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Uri Rozovski, Michael J Keating, Zeev Estrov
The immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgHV) mutation status correlates with the clinical outcome of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treated with chemoimmunotherapy. Why the survival rate of patients with unmutated IgHV is worse than that of patients with mutated IgHV is unknown. CLL cells with unmutated IgHV were thought to originate from naïve B lymphocytes, whereas CLL cells with mutated IgHV were thought to arise from B cells that have undergone somatic hypermutation (SHM). Cell surface protein expression profile and gene expression studies showing that all CLL cells, regardless of their IgHV mutation status, are of postgerminal center origin, negated this hypothesis...
August 16, 2018: Acta Haematologica
Zhiwen Wang, Zhimeng Wang, Jing Liu, Hao Yang
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is one of the most common invasive malignancies of the bone. The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) SNHG5 (small nucleolar RNA host gene 5) has been consistently shown to be involved in many cancers, although its precise function in osteosarcoma remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of SNHG5 in OS progression and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: SNHG5 expression in 32 OS tissues and 4 OS cell lines was measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
August 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Romina Dastmalchi, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Mir Davood Omrani, Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Arezou Sayad, Mohammad Taheri
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which dysregulation or aberrant expressions of several immune-related genes have been noted. More recently, the participation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in regulation of immune responses has been highlighted. In the present study, we evaluated expression levels of three lncRNAs named Nuclear Paraspeckle Assembly Transcript 1 (NEAT1), P21 associated ncRNA DNA damage activated (PANDA) and Taurine-up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) in peripheral blood of 50 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 50 matched healthy subjects...
August 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Rui Xue, Xueying Wang, Shihong Xu, Yifan Liu, Chengcheng Feng, Chunyan Zhao, Qinghua Liu, Jun Li
Egg yolk generation is a common physiological process in oviparous animals. To understand oogenesis and reproductive capacity, it is necessary to characterize vitellogenins (Vtgs), which are the precursors of major egg yolk proteins (Yps). Therefore, to improve our understanding of the entire process of egg yolk generation in female turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), we obtained full-length cDNAs of vtg genes, examined gene expression in the female liver and ovary, and analyzed Vtg synthesis in the ovary. Three distinct complete polypeptide sequences were identified and designated as VtgAa, VtgAb, and VtgC, which confirmed the multiplicity of the vtg gene in turbot and showed that it follows a "three vtg model"...
August 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Hernan Hernandez, Sara A Myers, Molly Schieber, Duy M Ha, Sarah Baker, Panagiotis Koutakis, Kyung-Soo Kim, Constance Mietus, George P Casale, Iraklis I Pipinos
OBJECTIVES: Claudication is the most common manifestation of peripheral artery disease (PAD), producing significant ambulatory compromise. Limited information exists on the routine physical activity of claudicating patients. Our objective was to record the intensity/time profiles of physical activity and the timing and duration of sedentary behavior of a sample of community-dwelling claudicating patients. METHODS: Forty-four claudicating patients referred to our vascular clinic were recruited...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Cho-Rong Bae, Jun Hino, Hiroshi Hosoda, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
AIMS: Our previous study revealed that mice transgenic for endothelial-cell-specific overexpression of CNP (E-CNP Tg mice) are protected against the increased fat weight, inflammation, and insulin resistance associated with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. In addition, E-CNP overexpression prevented abnormal lipid profiles and metabolism and blocked inflammation in the livers of HFD-fed mice. Because obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance increase the risk of various liver diseases, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), we here studied the role of E-CNP overexpression in the livers of mice in which NASH was induced through feeding of either HFD or a choline-deficient defined l‑amino-acid diet (CDAA)...
August 13, 2018: Life Sciences
Daniel P Potaczek, Sebastian D Unger, Nan Zhang, Styliani Taka, Sven Michel, Nesibe Akdağ, Feng Lan, Markus Helfer, Christoph Hudemann, Markus Eickmann, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Spyridon Megremis, Anne Sadewasser, Bilal Alashkar Alhamwe, Fahd Alhamdan, Mübeccel Akdis, Michael R Edwards, Sebastian L Johnston, Cezmi A Akdis, Stephan Becker, Claus Bachert, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Holger Garn, Harald Renz
BACKGROUND: Infections with human rhinoviruses (RVs) are responsible for millions of common cold episodes and the majority of asthma exacerbations, especially in childhood. No drugs specifically targeting RVs are available. OBJECTIVE: To identify specific anti-rhinoviral molecules based on DNAzyme technology as candidates to a clinical study. METHODS: A total of 226 candidate DNAzymes were designed against two regions of RV RNA genome identified to be sufficiently highly conserved between virus strains, i...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Peng Li, Mingqiang Dong, Zhigang Wang
Previous studies demonstrated dysregulation of different microRNAs in thyroid cancer. Tetraspanins (TSPANs) are cell surface proteins with critical roles in many cellular processes, and implications in tumor development. Here we investigated the role of miR-369-3p in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and its association with TSPAN13. miR-369-3p and the TSPAN13 gene expression profiles of 513 thyroid cancer and 59 normal thyroid tissues were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas database. Thyroid cancer tissues were classified according to the histological type, grouped based on low and high median miR-369-3p and TSPAN13 expression, and analyzed in relation to overall survival (OS) of patients...
August 2, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Tennille Sibbritt, Chi K Ip, Poh-Lynn Khoo, Emilie Wilkie, Vanessa Jones, Jane Q J Sun, Joanne X Shen, Guangdun Peng, Jing-Dong J Han, Naihe Jing, Pierre Osteil, Mirana Ramialison, Patrick P L Tam, Nicolas Fossat
Development of the embryonic head is driven by the activity of gene regulatory networks of transcription factors. LHX1 is a homeobox transcription factor that plays an essential role in the formation of the embryonic head. The loss of Lhx1 function results in anterior truncation of the embryo caused by the disruption of morphogenetic movement of tissue precursors and the dysregulation of WNT signaling activity. Profiling the gene expression pattern in the Lhx1 mutant embryo revealed that tissues in anterior germ layers acquire posterior tissue characteristics, suggesting Lhx1 activity is required for the allocation and patterning of head precursor tissues...
August 16, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Laila Al-Eryani, Samantha F Jenkins, Vanessa A States, Jianmin Pan, Janine C Malone, Shesh N Rai, Susan Galandiuk, Ashok K Giri, J Christopher States
Arsenic, a naturally occurring element, contaminates the drinking water of over 200 million people globally. Chronic arsenic exposure causes multiple cancers including those originating from skin, lung and bladder, and is associated with liver, kidney, and prostate cancers. Skin is the primary target organ for arsenic toxicity; chronic toxicity initially manifests as non-malignant hyperkeratoses (HK) and subsequently advances to malignant lesions, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC)...
2018: PloS One
John Rooney, Keiyu Oshida, Naresh Vasani, Beena Vallanat, Natalia Ryan, Brian N Chorley, Xuting Wang, Douglas A Bell, Kai C Wu, Lauren M Aleksunes, Curtis D Klaassen, Thomas W Kensler, J Christopher Corton
The transcription factor Nrf2 (encoded by Nfe2l2) induces expression of numerous detoxifying and antioxidant genes in response to oxidative stress. The cytoplasmic protein Keap1 interacts with and represses Nrf2 function. Computational approaches were developed to identify factors that modulate Nrf2 in a mouse liver gene expression compendium. Forty-eight Nrf2 biomarker genes were identified using profiles from the livers of mice in which Nrf2 was activated genetically in Keap1-null mice or chemically by a potent activator of Nrf2 signaling...
2018: PloS One
Kelly J McKelvey, Melanie J Millier, Terence C Doyle, Lisa K Stamp, John Highton, Paul A Hessian
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the expression of IL17A and CD21L genes in inflamed rheumatoid synovia is associated with the neogenesis of ectopic lymphoid follicle-like structures (ELS), and if this aids the stratification of rheumatoid inflammation and thereby distinguishes patients with rheumatoid arthritis that might be responsive to specific targeted biologic therapies. METHODS: Expression of IL17A and CD21L genes was assessed by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and dPCR in synovia from 54 patients with rheumatoid arthritis...
2018: PloS One
Emma Nilsson, Anna Benrick, Milana Kokosar, Anna Krook, Eva Lindgren, Thomas Källman, Mihaela M Martis, Kurt Højlund, Charlotte Ling, Elisabet Stener-Victorin
Context: Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Despite this, the mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in PCOS are largely unknown. Objective: To investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression patterns in skeletal muscle from women with PCOS and controls and relate to phenotypic variation. Design/Participants: In a case-control study, skeletal muscle biopsies from women with PCOS (n=17) and age, weight and BMI matched controls (n=14) were analyzed by array-based DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiling...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yi-Tzu Kuo, Ya-Ting Chao, Wan-Chieh Chen, Ming-Che Shih, Song-Bin Chang
Background and Aims: Orchidaceae is a large plant family, and its extraordinary adaptations may have guaranteed its evolutionary success. Flavonoids are a group of secondary metabolites that mediate plant acclimation to challenge environments. Chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyses the initial step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. This is the first chromosome-level investigation of the CHS gene family in Phalaenopsis aphrodite and was conducted to elucidate if divergence of this gene family is associated with chromosome evolution...
August 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
R F Gubaev, V Y Gorshkov, L M Gapa, N E Gogoleva, E P Vetchinkina, Y V Gogolev
Modern techniques of next-generation sequencing (NGS) allow obtaining expression profile of all genes and provide an essential basis for characterizing metabolism in the organism of interest on a broad scale. An important condition for obtaining a demonstrative physiological picture using high throughput sequencing data is the availability of the genome sequence and its sufficient annotation for the target organism. However, a list of species with properly annotated genomes is limited. Transcriptome profiling is often performed in the so-called non-model organisms, which are those with unknown or poorly assembled and/or annotated genome sequences...
July 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Jun Namkung, Ko Eun Shong, Hyeongseok Kim, Chang Myung Oh, Sangkyu Park, Hail Kim
BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis is caused by metabolic stress associated with a positive lipid balance, such as insulin resistance and obesity. Previously we have shown the anti-obesity effects of inhibiting serotonin synthesis, which eventually improved insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis. However, it is not clear whether serotonin has direct effect on hepatic lipid accumulation. Here, we showed the possibility of direct action of serotonin on hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Mice were treated with para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) or LP-533401 to inhibit serotonin synthesis and fed with high fat diet (HFD) or high carbohydrate diet (HCD) to induce hepatic steatosis...
April 25, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Claudia Kasper, Francois Olivier Hebert, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Barbara Taborsky
Juveniles of the cooperatively-breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher either consistently provide help in form of alloparental egg care ('cleaners') or consistently abstain from helping ('non-cleaners'). These phenotypes are not based on heritable genetic differences. Instead they arise during ontogeny, which should lead to differences in brain structure or physiology, a currently untested prediction. We compared brain gene expression profiles of cleaners and non-cleaners in two experimental conditions, a helping opportunity and a control condition...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Myungseo Park, Daesil Nam, Dae-Hyuk Kweon, Dongwoo Shin
RpoS is one of several alternative sigma factors known to alter gene expression profiles by RpoS-associated RNA polymerase in response to a variety of stresses. The enteric bacteria Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli accumulate RpoS under low Mg2+ concentrations via a common mechanism in which the PhoP regulator activates expression of antiadaptor proteins that, by sequestering the adaptor RssB, prevent RpoS degradation by the protease ClpXP. Here, we demonstrate that this genetic program alone does not fully support RpoS accumulation when cytoplasmic Mg2+ concentration drops to levels that impair protein synthesis...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Atsuji Matsuyama, Mao Jotatsu, Kazuyoshi Uchihashi, Yojiro Tsuda, Eisuke Shiba, Joji Haratake, Masanori Hisaoka
AIMS: MUC4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays a role in cell growth signalling and is expressed in various epithelial tissues. Gene expression profiling and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that MUC4 is also constantly and specifically expressed in low grade fibromyxoid sarcomas and sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcomas among the mesenchymal tumours and immunohistochemical detection of MUC4 is extremely useful for their diagnoses. In our routine pathological practice, we noticed that meningiomas are also often positive for MUC4, which has not yet been reported previously, despite the extensive scrutiny of its expression in soft tissue tumours...
August 15, 2018: Histopathology
Robertino Dilena, Jacopo C DiFrancesco, Maria Virginia Soldovieri, Antonella Giacobbe, Paolo Ambrosino, Ilaria Mosca, Maria Albina Galli, Sophie Guez, Monica Fumagalli, Francesco Miceli, Dario Cattaneo, Francesca Darra, Elena Gennaro, Federico Zara, Pasquale Striano, Barbara Castellotti, Cinzia Gellera, Costanza Varesio, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Maurizio Taglialatela
Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) is a rare early-onset developmental epileptic encephalopathy resistant to anti-epileptic drugs. The most common cause for EIMFS is a gain-of-function mutation in the KCNT1 potassium channel gene, and treatment with the KCNT1 blocker quinidine has been suggested as a rational approach for seizure control in EIMFS patients. However, variable results on the clinical efficacy of quinidine have been reported. In the present study, we provide a detailed description of the clinical, genetic, in vitro, and in vivo electrophysiological profile and pharmacological responses to quinidine of 2 EIMFS unrelated patients with a heterozygous de novo KCNT1 mutation: c...
August 15, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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