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Bone And Infections

Lélia Abad, Virginie Tafani, Jason Tasse, Jérôme Josse, Christian Chidiac, Sébastien Lustig, Tristan Ferry, Alan Diot, Frédéric Laurent, Florent Valour
Objectives: Prolonged use of linezolid for bone and joint infection (BJI) is limited by its long-term toxicity. The better safety profile of tedizolid, a recently developed oxazolidinone, could offer an alternative. However, its efficacy against biofilm-embedded and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus, the two main bacterial reservoirs associated with BJI chronicity, is unknown. Methods: Using three S. aureus strains (6850 and two clinical BJI isolates), linezolid and tedizolid were compared regarding their ability: (i) to target the S...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Kaja E Kjørholt, Søren P Johnsen, Nickolaj R Kristensen, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Alma B Pedersen
We aimed to examine trends in the incidence of treated infections following hip fracture surgery in Denmark from 2005 to 2016. We conducted a nationwide cohort study using individual-level linked data from Danish population-based registries. We calculated cumulative incidence considering death as competing risk and, based on the pseudo-observation method, risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the period 2005-2006 as a reference. RRs were adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidity. A total of 74,771 patients aged 65 years or older with first-time hip fracture surgery were included...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Siyuan Shao, Fangsheng Fu, Ziyi Wang, Fangming Song, Chen Li, Zuo-Xing Wu, Jiaxing Ding, Kai Li, Yu Xiao, Yiji Su, Xixi Lin, Guixin Yuan, Jinmin Zhao, Qian Liu, Jiake Xu
Osteolytic bone diseases are closely linked to the over-activation of osteoclasts and enhancement of bone resorption. It has become a major health issue in orthopedic practice worldwide. Inhibition of osteoclasts is proposed to be the main treatment for osteolytic disorders. Diosmetin (DIO) is a natural flavonoid with properties of antioxidant, anti-infection, and antishock. The effect of DIO on osteoclast differentiation is poorly understood. In this study project, we found that DIO could inhibit osteoclastic formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in a dose-dependent manner...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Victoria Pilkington, Andrew Hill, Sophie Hughes, Nneka Nwokolo, Anton Pozniak
Background: Tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) used as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has proven benefits in preventing HIV infection. Widespread use of TDF/FTC can only be justified if the preventative benefits outweigh potential risks of adverse events. A previous meta-analysis of TDF/FTC compared to alternative tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC for treatment found no significant difference in safety endpoints when used without ritonavir or cobicistat, but more evidence around the safety of TDF/FTC is needed to address concerns and inform widespread use...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Yoshinobu Abe, Natsuo Yamamoto, Kiwamu Nakamura, Kazuaki Arai, Chiye Sakurai, Kiyotaka Hatsuzawa, Yasunori Ogura, Ken Iseki, Choichiro Tase, Keiji Kanemitsu
To investigate the role of IL-13 during a severe systemic Candida albicans infection, BALB/c control and IL-13-/- mice were examined for colony forming units (CFU) in the kidneys and survival days after intravenous infection. Proinflammatory mediators and cell recruitment into the tissue were measured by quantitative real-time PCR, a multiple ELISA system, and morphological cell differentiation. The IL-13-/- group exhibited a lower CFU number in the kidneys at 4 days and survived longer than the control mice, which was accompanied by significantly higher expression of C-X-C motif ligand 2 (CXCL2), IFN-γ, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the infected kidneys...
November 24, 2018: Immunobiology
Zhen Lai, Shi-Yuan Shi, Jun Fei, Gui-He Han, Sheng-Ping Hu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of preoperative percutaneous drainage in lumbar tuberculosis with psoas abscess, through compare the clinical efficacy of two different methods. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with lumbar tuberculosis complicated with psoas abscess in corresponding with the inclusion criteria were admitted in Zhejiang Province Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital from January 2015 to January 2017. The patients were divided into group A and group B according to the different therapeutic methods...
November 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Shichao Zhang, Malcolm M Q Xing, Bingyun Li
Many applications using drug-carrying biomedical materials require on-demand, localized delivery of multiple therapeutic agents in precisely controlled and patient-specific time sequences, especially after assembly of the delivery vehicles; however, creating such materials has proven extremely challenging. Here we report a novel strategy to create polypeptide multilayer films integrated with capsules as vehicles for co-delivery of multiple drugs using layer-by-layer self-assembly technology. Our approach allows the multilayered polypeptide nanofilms and pre-impregnated capsules to assemble into innovative biomedical materials with high and controllable loading of multiple drugs at any time post-preparation, and to achieve pH-responsive and sustained release...
December 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jonathan Chambers, Madhu Page-Sharp, Sam Salman, John Dyer, Timothy M E Davis, Kevin T Batty, Laurens Manning
PURPOSE: Ertapenem is used off-label to treat osteoarticular infections but there are few pharmacokinetic (PK) data to guide optimal dosing strategies in patients who may be obese with multiple co-morbidities including diabetes and peripheral vascular disease. METHODS: Participants undergoing lower limb amputation or elective joint arthroplasty received a dose of intravenous ertapenem prior to surgery. Eight plasma samples were collected over 24 h, together with at least one bone sample per patient...
December 4, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Tucker C Callanan, Antonio T Brecevich, Craig D Steiner, Fred Xavier, Justin A Iorio, Celeste Abjornson, Frank P Cammisa
PURPOSE: To evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcomes of the combination of platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) with beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and bone marrow aspirate (BMA) as a graft alternative in posterolateral lumbar fusion procedures. METHODS: Researchers evaluated 50 consecutive patients undergoing one-level to three-level posterolateral lumbar fusion procedures, resulting in a total of 66 operated levels. The primary outcome was evidence of radiographic fusion at 1-year follow-up, assessed by three independent evaluators using the Lenke scoring system...
December 3, 2018: European Spine Journal
Jang Hun Kim, Soon-Young Hwang, Taek-Hyun Kwon, Kyuha Chong, Won-Ki Yoon, Jong Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: Although cranioplasty (CP) is a frequently performed and simple procedure, complications are common, particularly bone flap resorption and infection. The timing of surgery is as an important contributory factor, but the optimal timing has not been clearly determined. OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively investigated bone flap resorption and surgical site infection after CP to determine the optimal timing of surgery for reduction of complications. METHODS: The study enrolled 126 patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy (DC) and subsequent CP...
December 4, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Gerard A Sheridan, Kevin Clesham, S R Kearns
Introduction The purpose of this study is to evaluate the factors that impact the clinical and radiographic outcomes in a patient cohort undergoing external fixation for tibial fractures. We also aim to investigate the use of autograft, allograft, and synthetic bone graft in varying combinations in the setting of tibial bone loss with respect to optimal times to union. Methods This was a retrospective study, including 46 patients treated with a circular external fixator for the management of acute tibial fractures...
September 25, 2018: Curēus
Katharina Bomans, Judith Schenz, Isabella Sztwiertnia, Dominik Schaack, Markus Alexander Weigand, Florian Uhle
Innate immune memory describes the functional reprogramming of innate immune cells after pathogen contact, leading to either a boosted (trained immunity) or a diminished (immune tolerance) response to a secondary stimulus. Immune tolerance or "sepsis-induced immunosuppression" is a typical hallmark of patients after sepsis survival, characterized by hypo-responsiveness of the host's immune system. This condition renders the host vulnerable for a persisting infection or the occurrence of secondary, often opportunistic infections, along with an increased mortality rate...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lucy A Eddowes, Kinda Al-Hourani, Narayan Ramamurthy, Jamie Frankish, Hannah T Baddock, Cynthia Sandor, John D Ryan, Dahlene N Fusco, João Arezes, Eleni Giannoulatou, Sara Boninsegna, Stephane Chevaliez, Benjamin M J Owens, Chia Chi Sun, Paolo Fabris, Maria Teresa Giordani, Diego Martines, Slobodan Vukicevic, John Crowe, Herbert Y Lin, Jan Rehwinkel, Peter J McHugh, Marco Binder, Jodie L Babitt, Raymond T Chung, Matthew W Lawless, Andrew E Armitage, Caleb Webber, Paul Klenerman, Hal Drakesmith
Understanding the control of viral infections is of broad importance. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes decreased expression of the iron hormone hepcidin, which is regulated by hepatic bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD signalling. We found that HCV infection and the BMP/SMAD pathway are mutually antagonistic. HCV blunted induction of hepcidin expression by BMP6, probably via tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated downregulation of the BMP co-receptor haemojuvelin. In HCV-infected patients, disruption of the BMP6/hepcidin axis and genetic variation associated with the BMP/SMAD pathway predicted the outcome of infection, suggesting that BMP/SMAD activity influences antiviral immunity...
December 3, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Eleftherios P Mamounas, Hanna Bandos, Barry C Lembersky, Jong-Hyeon Jeong, Charles E Geyer, Priya Rastogi, Louis Fehrenbacher, Mark L Graham, Stephen K Chia, Adam M Brufsky, Janice M Walshe, Gamini S Soori, Shaker R Dakhil, Thomas E Seay, James L Wade, Edward C McCarron, Soonmyung Paik, Sandra M Swain, D Lawrence Wickerham, Norman Wolmark
BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of extended therapy with aromatase inhibitors in patients with postmenopausal breast cancer is unknown. In the NSABP B-42 study, we aimed to determine whether extended letrozole treatment improves disease-free survival after 5 years of aromatase inhibitor-based therapy in women with postmenopausal breast cancer. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was done in 158 centres in the USA, Canada, and Ireland...
November 30, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Suomao Yuan, Bin Wei, Yonghao Tian, Jun Yan, Wanlong Xu, Lianlei Wang, Xinyu Liu
Case series study.To report the clinical outcomes of posterior temporary C1-2 fixation for 3-part fracture of the axis (Type II odontoid fracture according to Grauer classification combined with Hangman fracture).The 3-part fracture of the axis is rare and the treatment is controversy.A total of 8 patients with 3-part fracture of the axis were included in this study. X-rays, CT, and MRI prior to surgery were used to evaluate the cervical spine injury. Grauer classification, fracture angulation, and fracture translation were used to evaluate the fracture of dens...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Saif Saadedeen Abdulrazaq, Safaa Riyadh
To preserve the continuity of the mandible after resection or traumatic bone loss, the defect is usually reconstructed with a bone graft fixed by a reconstruction plate. The fate of these plates is the objective of this study. Twenty-three patients (4 females and 19 males) required a reconstructive procedure to restore the discontinuity defect in the mandible by a mandibular reconstruction plate. Postoperative follow-up was performed to assess the outcomes of these plates. The mean age of the patients was 28...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Necil Kutukculer, Ayca Aykut, Neslihan E Karaca, Asude Durmaz, Guzide Aksu, Ferah Genel, Erhan Pariltay, Özgür Cogulu, Elif Azarsız
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections resulting from the inadequacy of phagocytic leukocytes to produce reactive oxygen radicals. CGD is a genetically heterogeneous disease with an X-linked recessive (XR-CGD) form caused by mutations in the CYBB (OMIM #300481) gene encoding the gp91(phox) protein, and an autosomal recessive (AR-CGD) form caused by mutations in the CYBA (OMIM #608508), NCF1 (OMIM #608512), NCF2 (OMIM #608515) and NCF4 (OMIM #601488) genes encoding p22(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), and p40(phox), respectively...
December 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Jiagang Han, Zhenjun Wang, Yong Dai, Xiaorong Li, Qun Qian, Guiying Wang, Guanghui Wei, Weigen Zeng, Liangang Ma, Baocheng Zhao, Yanlei Wang, Kaiyan Yang, Zhao Ding, Xuhua Hu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior elective surgery following self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) for complete obstructive left hemicolon cancer. METHODS: This prospective, multicenter, open-labelled trial was approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University(2016-ke-161-1) and registered in (NCT02972541). INCLUSION CRITERIA: (1)age between 18 and 75 years old;(2) adenocarcinoma confirmed by pathology;(3) left hemicolon cancer confirmed by clinical manifestations and imaging examinations with the distance to anal verge > 15 cm; (4) resectable cancer evaluated by imaging examination without distant metastasis; (5) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score ≤ 1 or Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) > 70, indicating tolerance of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and operation; (6) absence of chemotherapy or radiotherapy within past six months; (7) bone marrow system and hepatorenal function: hemoglobin ≥ 90 g/L, neutrophil ≥ 1...
November 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
M Croes, H de Visser, B P Meij, K Lietart, B C H van der Wal, H C Vogely, A C Fluit, C H E Boel, J Alblas, H Weinans, S Amin Yavari
A model is needed to study the effectiveness of different anti-bacterial coatings on complex metal implants in a bone environment. This article shares data on the design of porous titanium implants for intramedullary implantation in the proximal rat tibia. The implant length, diameter and porosity were optimized after testing on cadaveric specimens. This article shares data on which parameters are critical to establish a chronic implant infection in Sprague Dawley rats when using the new implant design. To this end, different strains of Staphylococcus aureus and inoculation doses were investigated...
December 2018: Data in Brief
Yuqing Wu, Cao Li, Andrea Riehle, Barbara Pollmeier, Erich Gulbins, Heike Grassmé
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mycobacteria-induced diseases, especially tuberculosis, cause more than 1 million deaths each year, which is higher than any other single bacterial pathogen. Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (Nsm2) has been implied in many physiological processes and diseases, but the role of Nsm2 in pathogen-host interactions and mycobacterial infections has barely been studied. METHODS: We investigated the role of the Nsm2/ceramide system in systemic infection of mice and murine macrophages with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as a model for mycobacterial infection...
November 30, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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