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Clostridium did

Patrick J Belton, N Scott Litofsky, William E Humphries
BACKGROUND: Although empiric treatment of urinary tract colonized patients remains a frequent practice in neurosurgery, the value of this practice remains debatable. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of screening and treatment of bacteriuria on surgical site infections, incidence of Clostridium difficile, and mortality in neurosurgical trauma patients. METHODS: Database queries and direct patient chart reviews were used to gather patient chart data...
October 17, 2018: Neurosurgery
Saira Chaughtai, Bhavika Gandhi, Zeeshan Chaughtai, Dana Tarina, Mohammad A Hossain, Arif Asif
Recently, the incidence of Clostridium difficile- ( C. difficile- ) associated infection has increased significantly in hospital and ambulatory care settings in parallel to the increasing use of inappropriate antibiotics. According to the CDC, approximately 83,000 patients who developed C . difficile experienced at least one recurrence and 29,000 died within 30 days of the initial diagnosis. Patients on dialysis (particularly peritoneal dialysis) are predisposed to this infection due to an inherent immunocompromised state and transmural translocation of the bacteria due to the close association of gastrointestinal tract and peritoneal cavity...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Annegret Becker, Miriam Leskau, Barbara L Schlingmann-Molina, Susanne C Hohmeier, Suhayla Alnajjar, Hugo Murua Escobar, Anaclet Ngezahayo
A recombinant produced C-terminus of the C. perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) was conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to produce a C-CPE-AuNP complex (C-CPE-AuNP). By binding to claudins, the C- CPE should allow to target the AuNPs onto the claudin expressing tumor cells for a subsequent cell killing by application of the gold nanoparticle-mediated laser perforation (GNOME-LP) technique. Using qPCR and immunocytochemistry, we identified the human Caco-2, MCF-7 and OE-33 as well as the canine TiHoDMglCarc1305 as tumor cells expressing claudin-3, -4 and -7...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gianluca Ianiro, Marcello Maida, Johan Burisch, Claudia Simonelli, Georgina Hold, Marco Ventimiglia, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Cammarota
Background: Protocols for treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) through faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) are still not standardised. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of different FMT protocols for rCDI according to routes, number of infusions and infused material. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, SCOPUS, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched through 31 May 2017. Studies offering multiple infusions if a single infusion failed to cure rCDI were included...
October 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Wei Zheng, Kairui Wang, Yijun Sun, Shiu-Ming Kuo
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection is a public health concern. C. difficile was found in healthy human intestine as a member of Clostridium XI. Because soluble fermentable fiber ingestion affects intestinal microbiota, we used fiber-containing diets to determine the intestinal microbial condition that could reduce the presence of Clostridium XI. METHODS: Newly weaned male mice were assigned to three published diets: Control AIN-93G purified diet with only poorly fermented cellulose; Control plus 5% purified fermentable fiber inulin; Chow with wheat, soybean and corn that provide a mixture of unpurified dietary fibers...
2018: PloS One
Bradley R Hall, Jennifer A Leinicke, Priscila R Armijo, Lynette M Smith, Sean J Langenfeld, Dmitry Oleynikov
BACKGROUND: We aim to compare outcomes between loop ileostomy (LI) and total abdominal colectomy (TAC) for clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and hypothesize that LI is associated with fewer complications. METHODS: The 2011-2016 ACS-NSQIP database was queried for patients undergoing LI or TAC for CDI. Patients with high outlying age, LOS, and operative time were excluded. Statistics were performed using IBM-SPSS and NCSS PASS-11. RESULTS: Of 457 patients identified, 47 underwent LI...
September 22, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Dipesh Solanky, Darrell S Pardi, Edward V Loftus, Sahil Khanna
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an independent risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and CDI often precipitates IBD exacerbation. Because CDI cannot be distinguished clinically from an IBD exacerbation, management is difficult. We aimed to assess factors associated with adverse outcomes in IBD with CDI, including the role of escalating or de-escalating IBD therapy and CDI treatment. Methods: Records for patients with IBD and CDI from 2008 to 2013 were abstracted for variables including IBD severity before CDI diagnosis, CDI management, subsequent IBD exacerbation, CDI recurrence, and colon surgery...
September 26, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Alex Ganetsky, Jennifer H Han, Mitchell E Hughes, Daria V Babushok, Noelle V Frey, Saar I Gill, Elizabeth O Hexner, Alison W Loren, Selina M Luger, James K Mangan, Mary Ellen Martin, Jacqueline Smith, Craig W Freyer, Cheryl Gilmar, Mindy Schuster, Edward A Stadtmauer, David L Porter
Background: Clostridiumdifficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of infectious complications in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (alloHCT). We sought to evaluate whether prophylactic oral vancomycin reduces the incidence of CDI in alloHCT recipients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the effectiveness of CDI prophylaxis with oral vancomycin compared to no prophylaxis in 145 consecutive adult alloHCT recipients at the University of Pennsylvania between April 2015 and November 2016...
September 26, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Theresa Smith, Charles H D Williamson, Karen Hill, Jason Sahl, Paul Keim
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by a diverse set of seven clostridial species, though alternate naming systems have developed over the last 100 years. Starting in the 1950s, a single-species taxonomy where any bacterium producing BoNT would be designated Clostridium botulinum was introduced. As the extreme diversity of these strains was recognized, a secondary system of taxonomic "groups" evolved. It became clear that these groups also had members that did not produce BoNT, and in some cases, they were given formal species names...
September 25, 2018: MBio
Phurt Harnvoravongchai, Surang Chankhamhaengdecha, Puey Ounjai, Sombat Singhakaew, Kanpong Boonthaworn, Tavan Janvilisri
Antibiotic resistance is a major concern in Clostridium difficile , the causative agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Reduced susceptibility to first- and second-line agents is widespread, therefore various attempts have been made to seek alternative preventive and therapeutic strategies against this pathogen. In this work, the antimicrobial properties of asiatic acid were evaluated against C. difficile . Asiatic acid displayed substantial inhibitory effects on 19 C. difficile isolates collected from different sources with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 10 to 20 μg/ml...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Taojun He, Samuel E Kaplan, Luz A Gomez, Xuedong Lu, Lakshmi V Ramanathan, Mini Kamboj, Yi-Wei Tang
Fecal calprotectin (fCPT) has been used as a surrogate marker for assessment of intestinal inflammation. We explore the utility of fCPT values as a diagnostic aid in cancer patients with suspected Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A total of 232 stool specimens submitted for GeneXpert C. difficile PCR testing were included in the study. All specimens were tested for fCPT and toxin/GDH antigens. Clinical severity of CDI cases was determined by the IDSA/SHEA criteria. Significant differences of median fCPT values between CDI (n = 117, Median 183...
September 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
James Wei Tatt Toh, Kevin Phan, Grahame Ctercteko, Nimalan Pathma-Nathan, Toufic El-Khoury, Arthur Richardson, Gary Morgan, Reuben Tang, Mingjuan Zeng, Susan Donovan, Daniel Chu, Gregory Kennedy, Kerry Hitos
BACKGROUND: There is significant variation in the use of mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics prior to left-sided elective colorectal surgery. There has been no consensus internationally. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of the 2015 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Patients were divided into four groups: those who had mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics, mechanical bowel preparation alone, oral antibiotics alone and no preparation...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Jason Zou, Victor Leung, Sylvie Champagne, Michelle Hinch, Anna Wong, Elisa Lloyd-Smith, Trong Tien Nguyen, Marc G Romney, Azra Sharma, Michael Payne, Christopher F Lowe
The clinical significance of indeterminate (PCR+/Tox-) results for patients tested with a two-step algorithm for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the clinical presentation and 8-week outcomes of patients with indeterminate test results. Patients with stool samples testing positive by PCR and negative by toxin A/B immunoassay between February 1, 2017, and April 30, 2018, were assessed by antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) clinicians and classified as colonized or infected...
September 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Reece Miller, Jonathan E Heinlen
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an important cause of hospital acquired morbidity with implications for quality of care. Radical cystectomy is a surgical procedure associated with high rates of morbidity one of which is a high rate of CDI. The rate of CDI among patients undergoing radical cystectomy may be estimated based on the reports from single institutions or by querying national databases. This study aims to compare rates of CDI reported in single institution series with rates obtained from national datasets...
September 15, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Joanna W Szopinska, Raphaële Gresse, Saskia van der Marel, Jos Boekhorst, Sabina Lukovac, Iris van Swam, Barbara Franke, Harro Timmerman, Clara Belzer, Alejandro Arias Vasquez
BACKGROUND: The effects of gut microbiota on human traits are expected to be small to moderate and adding the complexity of the human diseases, microbiome research demands big sample sizes. Fecal samples for such studies are mostly self-collected by participants at home. This imposes an extra level of complexity as sample collection and storage can be challenging. Effective, low-burden collection and storage methods allowing fecal samples to be transported properly and ensuring optimal quality and quantity of bacterial DNA for upstream analyses are necessary...
September 6, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Cláudia Maria Dos Santos Pereira Indiani, Karina Ferreira Rizzardi, Paula Midori Castelo, Lúcio Fábio Caldas Ferraz, Michelle Darrieux, Thaís Manzano Parisotto
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to undertake a systematic review exploring the relationship between childhood obesity and fecal microorganisms, to answer the following question: "Are Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes a significant risk indicator/factor for obesity in children?" The main search terms were "child" and "obesity" together with "gut microbiota" (PubMed: 2005-2017). The minimal requirements for inclusion were the evaluation of gut microbiota composition and BMI in children between 0 and 13 years of age...
September 5, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Ling Chen, Shuang Li, Jie Zheng, Wentao Li, Xuemei Jiang, Xilun Zhao, Jian Li, Lianqiang Che, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
Background: Weanling pigs, with immature immune system and physiological function, usually experience post-weaning diarrhea. This study determined the effects of dietary Clostridium butyricum supplementation on growth performance, diarrhea, and immunity of weaned pigs challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: In Experiment (Exp.) 1, 144 weaned piglets were weaned at 21 d and randomly assigned to six groups, with six replicates per group and four pigs per replicate, receiving a control diet (CON) or diet supplemented with antibiotics (AB) or C...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Johanna Sandlund, Amelita Bartolome, Anna Almazan, Stanley Tam, Sheryl Biscocho, Salina Abusali, Jeff Bishop, Niamh Nolan, Joel Estis, John Todd, Stephen Young, Fiona Senchyna, Niaz Banaei
Background: Current tests for the detection of Clostridoides (formerly Clostridium ) difficile free toxins in feces lack sensitivity, while nucleic acid amplification tests lack clinical specificity. We have evaluated the Singulex Clarity® C. diff toxins A/B assay (currently in development), an automated and rapid ultrasensitive immunoassay powered by Single Molecule Counting technology, for detection of C. difficile toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) in stool. Method: Analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, repeatability, and stability for the assay were determined...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
I Kocmanová, P Lysková, V Chrenkova, P Olišarová, R Dobiáš, H Janouškovcová, H Soukupová, N Mallátová, L Svobodová, P Hamal, M Skružná, N Bartoníková
  Background: Candidemia is a severe and often life-threatening infection frequently occurring in critically ill patients. During the last decade, new therapeutic and prophylactic strategies influenced (at least in some patient subgroups) the epidemiological situation and the spectrum of causative Candida strains. The present multicentre study aimed to assess the current epidemiological situation of Candida strains causing invasive candidiasis (IC) in patients of tertiary care hospitals in the Czech Republic...
2018: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Richard Moreau, Laure Elkrief, Christophe Bureau, Jean-Marc Perarnau, Thierry Thévenot, Faouzi Saliba, Alexandre Louvet, Pierre Nahon, Adrien Lannes, Rodolphe Anty, Sophie Hillaire, Blandine Pasquet, Violaine Ozenne, Marika Rudler, Isabelle Ollivier-Hourmand, Marie Angèle Robic, Louis d'Alteroche, Vincent Di Martino, Marie-Pierre Ripault, Arnaud Pauwels, Jean-Didier Grangé, Nicolas Carbonell, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Audrey Payancé, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Dominique Valla, Nathalie Gault, Didier Lebrec
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is debate over the effects of long-term oral fluoroquinolone therapy in patients with advanced cirrhosis. We performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of long-term treatment with the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin on survival of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a double-blind trial of 291 patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis who had not received recent fluoroquinolone therapy; the study was performed at 18 clinical sites in France from April 2010 through November 2014...
August 22, 2018: Gastroenterology
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