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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524414/inhibitory-effect-of-ursodeoxycholic-acid-on-clostridium-difficile-germination-is-insufficient-to-prevent-colitis-a-study-in-hamsters-and-humans
#1
Lola-Jade Palmieri, Dominique Rainteau, Harry Sokol, Laurent Beaugerie, Marie Dior, Benoit Coffin, Lydie Humbert, Thibaut Eguether, André Bado, Sandra Hoys, Claire Janoir, Henri Duboc
Introduction: Bile acids (BA) influence germination and growth of Clostridium difficile . Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a BA minor in human, used for cholestatic liver diseases, inhibits germination and growth of C. difficile in vitro , but was never tested in vivo with an infectious challenge versus control. We hypothesized that UDCA could prevent CDI. We evaluated the effects of UDCA on C. difficile in vitro and in hamsters, with pharmacokinetics study and with an infectious challenge. Then, we studied CDI incidence in UDCA-treated patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30522355/antimicrobial-properties-of-rosin-acids-loaded-nanoparticles-against-antibiotic-sensitive-and-antibiotic-resistant-foodborne-pathogens
#2
Elisa Santovito, José das Neves, Donato Greco, Vito D'Ascanio, Bruno Sarmento, Antonio Francesco Logrieco, Giuseppina Avantaggiato
Rosin acids (RA) from coniferous trees are used in folk medicine for healing various skin infections. Despite the antimicrobial potential of RA, their poor solubility in aqueous media may limit their use. In this work RA-loaded polyethylene glycol-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (RA-NPs) with enhanced antimicrobial properties against foodborne bacterial pathogens were produced. RA-NPs were prepared by solvent displacement technique and characterized for relevant colloidal features by dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler anemometry and transmission electron microscopy...
December 7, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517094/the-predictive-value-of-quantitative-nucleic-acid-amplification-detection-of-clostridium-difficile-toxin-gene-for-faecal-sample-toxin-status-and-patient-outcome
#3
Kerrie A Davies, Tim Planche, Mark H Wilcox
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains unsettled, despite updated guidelines. We investigated the potential utility of quantitative data from a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for C. difficile toxin gene (tg) for patient management. METHODS: Using data from the largest ever C. difficile diagnostic study (8853 diarrhoeal samples from 7335 patients), we determined the predicative value of C. difficile tgNAAT (Cepheid Xpert C...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509196/environmental-disinfection-with-photocatalyst-as-an-adjunctive-measure-to-control-transmission-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-a-high-incidence-setting
#4
Min Hyung Kim, Seong Gyu Lee, Ki Sook Kim, Yoon Ji Heo, Ji Eun Oh, Su Jin Jeong
BACKGROUND: Environmental disinfection with continuously antimicrobial surfaces could offer superior control of surface bioburden. We sought to decide the efficacy of photocatalyst antimicrobial coating in reducing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition in high incidence setting. METHODS: We performed prospective cohort study involving patients hospitalized in medical intensive care unit. A titanium dioxide-based photocatalyst was coated on high touch surfaces and walls...
December 3, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501172/the-fatty-acid-synthesis-protein-enoyl-acp-reductase-ii-fabk-is-a-target-for-narrow-spectrum-antibacterials-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
RaviKanthReddy Marreddy, Xiaoqian Wu, Sapkota Madhab, Allan M Prior, Jesse Jones, Dianqing Sun, Kirk E Hevener, Julian G Hurdle
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an antibiotic-induced microbiota shift disease of the large bowel. While there is a need for narrow-spectrum CDI antibiotics, it is unclear which cellular proteins are appropriate drug targets to specifically inhibit C. difficile. We evaluated the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase II (FabK) that catalyzes the final step of bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. Bioinformatics showed C. difficile uses FabK as its sole enoyl-ACP reductase, unlike several major microbiota species...
December 1, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500755/impacts-of-dietary-silver-nanoparticles-and-probiotic-administration-on-the-microbiota-of-an-in-vitro-gut-model
#6
Cristina Cattò, Elisa Garuglieri, Luigimaria Borruso, Daniela Erba, Maria Cristina Casiraghi, Francesca Cappitelli, Federica Villa, Sarah Zecchin, Raffaella Zanchi
Ingestion of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is inevitable linked to their widespread use in food, medicines and other consumer products. However, their effects on human microbiota at non-lethal concentrations remain poorly understood. In this study, the interactions among 1 μg mL-1 AgNPs, the intestinal microbiota, and the probiotic Bacillus subtilis (BS) were tested using in-vitro batch fermentation models inoculated with human fecal matter. Results from metagenomic investigations revealed that the core bacterial community was not affected by the exposure of AgNPs and BS at the later stage of fermentation, while the proportions of rare species changed drastically with the treatments...
November 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499275/-change-of-bacterial-community-structure-during-cellulose-degradation-by-the-microbial-consortium
#7
Shiqi Ai, Yiquan Zhao, Zhiyuan Sun, Yamei Gao, Lei Yan, Hongzhi Tang, Weidong Wang
In order to clarify dynamic change of microbial community composition and to identify key functional bacteria in the cellulose degradation consortium, we studied several aspects of the biodegradation of filter papers and rice straws by the microbial consortium, the change of substrate degradation, microbial biomass and pH of fermentation broth. We extracted total DNA of the microbial consortium in different degradation stages for high-throughput sequencing of amplicons of bacterial 16 S rRNA genes. Based on the decomposition characteristics test, we defined the 12th, 72nd and 168th hours after inoculation as the initial stage, peak stage and end stage of degradation, respectively...
November 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497591/use-of-fluorescent-ctp1l-endolysin-cell-wall-binding-domain-to-study-the-evolution-of-clostridium-tyrobutyricum-during-cheese-ripening
#8
Natalia Gómez-Torres, Marta Ávila, Arjan Narbad, Melinda J Mayer, Sonia Garde
Clostridium tyrobutyricum is a bacteria of concern in the cheese industry, capable of surviving the manufacturing process and causing butyric acid fermentation and late blowing defect of cheese. In this work, we implement a method based on the cell wall-binding domain (CBD) of endolysin CTP1L, which detects C. tyrobutyricum, to monitor its evolution in cheeses challenged with clostridial spores and in the presence or absence of reuterin, an anti-clostridial agent. For this purpose, total bacteria were extracted from cheese samples and C...
April 2019: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483244/temporal-effects-of-high-fishmeal-diet-on-gut-microbiota-and-immune-response-in-clostridium-perfringens-challenged-chickens
#9
Ting Huang, Biao Gao, Wen-Lu Chen, Rong Xiang, Ming-Gui Yuan, Zhi-Hong Xu, Xin-Yu Peng
Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens is responsible for huge financial losses in the poultry industry annually. A diet highly supplemented with fishmeal is one factor predisposing chickens to the development of clinical NE. However, the effects of fishmeal-rich diets on the gut microbiota and immune response in chickens with C. perfringens challenge over the long-term are not well-understood. Here, a chicken NE model was established in which chickens were fed high fishmeal diet and subsequently infected with C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30481595/fluoroquinolone-prophylaxis-is-highly-effective-for-the-prevention-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-autologous-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#10
Matthew Ziegler, Daniel Landsburg, David Pegues, Warren Bilker, Cheryl Gilmar, Colleen Kucharczuk, Theresa Gorman, Kristen Bink, Amy Moore, Rebecca Fitzpatrick, Edward A Stadtmauer, Patricia Mangan, Kelly Kraus, Jennifer H Han
OBJECTIVES: Patients undergoing stem cell transplant (SCT) for the treatment of hematologic malignancy are at increased risk for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). The use of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent CLABSIs in the setting of autologous SCT is of unclear benefit. We aimed to evaluate the impact of levofloxacin prophylaxis on reducing CLABSIs in this high-risk population. METHODS: Patients undergoing autologous SCT at a tertiary-care hospital received levofloxacin prophylaxis from January 13, 2016 to January 12, 2017...
November 24, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30480772/fecal-transplantation-for-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
REVIEW
Aamer Imdad, Maribeth R Nicholson, Emily E Tanner-Smith, Joseph P Zackular, Oscar G Gomez-Duarte, Dawn B Beaulieu, Sari Acra
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing disease of the gastrointestinal tract that is thought to be associated with a complex interplay between microbes and the immune system, leading to an abnormal inflammatory response in genetically susceptible individuals. Dysbiosis, characterized by the alteration of the composition of the resident commensal bacteria in a host compared to healthy individuals, is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), two subtypes of IBD...
November 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476169/clinical-impact-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-cycle-threshold-predicted-toxin-reporting-in-pediatric-patients
#12
Hayden T Schwenk, Laura L Bio, Jenna F Kruger, Niaz Banaei
Background: Reliance on tests that detect only the presence of toxigenic Clostridium difficile can result in overdiagnosis and overtreatment of C difficile infection (CDI). The C difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycle threshold (CT) can sensitively predict the presence of free C difficile toxins; however, the clinical application for this testing strategy remains unexplored. We evaluated the impact of dual PCR and toxin result reporting, as predicted by the CT, on CDI management and outcomes in children...
November 22, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30473341/clostridium-perfringens-mediated-necrotic-enteritis-is-not-influenced-by-the-pre-existing-microbiota-but-is-promoted-by-large-changes-in-the-post-challenge-microbiota
#13
Jake A Lacey, Dragana Stanley, Anthony L Keyburn, Mark Ford, Honglei Chen, Priscilla Johanesen, Dena Lyras, Robert J Moore
PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Clostridium perfringens is the etiological agent of necrotic enteritis in chickens. As necrotic enteritis is a gastrointestinal disease, the interactions of pathogenic C. perfringens strains with the complex microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract may influence disease development and severity of disease. OBJECTIVE: In this study the interactions of a pathogenic strain of C. perfringens, WER-NE36, with the microbiota of broilers was investigated to determine whether the pre-existing microbiota could influence disease outcomes in the necrotic enteritis challenge model...
December 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30463441/antibiotic-use-in-hand-surgery-surgeon-decision-making-and-adherence-to-available-evidence
#14
John C Dunn, Kenneth R Means, Sameer Desale, Aviram M Giladi
BACKGROUND: There are no clearly defined guidelines from hand surgical societies regarding preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Many hand surgeons continue to routinely use preoperative prophylaxis with limited supporting evidence. This study aimed to determine for which scenarios surgeons give antibiotics, the reasons for administration, and whether these decisions are evidence-based. METHODS: An anonymous 25-question survey was e-mailed to the 921-member American Society for Surgery of the Hand listserv...
November 22, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30459167/integrated-extreme-real-time-pcr-and-high-speed-melting-analysis-in-52-to-87-seconds
#15
Joseph T Myrick, Robert J Pryor, Robert A Palais, Sean J Ison, Lindsay Sanford, Zachary L Dwight, Jarkko J Huuskonen, Scott O Sundberg, Carl T Wittwer
BACKGROUND: Extreme PCR in <30 s and high-speed melting of PCR products in <5 s are recent advances in the turnaround time of DNA analysis. Previously, these steps had been performed on different specialized instruments. Integration of both extreme PCR and high-speed melting with real-time fluorescence monitoring for detection and genotyping is presented here. METHODS: A microfluidic platform was enhanced for speed using cycle times as fast as 1.05 s between 66...
November 20, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455242/omadacycline-gut-microbiome-exposure-does-not-induce-clostridium-difficile-proliferation-or-toxin-production-in-a-model-that-simulates-the-proximal-medial-and-distal-human-colon
#16
Ines B Moura, Anthony M Buckley, Duncan Ewin, Sharie Shearman, Emma Clark, Mark H Wilcox, Caroline H Chilton
A clinically reflective model of the human colon was used to investigate the effects of the broad-spectrum antibiotic omadacycline on the gut microbiome, and subsequent potential to induce simulated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Triple stage chemostat gut models were inoculated with pooled human faecal slurry from healthy volunteers (age ≥60 years). Models were challenged twice with 107 cfu C. difficile spores (PCR ribotype 027). Omadacycline effects were assessed in a single gut model. Observations were confirmed in a parallel study with omadacycline and moxifloxacin...
November 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30446559/feeding-rapidly-alters-microbiome-composition-and-gene-transcription-in-the-clownfish-gut
#17
D Joshua Parris, Michael M Morgan, Frank J Stewart
Background Diet is a major determinant of intestinal microbiome composition. While studies have evaluated microbiome responses to diet variation, less is understood of how the act of feeding influences the microbiome, independent of diet type. Here, we use the clownfish Premnas biaculeatus , a species reared commonly in ornamental marine aquaculture, to test how the diversity, predicted gene content, and gene transcription of the microbiome vary over a two-day diurnal period with a single daily feeding event...
November 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427983/nonoperative-management-of-uncomplicated-appendicitis-among-privately-insured-patients
#18
Lindsay A Sceats, Amber W Trickey, Arden M Morris, Cindy Kin, Kristan L Staudenmayer
Importance: Health care professionals have shown significant interest in nonoperative management for uncomplicated appendicitis, but long-term population-level data are lacking. Objective: To compare the outcomes of nonoperatively managed appendicitis against appendectomy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This national retrospective cohort study used claims data from a private insurance database to compare patients admitted with uncomplicated appendicitis from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2014, undergoing appendectomy vs nonoperative management...
November 14, 2018: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417112/butyrate-producers-as-potential-next-generation-probiotics-safety-assessment-of-the-administration-of-butyricicoccus-pullicaecorum-to-healthy-volunteers
#19
Leen Boesmans, Mireia Valles-Colomer, Jun Wang, Venessa Eeckhaut, Gwen Falony, Richard Ducatelle, Filip Van Immerseel, Jeroen Raes, Kristin Verbeke
Advances in gut microbiota research have triggered interest in developing colon butyrate producers as niche-specific next-generation probiotics, targeted at increasing colon butyrate production and countering disease-associated microbiota alterations. Crucial steps in the development of next-generation probiotics are the design of formulations with a reasonable shelf life as well as the safety demonstration of an intervention in healthy volunteers. One such potential next-generation butyrate-producing probiotic is Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum 25-3T , with demonstrated safety in in vitro as well as animal models...
November 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405910/zinc-deficiency-and-the-recurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-after-fecal-microbiota-transplant-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Blake A Niccum, Daniel J Stein, Brian W Behm, R Ann Hays
Background: Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, in 12% of patients treated with FMT, CDI recurs within one month. Zinc deficiency predicts increased diarrheal frequency in malnourished children, but little is known about its association with FMT outcome. We hypothesized that zinc levels were an independent predictor of CDI recurrence after FMT. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 80 patients (mean age, 66; 59 women) receiving FMT for CDI from 9/2013-9/2016 at a tertiary care center...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
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