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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078820/metronidazole-induced-encephalopathy-mimicking-an-acute-ischemic-stroke-event
#1
Kensuke Takada, Yoshinori Maki, Masanori Kinosada, Ryota Ishibashi, Masaki Chin, Sen Yamagata
Metronidazole induced encephalopathy (MIE), an encephalopathy brought by an antibiotic, is characterized with cerebellar dysfunction, altered mental status and extrapyramidal symptoms. MIE can result in an acute manifestation, but MIE has not been reported as a stroke mimic. An 86-year-old patient undergoing metronidazole therapy for Clostridium difficile enteritis presented to our hospital with sudden disoriented status and motor weakness of the left extremities. Computed tomography (CT) was unrevealing of intracranial hemorrhagic change, and CT angiography did not show any apparent major occlusion or stenosis of the intracranial vessels...
August 3, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073433/prognosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adult-oncohaematological-patients-experience-from-a-large-prospective-observational-study
#2
Thais Larrainzar-Coghen, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Pere Barba, Juan Aguilar-Company, Virginia Rodríguez, Gloria Roig, Carmen Ferrer, Isabel Ruiz-Camps, Benito Almirante
The aim of the study is to evaluate demographics, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with and without concurrent cancer. This is a prospective cohort study of consecutive primary CDI episodes in adults (January 2006-December 2016). CDI was diagnosed on the presence of diarrhoea and positive stool testing for toxigenic C. difficile. Univariate analysis assessed differences between cancer and non-cancer patients. Risk factors of all-cause 30-day mortality were determinate using the logistic multivariable procedure...
August 2, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072777/enteric-infections-are-common-in-patients-with-flares-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Jordan E Axelrad, Andrew Joelson, Peter H R Green, Garrett Lawlor, Simon Lichtiger, Ken Cadwell, Benjamin Lebwohl
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have examined the role of non-Clostridium difficile enteric infections in flares of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our objective was to investigate enteric infection detected by multiplex PCR stool testing in patients with IBD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 9403 patients who underwent 13,231 stool tests with a gastrointestinal pathogen PCR panel during a diarrheal illness from March 2015 to May 2017. Our primary outcome was the presence of an infection...
August 3, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071789/five-year-results-after-collagenase-treatment-of-dupuytren-disease
#4
Jens C Werlinrud, Karina L Hansen, Søren Larsen, Jens Lauritsen
This study assesses the joint-specific sustained effect of collagenase clostridium histolyticum treatment of Dupuytren disease over a 5-year follow-up period. The study includes 107 consecutive treatments in patients with extension deficits greater than 20° affecting the metacarpophalangeal or proximal interphalangeal joints. Success was defined as no follow-up treatment due to relapse or maintained extension deficit less than 20°. The 5-year estimate of no follow-up treatment was 79% (95% CI: 64-88) for metacarpophalangeal and 49% (95% CI: 26-69) for proximal interphalangeal joints, which was a significant difference (log-rank test, p = 0...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064352/whole-genome-sequencing-and-function-prediction-of-133-gut-anaerobes-isolated-from-chicken-caecum-in-pure-cultures
#5
Matej Medvecky, Darina Cejkova, Ondrej Polansky, Daniela Karasova, Tereza Kubasova, Alois Cizek, Ivan Rychlik
BACKGROUND: In order to start to understand the function of individual members of gut microbiota, we cultured, sequenced and analysed bacterial anaerobes from chicken caecum. RESULTS: Altogether 204 isolates from chicken caecum were obtained in pure cultures using Wilkins-Chalgren anaerobe agar and anaerobic growth conditions. Genomes of all the isolates were determined using the NextSeq platform and subjected to bioinformatic analysis. Among 204 sequenced isolates we identified 133 different strains belonging to seven different phyla - Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Elusimicrobia and Synergistetes...
July 31, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058996/reclassification-of-eubacterium-combesii-and-discrepancies-in-the-nomenclature-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-producing-clostridia-challenging-opinion-69-request-for-an-opinion
#6
Anatoly P Dobritsa, Kirthi K Kutumbaka, Mansour Samadpour
To clarify the taxonomic position of Eubacterium combesii, the whole genome of its type strain, DSM 20696T , was sequenced. Comparison of this sequence with known sequences of other bacteria confirmed that E. combesii represented a member of the Clostridium sporogenes/Clostridium botulinum Group I clade. However, the results of phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated that the latter two species did not form the same genetic entity and that E. combesii was in the C. botulinum Group I subclade. Meanwhile, we showed that E...
July 30, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055220/trends-in-mortality-following-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi-in-scotland-and-excess-mortality-and-length-of-stay-in-the-hospital-population-2010-to-2016-a-retrospective-cohort-and-case-control-study-using-linked-national-datasets
#7
A-Lan Banks, Emily K Moore, Jennifer Bishop, John E Coia, Derek Brown, Henry Mather, Camilla Wiuff
BACKGROUND: National surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Scotland enables the monitoring of trends in incidence rates but not mortality. METHODS: All CDI cases aged ≥15 in Scotland between 2010 and 2016 (including a subset of PCR-ribotypes collected from the cases over the same period), were linked to hospital admission and mortality datasets. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with mortality (30-day all-cause). A case-control study of a hospitalised subset of cases and matched hospitalised controls assessed the impact of CDI on mortality (using conditional logistic regression) and length of stay (LOS) (using generalised linear mixed model with a gamma log link)...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046643/increasing-age-has-limited-impact-on-risk-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-an-elderly-population
#8
Margaret A Olsen, Dustin Stwalley, Clarisse Demont, Erik R Dubberke
Background: Numerous studies have found increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with increasing age. We hypothesized that increased CDI risk in an elderly population is due to poorer overall health status with older age. Methods: A total of 174 903 persons aged 66 years and older coded for CDI in 2011 were identified using Medicare claims data. The comparison population consisted of 1 453 867 uninfected persons. Potential risk factors for CDI were identified in the prior 12 months and organized into categories, including infections, acute noninfectious conditions, chronic comorbidities, frailty indicators, and health care utilization...
July 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30042998/effects-of-dietary-tryptophan-supplementation-in-the-acetic-acid-induced-colitis-mouse-model
#9
Shuai Chen, Meiwei Wang, Lanmei Yin, Wenkai Ren, Peng Bin, Yaoyao Xia, Gang Liu, Huansheng Yang, Bie Tan, Yulong Yin
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is strongly associated with intestinal immunity and the microbiome. Tryptophan (Trp) is an inflammatory inhibitor and modulator of the intestinal microflora. We explored the serum profile of amino acids and the effects of diet supplementation with Trp (1.0 g kg-1) on intestinal immunity and microbiota in the acetic acid-induced colitis mouse model. We analyzed the survival rate, colonic morphological parameters, profiles of serum amino acids, microbiota in colonic contents and the relative gene abundance of intestinal proinflammatory cytokines...
July 25, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041549/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-case-control-study
#10
Krista Vitikainen, Johanna Haapamäki, Martti Färkkilä, Veli-Jukka Anttila, Perttu Arkkila
OBJECTIVE: Characterization of predisposing factors for Clostridium difficile infection recurrence (rCDI) and outcome in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. METHODS: Clinical characteristics of 167 inflammatory bowel disease patients with Clostridium difficile infection (IBD-CDI cohort) treated in Helsinki University Central Hospital were gathered. Medical history of the last three months preceding a toxin positive CDI test was recorded. Parameters, including ribotype of C...
July 25, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038664/enrichment-of-syngas-converting-mixed-microbial-consortia-for-ethanol-production-and-thermodynamics-based-design-of-enrichment-strategies
#11
Antonio Grimalt-Alemany, Mateusz Łężyk, Lene Lange, Ioannis V Skiadas, Hariklia N Gavala
Background: The production of ethanol through the biochemical conversion of syngas, a mixture of H2 , CO and CO2 , has been typically studied using pure cultures. However, mixed microbial consortia may offer a series of benefits such as higher resilience and adaptive capacity, and non-sterile operation, all of which contribute to reducing the utility consumption when compared to pure culture-based processes. This work focuses on the study of strategies for the enrichment of mixed microbial consortia with high ethanologenic potential, investigating the effect of the operational conditions (pH and yeast extract addition) on both the ethanol yield and evolution of the microbial community along the enrichment process...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036844/effect-of-natural-antioxidants-from-grape-seed-and-chestnut-in-combination-with-hydroxytyrosol-as-sodium-nitrite-substitutes-in-cinta-senese-dry-fermented-sausages
#12
Chiara Aquilani, Francesco Sirtori, Monica Flores, Riccardo Bozzi, Benedicte Lebret, Carolina Pugliese
Dry-fermented pork sausages, from Cinta Senese local breed, were manufactured replacing sodium nitrite (NIT) with two mixtures of natural antioxidants consisting of: i) grape seed extract and olive pomace hydroxytyrosol (GSE); ii) chestnut extract and olive pomace hydroxytyrosol (CHE). The effects on physical-chemical, aromatic and sensory traits, as well as the microbiological safety, were tested. Nitrite replacement lowered the pH in GSE and CHE samples and resulted in several differences in physical traits between CHE and NIT samples...
November 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031038/l-lysine-ph-6-0-induces-germination-of-spores-of-clostridium-perfringens-type-f-isolates-carrying-chromosomal-or-plasmid-borne-enterotoxin-gene
#13
Saeed Banawas, Mahfuzur R Sarker
C. perfringens type F isolates carrying enterotoxin gene (cpe) on the chromosome (C-cpe isolates) are mostly associated with food poisoning, while isolates carrying plasmid-borne cpe (P-cpe isolates) with non-food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. Spore germination is considered the most essential step for initiation of these diseases. Identifying the most effective germinants for spores of C-cpe and P-cpe isolates should help developing novel strategies involving induction of spore germination followed by inactivation of germinated spores with mild treatments...
July 18, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025913/comparative-efficacy-of-treatments-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#14
Tumas Beinortas, Nicholas E Burr, Mark H Wilcox, Venkataraman Subramanian
BACKGROUND: Several new treatments for Clostridium difficile infections have been investigated. We aimed to compare and rank treatments for non-multiply recurrent infections with C difficile in adults. METHODS: We did a random effects network meta-analysis within a frequentist setting to obtain direct and indirect comparisons of trials. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov for published and unpublished trials from the creation of these databases until June 30, 2017...
July 16, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022975/expression-and-lacking-internalization-of-the-cell-surface-receptors-of-clostridioides-difficile-toxin-b
#15
Dennis Schöttelndreier, Katrin Seeger, Guntram A Grassl, Markus R Winny, Robert Lindner, Harald Genth
Toxin-producing strains of Clostridioides difficile and Clostridium perfringens cause infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans and ruminants, with the toxins being major virulence factors, essential for the infection, and responsible for the onset of severe symptoms. C. difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), and the large cytotoxin (TpeL) from C. perfringens are single chain bacterial protein toxins with an AB-like toxin structure. The C-terminal delivery domain mediates cell entry of the N-terminal glycosyltransferase domain by receptor-mediated endocytosis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018612/sewage-sludge-microbial-structures-and-relations-to-their-sources-treatments-and-chemical-attributes
#16
Altina Lacerda Nascimento, Adijailton Jose Souza, Pedro Avelino Maia Andrade, Fernando Dini Andreote, Aline Renée Coscione, Fernando Carvalho Oliveira, Jussara Borges Regitano
Sewage sludges generation and their disposal have become one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. They have great microbial diversity that may impact wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) efficiency and soil quality whether used as fertilizers. Therefore, this research aimed to characterize microbial community diversity and structure of 19 sewage sludges from São Paulo, Brazil, as well as to draw their relations to sludge sources [domestic and mixed (domestic+industrial)], biological treatments (redox conditions and liming), and chemical attributes, using molecular biology as a tool...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013531/detection-and-investigation-of-eagle-effect-resistance-to-vancomycin-in-clostridium-difficile-with-an-atp-bioluminescence-assay
#17
Angie M Jarrad, Mark A T Blaskovich, Anggia Prasetyoputri, Tomislav Karoli, Karl A Hansford, Matthew A Cooper
Vancomycin was bactericidal against Clostridium difficile at eightfold the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using a traditional minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assay. However, at higher concentrations up to 64 × MIC, vancomycin displayed a paradoxical "more-drug-kills-less" Eagle effect against C. difficile . To overcome challenges associated with performing the labor-intensive agar-based MBC method under anaerobic growth conditions, we investigated an alternative more convenient ATP-bioluminescence assay to assess the Eagle effect in C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012758/effect-of-the-synthetic-bile-salt-analog-camsa-on-the-hamster-model-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#18
Amber Howerton, Cale O Seymour, Senthil K Murugapiran, Zhenlin Liao, Jacqueline R Phan, Alan Estrada, Adam J Wagner, Chrisabelle C Mefferd, Brian P Hedlund, Ernesto Abel-Santos
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and has gained worldwide notoriety due to emerging hypervirulent strains and high incidence of recurrence. We previously reported protection of mice from CDI using the anti-germinant bile salt analog CamSA. Here we describe the effects of CamSA on the hamster model of CDI. CamSA treatment of hamsters showed no toxicity and did not affect the richness or diversity of gut microbiota; however, minor changes in community composition were observed...
July 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983741/effect-of-overliming-and-activated-carbon-detoxification-on-inhibitors-removal-and-butanol-fermentation-of-poplar-prehydrolysates
#19
Yu Zhang, Changlei Xia, Mingming Lu, Maobing Tu
Background: Biomass prehydrolysates from dilute acid pretreatment contain a considerable amount of fermentable sugars for biofuels production. However, carbonyl degradation compounds present severe toxicity to fermentation microbes. Furans (such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural), aliphatic acids (such as acetic acid, formic acid and levulinic acid) and phenolic compounds (such as vanillin and syringaldehyde) have been suggested to be the main inhibitors in biomass prehydrolysates...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978128/efficacy-and-safety-assessment-of-microbiological-feed-additive-for-chicken-broilers-in-tolerance-studies
#20
Marta Kupryś-Caruk, Monika Michalczuk, Beata Chabłowska, Ilona Stefańska, Danuta Kotyrba, Marta Parzeniecka-Jaworska
Introduction: One aim of the study was to evaluate the impact when added to feed of the two potentially probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Lactobacillus plantarum K KKP 593/p and Lactobacillus rhamnosus KKP 825 on production performance, health, and the composition of gut microbiota. The complementary aim was to assess the safety of these strains in broiler rearing. Material and Methods: A total of 500 one-day-old Ross 308 chicks were divided into four groups...
March 2018: Journal of Veterinary Research
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