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Bone And Infections

Lindsey M Childs-Kean, Eric Egelund, Jacqueline Jourjy
Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is indicated for adult patients with chronic HBV infection with compensated liver disease at a dose of 25mg orally daily. TAF is a more stable prodrug in the plasma than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), leading to decreased plasma exposure of tenofovir. Decreased exposure is thought to reduce the risk of long-term TDF toxicities, such as nephrotoxicity and decreased bone mineral density. TAF has the same mechanism of action as TDF: a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor...
August 18, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Xingyu Duan, Aislinn Hays, Wei Zhou, Nawar Sileewa, Satya Upadhyayula, Huizhi Wang, Shuang Liang
Although pregnant women are prone to gingival inflammation, its mechanism remains unclear. Animal models are ideal for investigating immunological mechanisms in the periodontal disease. A murine model for ligature-induced periodontal disease has been modified and utilized to determine the susceptibility to periodontal inflammation and tissue damage in pregnant mice. Expression of different inflammatory mediators in the gingivae was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Inflammatory bone loss was determined by measuring the distance from the cementoenamel junction to the alveolar bone crest (CEJ-ABC)...
August 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
N Tahiliani, P Kataria, A Patel, P Kendre
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a monoclonal gammopathy, also known as the malignant proliferation of plasma cells, presenting with typical complications such as hypercalcemia, osteolytic bone lesions, anemia, renal insufficiency, and frequent infections. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in MM in the form of parenchymal involvement is very uncommon and has been reported only in 1% of patients. CNS involvement as an initial presentation is very rare and has poor prognosis. Also specific treatment guidelines do not exist for the treatment of such patients...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
S Bobillo, P Abrisqueta, B Sánchez-González, E Giné, S Romero, M Alcoceba, E González-Barca, S González de Villambrosía, J M Sancho, P Gómez, L Bento, J Montoro, S Montes, A López, F Bosch
Burkitt's monomorphic posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (B-PTLD) is an uncommon subtype of PTLD. Owing to the paucity of this complication, clinical characteristics and outcome has not been fully described. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of 20 patients diagnosed with B-PTLD from 10 transplant centers belonging to the GEL/TAMO group were reviewed. Median time from transplant to B-PTLD was 7.2 years. All the cases fulfill the morphologic and genetic criteria of B-PTLD, whereas Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected in 70% of cases...
August 16, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Yujiao Zhou, Feifei Liu, Chengmin Li, Guo Shi, Xiaolei Xu, Xue Luo, Yuanling Zhang, Jingjie Fu, Aizhong Zeng, Limin Chen
Dendritic cells (DCs) harboring tumor-associated antigen are supposed to be a potential immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspartate- β -hydroxylase (AAH), an overexpressed tumor-associated cell surface protein, is considered as a promising biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC. In this study, we constructed adenovirus vector encoding AAH gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology and preliminarily explored the antitumor effects of DC vaccines harboring AAH. Firstly, the total AAH mRNA was extracted from human HCC tissues; the cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR, verified, and sequenced after TA cloning...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Aikaterini-Rafailia Tsiapla, Varvara Karagkiozaki, Veroniki Bakola, Foteini Pappa, Panagiota Gkertsiou, Eleni Pavlidou, Stergios Logothetidis
There is, as a matter of fact, an ever increasing number of patients requiring total hip replacement (Pabinger, C.; Geissler, A. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2014, 22, 734-741). Implant-associated acute inflammations after an invasive orthopedic surgery are one of the major causes of implant failure. In addition, there are instability, aseptic loosening, infection, metallosis and fracture (Melvin, J. S.; Karthikeyan, T.; Cope, R.; Fehring, T. K. J. Arthroplasty 2014, 29, 1285-1288). In this work, a drug-delivery nanoplatform system consisting of polymeric celluloce acetate (CA) scaffolds loaded with dexamethasone was fabricated through electrospinning...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Jingyi Liu, David L Penn, Ethan Katznelson, Mina G Safain, Ian F Dunn, Edward R Laws
BACKGROUND: Sellar infections represent less than 1% of all sellar lesions and can be life-threatening. These infections occur de novo in up to 70% of patients, or can less commonly develop after surgical treatment of another primary lesion, such as a pituitary adenoma. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a unique case of a 27 year-old woman with a recurrent pituitary adenoma treated with two prior transsphenoidal resections. She ultimately presented with hypopituitarism, followed by headaches, malaise, chills, and visual field and acuity deficits nine years after her second transsphenoidal resection...
August 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jordana Goldman, Moreshwar S Desai, Kenneth L McClain, M Hossein Tcharmtchi, Curtis E Kennedy, Kathleen Thompson, Fong Lam, Dalia A Bashir, Ivan K Chinn, Baruch R Goldberg, Carl E Allen, Trung C Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis poses significant challenges due to limited tools to guide clinical decisions in a population at high risk of death. We sought to assess whether disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatobiliary dysfunction, significant comorbidities seen in critical care settings, would identify hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients with increased risk of mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Single-center PICU...
August 14, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Dara G Torgerson, Philip Ballard, Roberta L Keller, Sam Oh, Scott Huntsman, Donglei Hu, Celeste Eng, Esteban Burchard, Roberta Ballard, The Tolsurf Study Group
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants is a common and often severe lung disease with long term sequelae. A genetic component is suspected but not fully defined. We performed an ancestry and genome-wide association study to identify variants, genes and pathways associated with survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia in 387 high-risk infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide in the Trial of Late Surfactant study. Global African genetic ancestry was associated with increased survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia among infants of maternal self-reported Hispanic White race/ethnicity (OR=4...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Michael D McDonald, Sam Sadigh, Kristy L Weber, Ronnie Sebro
Benign lesions such as Paget's disease of the bone, enchondroma, osteochondromas, chronic osteomyelitis/infections and bone infarcts may rarely undergo malignant degeneration/transformation into sarcomas. To date, only 14 prior bone infarct-associated osteosarcomas have been described, with just two being primarily osteolytic. We discuss a case of a patient with a humeral bone-infarct, who presented with a presumed benign pathological fracture of the humerus through the bone infarct. Subsequent imaging and biopsy showed that there was a malignant degeneration into a primarily osteolytic osteosarcoma...
June 11, 2018: Curēus
V L Narayanan, N Balasubramanian
Introduction: Proximal humerus fracture fixation using plate osteosynthesis depends on the quality of the bone, design of the fixation devices and intra-operative soft tissue dissection. This study evaluates the functional outcome of minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis using locking compression plate in proximal humerus fracture treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 patients with complex proximal humerus fractures treated by minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis using locking compression plate (PHILOS)...
July 2018: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
Fengbiao Weng, Jiazi Wang, Liwen Yang, Jincai Zeng, Yawei Chu, Zhigang Tian
Clinical value of expansive pedicle screw in lumbar short-segment fixation and fusion for patients with osteoporosis was investigated. A total of 80 patients with lumbar compression fracture but without obvious nerve compression were selected and divided into the observation group (n=40) and the control group (n=40) using a random number table. The observation group used the expansive pedicle screw, and the control group received conventional pedicle screw fixation and bone graft fusion. In the observation group, the operation and hospitalization time after operation were shorter and the intraoperative bleeding amount was less than that in control group (p<0...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Toshitake Taii, Takumi Matsumoto, Sakae Tanaka, Ichiro Nakamura, Katsumi Ito, Takuo Juji
Objectives: Although wrist arthrodesis using a plate is an established treatment with a well-documented successful union rate for severely destroyed wrists, plate-related complications are a matter of great concern. Methods: We retrospectively compared wrist arthrodesis using an AO wrist fusion plate in nine and a locking compression plate (LCP) metaphyseal plate in seven cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Results: The mean follow-up was 40.6 months in the AO wrist fusion plate group and 57...
2018: International Journal of Rheumatology
Michelle Miron, Brahma V Kumar, Wenzhao Meng, Tomer Granot, Dustin J Carpenter, Takashi Senda, Dora Chen, Aaron M Rosenfeld, Bochao Zhang, Harvey Lerner, Amy L Friedman, Uri Hershberg, Yufeng Shen, Adeeb Rahman, Eline T Luning Prak, Donna L Farber
Translating studies on T cell function and modulation from mouse models to humans requires extrapolating in vivo results on mouse T cell responses in lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes [LN]) to human peripheral blood T cells. However, our understanding of T cell responses in human lymphoid sites and their relation to peripheral blood remains sparse. In this study, we used a unique human tissue resource to study human T cells in different anatomical compartments within individual donors and identify a subset of memory CD8+ T cells in LN, which maintain a distinct differentiation and functional profile compared with memory CD8+ T cells in blood, spleen, bone marrow, and lungs...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Xue-Ya Zhang, Xi-Zhe Guo, Shi-Xin Wu, Jin-Fa Zhong, Ya-Fei Guo, Jing-Xin Pan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcome of parhents with EBV infection conbined with hemophagocytic syndrome and Hodgkin's lymphoma. METHODS: The morphotogy of bone marrow cells was observed by bone marrow smear and light microscopy, the pathologic changes of bone marrow ware analyzed by bone marrow biopsy and immunohistochemistry methord, the pathologic changes of lymphonudes ware detected by immunohistochemical methord, the paticnts were treated with ABVD (epirubicin, bleomycin, vincristine and dacarbazine) chemotherapeutic regimen...
August 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Dawid Surmik, Tomasz Szczygielski, Katarzyna Janiszewska, Bruce M Rothschild
An absence of ancient archaeological and palaeontological evidence of pneumonia contrasts with its recognition in the more recent archaeological record. We document an apparent infection-mediated periosteal reaction affecting the dorsal ribs in a Middle Triassic eosauropterygian historically referred to as ' Proneusticosaurus ' silesiacus . High-resolution X-ray microtomography and histological studies of the pathologically altered ribs revealed the presence of a continuous solid periosteal reaction with multiple superficial blebs (protrusions) on the visceral surfaces of several ribs...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Hoang Thi Nam Giang, Keita Banno, Le Huu Nhat Minh, Lam Tuyet Trinh, Le Thai Loc, Asmaa Eltobgy, Luu Lam Thang Tai, Adnan Khan, Nguyen Hoang Tuan, Yaser Reda, Maryan Samsom, Nguyen Tran Nam, Nguyen Tien Huy, Kenji Hirayama
We systematically searched and meta-analyzed the epidemiological characteristics, frequency of clinical signs, and outcomes of dengue-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Ten electronic databases were searched systematically plus manual search of reference lists to identify relevant articles published until May 2017. The highest number of reported cases were from South-East Asia region (62 cases), followed by Western Pacific region (20 cases), and America (31 cases). The term "dengue hemorrhagic fever" predominated in studies that used the World Health Organization 1997 definition (59...
August 15, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Dana Shoshani-Dror, Dekel Shilo, Jiriys George Ginini, Omri Emodi, Adi Rachmiel
OBJECTIVE: Removal of third molars (3Ms) is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by dental surgeons. 3Ms that are associated with pathologic changes such as infection, nonrestorable caries lesions, cysts, tumors, and destruction of adjacent teeth and bone are under consensus for their removal. However, debate exists regarding the prophylactic removal of asymptomatic impacted 3Ms. This review attempts to establish indications for prophylactic extraction of 3Ms. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Clinical experience and a summary of the literature are presented concerning the effects of retained 3Ms in relation to caries and periodontal disease, dental arch changes and anterior crowding, cysts and other etiologies, mandibular fractures, temporomandibular pain, and aging of bone...
2018: Quintessence International
Amerigo Giudice, Selene Barone, Carmen Giudice, Francesco Bennardo, Leonzio Fortunato
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) after bone surgery compared to surgery alone in the treatment of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). STUDY DESIGN: A total of 47 patients with diagnosis of stage II or III of MRONJ were recruited at the Academic Hospital of Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro and allocated to 2 groups: In the first, patients were treated with PRF in addition to surgery (PRF group), in the other, only bone surgery was performed (non-PRF group)...
June 30, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Maryam Abdollahi, MingYang Meah Gao, David G Munoz
Dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) is a rare, inherited disorder classically known by the triad of nail dystrophy, mucosal leukoplakia, and lacy reticulated skin hyperpigmentation. Bone marrow failure is a prominent feature and accounts for most deaths in these patients. Genetic mutations resulting in shortened telomeres have been shown to cause DKC, which is the basis for categorizing it as a "premature aging syndrome". Different modes of inheritance have been identified with X-linked recessive as the most common...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Neuropathology
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