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Fang Wang, Aihong Mao, Jinzhou Tang, Qianjing Zhang, Junfang Yan, Yupei Wang, Cuixia Di, Lu Gan, Chao Sun, Hong Zhang
Prostate cancer (CaP) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide in 2012, and radiation therapy is one of the most common definitive treatment options for localized CaP. However, radioresistance is a major challenge for the current radiotherapy, accumulating evidences suggest microRNAs (miRNAs), as an important regulator in cellular ionizing radiation (IR) responses, are closely correlated with radiosensitivity in many cancers. Here, we identified microRNA-16-5p(miR-16-5p) is significantly upregulated in CaP LNCaP cells following IR and can enhance radiosensitivity through modulating Cyclin D1/E1-pRb-E2F1 pathway...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Balázs G Madas, Emese J Drozsdik
Low dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) and induced radioresistance (IRR) can be observed in the dose dependence of survival of many different cell lines. While surviving fraction decreases exponentially in a large-scale view, a local minimum can be found at around 0.5 Gy. Although, there is evidence that the regulation of apoptosis and DNA repair are involved in HRS and IRR, the fundamental causes of the phenomena remain unclear. The objective of the present study is to test whether the principle of minimum mutation load can provide an explanation for both low dose HRS and IRR...
December 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Esther Tahover, Rachel Bar-Shalom, Eli Sapir, Raphael Pfeffer, Igor Nemirovsky, Yehonatan Turner, Maya Gips, Patricia Ohana, Benjamin W Corn, Andrew Z Wang, Alberto A Gabizon
Hypo-fractionated radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiotherapy are viable options for treatment of oligometastases. A prodrug of mitomycin-C is under clinical testing as a pegylated liposomal formulation (Promitil) with an improved safety profile over mitomycin-C. Promitil was offered to two patients with oligometastases from colorectal cancer as radiosensitizer. Each derived durable clinical benefit from Promitil administered immediately prior to and following irradiation. Transient toxicity to normal tissues of moderate to severe degree was observed...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Albert Biete, Gabriela Oses
Locally advanced uterine cervical cancer continues to present a high number of pelvic relapses. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) allows a precise therapeutic intensification in the surgical area in cases in which removal of the tumour recurrence is feasible. At the same time, IORT excludes the radiosensitive organs from the field of irradiation. While the first gynecological IORT took place in 1905, procedures have been limited over the years and the series are retrospective, including few patients. At the same, time recurrences are located at different pelvic areas...
November 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Hongmei Zhu, Shu Ruan, Feng Jia, Jiusheng Chu, Yong Zhu, Yongjiu Huang, Guan Liu
Background: Berbamine (BBM), one of the bis-benzylisoquinoline products isolated from Berberis amurensis , has been demonstrated for its anticancer effect against leukemia, breast cancer, liver cancer, etc. There are some studies focusing on the chemosensitization effect of BBM. However, there is no report about whether BBM could enhance the anticancer effect of radiation, which made us to explore the possible radiosensitization effect of BBM. Materials and methods: Here, in vitro cytotoxicity of BBM was evaluated on two kinds of head and neck squamous cancer cell lines...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Marco Barazas, Alessia Gasparini, Yike Huang, Asli Küçükosmanoğlu, Stefano Annunziato, Peter Bouwman, Wendy Sol, Ariena Kersbergen, Natalie Proost, Renske de Korte-Grimmerink, Marieke van de Ven, Jos Jonkers, Gerben R Borst, Sven Rottenberg
The defect in homologous recombination (HR) found in BRCA1-associated cancers can be therapeutically exploited by treatment with DNA-damaging agents and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. We and others previously reported that BRCA1-deficient tumors are initially hypersensitive to the inhibition of topoisomerase I/II and PARP but acquire drug resistance through restoration of HR activity by the loss of end-resection antagonists of the 53BP1/RIF1/REV7/Shieldin/CST pathway. Here we identify radiotherapy as an acquired vulnerability of 53BP1;BRCA1-deficient cells in vitro and in vivo...
December 10, 2018: Cancer Research
Nguyen T K Vo, Colin B Seymour, Carmel E Mothersill
PURPOSE: To evaluate the development of delayed lethal mutations, the production of medium borne lethal bystander signals, and the acquirement of radiosensitive or radioresistant traits in distant descendant progeny of fish and amphibian cells surviving ionizing radiation MATERIALS AND METHODS: American eel brain endothelial cells (eelB) and African clawed frog epithelial cells (A6) were initially irradiated with gamma rays at 0.5 Gy or 2 Gy. Ionizing radiation (IR)-surviving cells were grown for 27 population doublings (PDs) for eelB and 43 PDs for A6...
December 1, 2018: Environmental Research
Jiali Dong, Yuan Li, Huiwen Xiao, Dan Luo, Shuqin Zhang, Changchun Zhu, Mian Jiang, Ming Cui, Lu Lu, Saijun Fan
Radiation therapy toward malignancies is often ineffective owing to radioresistance of cancer cells. On the basis of anti-tumor properties of cordycepin, we examined the effects of cordycepin on sensitizing breast cancer cells toward radiotherapy. Cordycepin administration promoted G2/M arrest and apoptosis of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells resulting in restraining the proliferation of the cells in vitro and in vivo following irradiation. Mechanistic investigations showed that the breast cancer cells cultured with cordycepin harbored higher levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and incremental numbers of γ-H2AX foci after irradiation exposure...
December 6, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Tineke W H Meijer, Wenny J M Peeters, Ludwig J Dubois, Marike W van Gisbergen, Rianne Biemans, Jan-Hendrik Venhuizen, Paul N Span, Johan Bussink
PURPOSE: Metabolic inhibition might sensitize tumors to irradiation. Here, we examined the effect of lonidamine (several metabolic effects, inhibiting hexokinase amongst others) and/or 968 (glutaminase inhibitor) on tumor cell metabolism, cell growth, cytotoxicity and radiosensitivity in NSCLC cell lines in vitro in relation to histology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adeno- (H23, HCC827, H1975) and squamous cell carcinoma (H520, H292, SW900) NSCLC cells were treated with lonidamine and/or 968 for 72 h under physiological levels of glucose (1...
December 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Mudit Chowdhary, Andrew Song, Nicholas G Zaorsky, Wenyin Shi
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a rare group of malignancies characterized by the proliferation of CD4+ T-cells, of which mycosis fungoides (MF) is the predominant subtype. The neoplastic lymphocytes of MF are extremely radiosensitive and even low doses of radiation can produce excellent responses. As such, radiotherapy (RT) is considered to be the most efficacious single agent treatment option for MF. Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a special RT technique that allows for homogenous irradiation of the entire skin...
September 17, 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Zhanzhan Li, Na Li, Liangfang Shen, Jun Fu
Since resistance to radiotherapy remains refractory for the clinical management of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), further understanding the mechanisms of radioresistance is necessary in order to develop more effective NPC treatment and improve prognosis. In this study, an integrated quantitative proteomic approach involving tandem mass tag labeling and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer was used to identify proteins potentially responsible for the radioresistance of NPC. The differential radiosensitivity in NPC model cells was examined through clonogenic survival assay, CCK-8 viability assay, and BrdU incorporation analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Yu-Xiang Yao, Zhi-Tong Bing, Liang Huang, Zi-Gang Huang, Ying-Cheng Lai
Radiotherapy plays a vital role in cancer treatment, for which accurate prognosis is important for guiding sequential treatment and improving the curative effect for patients. An issue of great significance in radiotherapy is to assess tumor radiosensitivity for devising the optimal treatment strategy. Previous studies focused on gene expression in cells closely associated with radiosensitivity, but factors such as the response of a cancer patient to irradiation and the patient survival time are largely ignored...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Pouria Samadi, Saeid Afshar, Razieh Amini, Rezvan Najafi, Ali Mahdavinezhad, Abdolazim Sedighi Pashaki, Mohammad Hadi Gholami, Massoud Saidijam
Abnormal expression of various microRNAs (miRNAs), as regulators of biological signaling pathways, has a strong association with cancer resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The let-7 family of miRNAs as tumor suppressors have shown to be downregulated in different types of human malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the biological function of let-7 members in the processes of resistance to radiation in CRC has not yet been completely elucidated. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway is amplified in CRC and leads to its progression, development, and also radiation resistance...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Diana Carranza, Sara Torres-Rusillo, Gloria Ceballos-Pérez, Eva Blanco-Jimenez, Martin Muñoz-López, José L García-Pérez, Ignacio J Molina
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a complex disease arising from mutations in the ATM gene (Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated), which plays crucial roles in repairing double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). Heterogeneous immunodeficiency, extreme radiosensitivity, frequent appearance of tumors and neurological degeneration are hallmarks of the disease, which carries high morbidity and mortality because only palliative treatments are currently available. Gene therapy was effective in animal models of the disease, but the large size of the ATM cDNA required the use of HSV-1 or HSV/AAV hybrid amplicon vectors, whose characteristics make them unlikely tools for treating A-T patients...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Raed M Ali, Andrew England, Claire E Mercer, Andrew Tootell, Peter Hogg
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to use the initial mean glandular dose (MGD) arising from the first screening mammogram to estimate the individual total screening lifetime effective risk. METHODS: Organ doses from full-field digital mammography (FFDM) screening exposures (craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique for each breast) were measured using a simulated approach, with average breast thickness and adult ATOM phantoms, on 16 FFDM machines. Doses were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters accommodated inside the ATOM phantom; examined breast MGD was calculated...
December 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Lei Jiang, Hitoshi Iwahashi
Ionizing radiation (IR) targeted at killing cancer cells also damages normal human cells and tissues through oxidative stress. Thus, the practical treatment of cancer using radiation therapy (RT) is sometimes limited because of the acute side effects in individual patients. In addition, some radioresistant cancers are difficult to treat with limited doses of IR, which leads to treatment failure. Natural chemicals that have unique physiological functions and low toxicity offer significant advantages for the development of new radiation therapies...
December 4, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Cheng Zhou, Bleddyn Jones, Mahmoud Moustafa, Bing Yang, Stephan Brons, Liji Cao, Ying Dai, Christian Schwager, Ming Chen, Oliver Jaekel, Longhua Chen, Juergen Debus, Amir Abdollahi
Background and purposes: Carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) with raster scanning technology is a promising treatment for lung cancer and thoracic malignancies. Determining normal tissue tolerance of organs at risk is of utmost importance for the success of CIRT. Here we report the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of CIRT as a function of dose and fractionation for development of pulmonary fibrosis using well established fibrosis index (FI) model. Materials and Methods: Dose series of fractionated clinical quality CIRT versus conventional photon irradiation to the whole thorax were compared in C57BL6 mice...
January 2019: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Mohammad Mehdi Movahedi, Alireza Mehdizadeh, Fereshteh Koosha, Neda Eslahi, Vahid Pirhajati Mahabadi, Habib Ghaznavi, Ali Shakeri-Zadeh
In this article, we report a targeted cancer treatment strategy using nano-photo-thermal therapy (NPTT) and radiotherapy (RT) methods. Gold nanorods (AuNRs) without and with folic acid (FA) conjugation were firstly synthesized and then characterized. Cytotoxicity of various methods; NPTT (nanoparticles; 808 nm laser; 2 W/cm2 ) or RT (6 MV X-ray; 2 Gy) or combination of NPTT and RT; was separately investigated on KB nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. The effects of different treatments were studies using MTT assay, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
December 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Rongying Zhu, Xiang Xue, Mingjjng Shen, Ying Tsai, Peter C Keng, Yongbing Chen, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen
Cisplatin-resistant (A549CisR and H292CisR) and radioresistant (A549R26 and H292R22) sub-line non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were developed in our lab by long term treatment of parental cells with cisplatin or radiation. Our data showed no cross-resistance between these two sets of cell lines, indicating that molecular mechanisms of developing each resistance may be different. Using these sub-line cells, we sought to reveal the most significantly up-regulated molecules in cisplatin-resistant and radioresistant lung cancer cells, compared with parental cells...
November 30, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Ruilong Lan, Fei Huang, Guangxian Zhong, Ruiqing Chen, Zeng Wang, Junying Chen, Lengxi Fu, Jinsheng Hong, Lurong Hong
PURPOSE: Radioresistance is an important factor for unsatisfactory prognosis in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKMT1) is always associated with malignancy in a variety of cancers. However, its significance in NPC progression and radiosensitivity remains unclear.The present study focused on investigating the effects of CKMT1 on NPC cell radiosensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CKMT1 was overexpressed in NPC cell line CNE-1 or knocked out in CNE-2...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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