Kameel Kassab, Hongyu Gao, Yunlong Liu, Todd C Skaar, Rolf P Kreutz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Variation in micro-RNA (miRNA) levels in blood has been associated with alterations of physiological functions of the cardiovascular system. Circulating miRNA have the potential to become reliable biomarkers for risk stratification and early detection of cardiovascular events. Recurrent thrombotic events in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) demonstrate the need for personalized approaches to secondary prevention, especially in light of recent novel treatment approaches...
October 3, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Balusamy Sri Renuka Devi, Shadi Rahimi, Deok-Chun Yang
Cytochrome P450 genes as the one of the largest superfamily genes mediate a wide range of plant biochemical pathways. In this study, a full-length cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP736B) cDNA was isolated and characterized from Panax ginseng. It was revealed that the deduced amino acid of PgCYP736B shares a high degree of sequence homology with CYP736A12 encoded by P. ginseng. Expression of PgCYP736B was differentially induced not only during a Pseudomonas syringae infection (7.7-fold) and wounding (47.3-fold) but also after exposure to salt (7...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Isabel Barroeta-Espar, Laura D Weinstock, Beatriz G Perez-Nievas, Avery C Meltzer, Michael Siao Tick-Chong, Ana C Amaral, Melissa E Murray, Krista L Moulder, John C Morris, Nigel J Cairns, Joseph E Parisi, Val J Lowe, Ronald C Petersen, Julia Kofler, Milos D Ikonomovic, Oscar López, William E Klunk, Richard P Mayeux, Matthew P Frosch, Levi B Wood, Teresa Gomez-Isla
Our group has previously studied the brains of some unique individuals who are able to tolerate robust amounts of Alzheimer's pathological lesions (amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) without experiencing dementia while alive. These rare resilient cases do not demonstrate the patterns of neuronal/synaptic loss that are normally found in the brains of typical demented Alzheimer's patients. Moreover, they exhibit decreased astrocyte and microglial activation markers GFAP and CD68, suggesting that a suppressed neuroinflammatory response may be implicated in human brain resilience to Alzheimer's pathology...
October 15, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Fan Wang, Ruiling Wang, Fei Liu, Wanguang Chen
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent and has been widely used in a diversity of personal care products. However, recent studies suggest that TCS has some adverse effects, and some evidences suggest in vitro neurotoxicity and developmental neurotoxicity of embryos. There are currently few studies concerning the mechanisms of TCS induced late developmental neurotoxic effect. Therefore, we investigated effects of juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposure to TCS. Male juvenile zebrafish were exposed to 68...
October 15, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Georgios Baskozos, John M Dawes, Jean S Austin, Ana Antunes-Martins, Lucy McDermott, Alex J Clark, Teodora Trendafilova, Jon G Lees, Stephen B McMahon, Jeffrey S Mogil, Christine Orengo, David L Bennett
Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons provide connectivity between peripheral tissues and spinal cord. Transcriptional plasticity within DRG sensory neurons after peripheral nerve injury contributes to nerve repair but also leads to maladaptive plasticity, including the development of neuropathic pain. This study presents tissue and neuron specific expression profiling of both known and novel Long Non-Coding RNAs (LncRNAs) in rodent DRG following nerve injury. We have identified a large number of novel LncRNAs expressed within rodent DRG, a minority of which were syntenically conserved between mouse, rat and human and which including both- intergenic and antisense LncRNAs...
October 16, 2018: Pain
Sven P Hoekstra, Nicolette C Bishop, Steve H Faulkner, Stephen J Bailey, Christof Andreas Leicht
Regular exercise-induced acute inflammatory responses are suggested to improve the inflammatory profile and insulin sensitivity. As body temperature elevations partly mediate this response, passive heating might be a viable tool to improve the inflammatory profile. This study investigated the acute, and chronic effects of hot water immersion on inflammatory and metabolic markers. Ten sedentary, overweight males (BMI: 31.0±4.2 kg/m2 ) were immersed in water set at 39°C for 1 h (HWI) or rested for 1 h at ambient temperature (AMB)...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Carole L Wilson, Sarah E Stephenson, Jean Paul Higuero, Carol Feghali-Bostwick, Chi F Hung, Lynn M Schnapp
Pericytes are key regulators of the microvasculature through their close interactions with the endothelium. However, pericytes play additional roles in tissue homeostasis and repair, in part by transitioning into myofibroblasts. Accumulation of myofibroblasts is a hallmark of fibrotic diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). To understand the contribution and role of pericytes in human lung fibrosis, we isolated these cells from non-IPF control and IPF lung tissues based on expression of PDGFRβ, a common marker of pericytes...
October 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Teminioluwa Ajayi, Cynthia L Innes, Sara A Grimm, Prashant Rai, Ryan Finethy, Jörn Coers, Xuting Wang, Douglas A Bell, John A McGrath, Shepherd H Schurman, Michael B Fessler
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal disorder. Genetic association studies have implicated dysregulated autophagy in CD. Among risk loci identified are a promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)(rs13361189) and two intragenic SNPs (rs9637876, rs10065172) in immunity-related GTPase family M ( IRGM), a gene that encodes a protein of the autophagy initiation complex. All three SNPs have been proposed to modify IRGM expression, but reports have been divergent and largely derived from cell lines...
October 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Mahla Poudineh, Zongjie Wang, Mahmoud Labib, Moloud Ahmadi, Libing Zhang, Jagotamoy Das, Sharif Ahmed, Stephane Angers, Shana O Kelley
Cell morphology and geometry affect cellular processes such as stem cell differentiation, suggesting that these parameters serve as fundamental regulators of biological processes within the cell. Hierarchical architectures featuring micro- and nanotopographical features therefore offer programmable systems for stem cell differentiation. However, a limited number of studies have explored the effects of hierarchical architectures due to the complexity of fabricating systems with rationally tunable micro- and nanostructuring...
October 18, 2018: Nano Letters
Ellen M Caparosa, Andrew J Sedgewick, Georgios Zenonos, Yin Zhao, Diane L Carlisle, Lucia Stefaneanu, Brian T Jankowitz, Paul Gardner, Yue-Fang Chang, William R Lariviere, William A LaFramboise, Panayiotis V Benos, Robert M Friedlander
BACKGROUND: Many studies have explored molecular markers of carotid plaque development and vulnerability to rupture, usually having examined whole carotid plaques. However, there are regional differences in plaque morphology and known shear-related mechanisms in areas surrounding the lipid core. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are regional differences in protein expression along the long axis of the carotid plaque and how that might produce gaps in our understanding of the carotid plaque molecular signature...
October 17, 2018: Neurosurgery
Teng Liu, Qiong Zhang, Jiankun Zhang, Chao Li, Ya-Ru Miao, Qian Lei, Qiubai Li, An-Yuan Guo
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, acted as cell-to-cell communication vectors and potential biomarkers for diseases. microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most well studied molecules in EVs, thus a comprehensive investigation of miRNA expression profiles in EVs will be helpful to explore their functions and biomarkers. We curated 462 small RNA sequencing samples of EVs from 17 sources/diseases and constructed the EVmiRNA database ( to show the miRNA expression profiles...
October 18, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Xiang Hu, Wen Chen, Jing Li, Shulan Huang, Xuling Xu, Xuan Zhang, Shuanglin Xiang, Changning Liu
There is emerging evidence showing that lncRNAs can be involved in various critical biological processes. Zebrafish is a fully developed model system being used in a variety of basic research and biomedical studies. Hence, it is an ideal model organism to study the functions and mechanisms of lncRNAs. Here, we constructed ZFLNC-a comprehensive database of zebrafish lncRNA that is dedicated to providing a zebrafish-based platform for deep exploration of zebrafish lncRNAs and their mammalian counterparts to the relevant academic communities...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Wujood Khayat, Anna Hackett, Marie Shaw, Alina Ilie, Tracy Dudding-Byth, Vera M Kalscheuer, Louise Christie, Mark A Corbett, Jane Juusola, Kathryn L Friend, Brian M Kirmse, Jozef Gecz, Michael Field, John Orlowski
We report two unrelated families with multigenerational nonsyndromic intellectual disability segregating with a recurrent de novo missense variant (c.1543C>T:p.Leu515Phe) in the alkali cation/proton exchanger gene SLC9A7 (also commonly referred to as NHE7). SLC9A7 is located on human X chromosome at Xp11.3 and has not yet been associated with a human phenotype. The gene is widely transcribed, but especially abundant in brain, skeletal muscle and various secretory tissues. Within cells, SLC9A7 resides in the Golgi apparatus, with prominent enrichment in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and post-Golgi vesicles...
October 17, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
E A Kogan, N V Zharkov, S I Askolskaya, Yu V Popov, M A Krot, T A Demura
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the growth mechanisms of large uterine leiomyoma (LULM) on the basis of a clinical morphology examination, by providing immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics of the expression of growth factors (transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF)) and markers of stemness (CD117/c-kit, Connexin 43, Nestin) and proliferation (Ki-67). SUBJECT AND METHODS: The investigators examined surgical specimens from 38 women diagnosed with simple uterine leiomyoma (ULM), who had been divided into two groups: 1) 21 patients with LULM (>6 cm in diameter) (a study group); 2) 17 patients with small ULM (<4 cm in diameter) (a comparison group)...
2018: Arkhiv Patologii
Chen-Jan Chiu, Chih-Wen Chi, Hui-Ru Hsieh, Yu-Chuen Huang, Huey-June Wu, Yu-Jen Chen
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT1) on polarization of macrophages in young football players.Fourteen male football players (19.9 ± 1.4 years old) were enrolled in this study. YYIRT1 was performed with 20-meter shuttle runs at increasing speeds and 10-second active recovery in a 5-meter distance between runs till exhaustion. Fasting blood samples were collected before and immediately after YYIRT1. Analysis for macrophage polarization by flow cytometry, reactive oxygen species (ROS) by flow cytometry, biochemical parameters by chemical reactions, and serum cytokines by ELISA were performed...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ibrahim Kays, Brian Edwin Chen
Single-cell analysis overcomes the problems of cellular heterogeneity by revealing the individual differences between cells in tissue. The current tools used to profile gene expression at the single-cell level are arduous and often require specialized equipment. We have previously developed a technique to quantify protein expression levels in single living cells. Here, we combine quantification of protein expression with absolute measurement of mRNA amounts of the same gene in the same cell, to profile the expression of genes at the transcriptional and translational levels...
October 18, 2018: BioTechniques
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