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Biotechnology drugs

Riccardo Ferracini, Isabel Martínez Herreros, Antonio Russo, Tommaso Casalini, Filippo Rossi, Giuseppe Perale
Although bone has a high potential to regenerate itself after damage and injury, the efficacious repair of large bone defects resulting from resection, trauma or non-union fractures still requires the implantation of bone grafts. Materials science, in conjunction with biotechnology, can satisfy these needs by developing artificial bones, synthetic substitutes and organ implants. In particular, recent advances in materials science have provided several innovations, underlying the increasing importance of biomaterials in this field...
August 8, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Svenja Nicolin Bolten, Ursula Rinas, Thomas Scheper
Heparin is a highly sulfated polysaccharide which belongs to the family of glycosaminoglycans. It is involved in various important biological activities. The major biological purpose is the inhibition of the coagulation cascade to maintain the blood flow in the vasculature. These properties are employed in several therapeutic drugs. Heparin's activities are associated with its interaction to various proteins. To date, the structural heparin-protein interactions are not completely understood. This review gives a general overview of specific patterns and functional groups which are involved in the heparin-protein binding...
August 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Thabitha P Dasari Shareena, Danielle McShan, Asok K Dasmahapatra, Paul B Tchounwou
Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) have attracted increasing interests of the scientific community due to their unique physicochemical properties and their applications in biotechnology, biomedicine, bioengineering, disease diagnosis and therapy. Although a large amount of researches have been conducted on these novel nanomaterials, limited comprehensive reviews are published on their biomedical applications and potential environmental and human health effects. The present research aimed at addressing this knowledge gap by examining and discussing: (1) the history, synthesis, structural properties and recent developments of GBNs for biomedical applications; (2) GBNs uses as therapeutics, drug/gene delivery and antibacterial materials; (3) GBNs applications in tissue engineering and in research as biosensors and bioimaging materials; and (4) GBNs potential environmental effects and human health risks...
July 2018: Nano-micro letters
Maria Kamusheva, Manoela Manova, Alexandra T Savova, Guenka I Petrova, Konstantin Mitov, András Harsányi, Zoltán Kaló, Kristóf Márky, Pawel Kawalec, Bistra Angelovska, Dragana Lakić, Tomas Tesar, Pero Draganic, Mary Geitona, Magdalini Hatzikou, Marian S Paveliu, Agnes Männik
Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the access of patients with rare diseases (RDs) to biotechnological drugs in several Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs). We focused on the legislative pricing and reimbursement requirements, availability of biotechnological orphan medicinal products (BOMPs) for RDs, and reimbursement expenditures. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among experts from 10 CEECs: Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, and Macedonia...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mariana S Vieira, Anderson K Santos, Rebecca Vasconcellos, Vânia A M Goulart, Ricardo C Parreira, Alexandre H Kihara, Henning Ulrich, Rodrigo R Resende
The abilities of stem cells to self-renew and form different mature cells expand the possibilities of applications in cell-based therapies such as tissue recomposition in regenerative medicine, drug screening, and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to stem cells found in the embryo, various adult organs and tissues have niches of stem cells in an undifferentiated state. In the central nervous system of adult mammals, neurogenesis occurs in two regions: the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus...
August 2, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Hui Shang, Anna Zhou, Jian Jiang, Yanpeng Liu, Jing Xie, Sheyu Li, Yantao Chen, Xiaofeng Zhu, Hong Tan, Jianshu Li
Protein/peptide fibrillation is an important challenge for biotechnological drug development. Salmon calcitonin (sCT) is currently used in the clinical treatment of bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis and hypercalcemia, but it still has the risk of immuneresponses. Although human calcitonin (hCT) would be a better choice in terms of immunogenicity, it has a strong tendency to irreversibly aggregate in aqueous solutions and form long amyloid fibrils, which significantly reduces its bioavailability and therapeutic potency...
August 1, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Andreas Hougaard Laustsen, Netty Dorrestijn
Snakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease that requires immediate attention. Conventional plasma-derived snakebite antivenoms have existed for more than 120 years and have been instrumental in saving thousands of lives. However, both a need and an opportunity exist for harnessing biotechnology and modern drug development approaches to develop novel snakebite antivenoms with better efficacy, safety, and affordability. For this to be realized, though, development approaches, clinical testing, and manufacturing must be feasible for any novel treatment modality to be brought to the clinic...
July 31, 2018: Toxins
Mariana Campos-da-Paz, Jose GarrofeDorea, Alexsandro Sobreira Galdino, Zulmira Guerrero Marques Lacava, Maria de Fatima Menezes Almeida Santos
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer (CRC) for tumor diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy. High CEA levels are specifically associated with CRC progression and liver metastasis. Due to its differential expression between cancer and healthy tissues, and between positive and negative lymph nodes CEA has been explored for new cancer therapy and diagnosis approaches. We revised the literature on CEA role in CRC as well as the patents relating to CEA targeting for cancer management...
July 30, 2018: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Karin Hoelzer, Lisa Bielke, Damer P Blake, Eric Cox, Simon M Cutting, Bert Devriendt, Elisabeth Erlacher-Vindel, Evy Goossens, Kemal Karaca, Stephane Lemiere, Martin Metzner, Margot Raicek, Miquel Collell Suriñach, Nora M Wong, Cyril Gay, Filip Van Immerseel
Vaccines and other alternative products are central to the future success of animal agriculture because they can help minimize the need for antibiotics by preventing and controlling infectious diseases in animal populations. To assess scientific advancements related to alternatives to antibiotics and provide actionable strategies to support their development, the United States Department of Agriculture, with support from the World Organisation for Animal Health, organized the second International Symposium on Alternatives to Antibiotics...
July 31, 2018: Veterinary Research
Li-Hong Huang, Qiu-Shun He, Ke Liu, Jiao Cheng, Min-Dong Zhong, Lin-Shan Chen, Li-Xia Yao, Zhi-Liang Ji
Delivering safe and effective therapeutic treatment to patients is one of the grand challenges in modern medicine. However, drug safety research has been progressing slowly in recent years, compared to other fields such as biotechnologies and precision medicine, due to the mechanistic complexity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). To fill up this gap, we develop a new database, the Adverse Drug Reaction Classification System-Target Profile (ADReCS-Target,, which provides comprehensive information about ADRs caused by drug interaction with protein, gene and genetic variation...
January 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Leo C James, David A Jacques
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most studied of all human pathogens. One strain-HIV-1 group M-is responsible for a global pandemic that has infected >60 million people and killed >20 million. Understanding the stages of HIV infection has led to highly effective therapeutics in the form of antiviral drugs that target the viral enzymes reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease as well as biotechnological developments in the form of retroviral and lentiviral vectors for the transduction of cells in tissue culture and, potentially, gene therapy...
July 27, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Ayokunmi Oyeleye, Yahaya M Normi
Chitinases catalyze the degradation of chitin, a ubiquitous polymer generated from the cell walls of fungi, shells of crustaceans and cuticles of insects. They are gaining increasing attention in medicine, agriculture, food and drug industries, and environmental management. Their roles in the degradation of chitin for the production of industrially useful products and in the control of fungal pathogens and insect pests render them attractive for such purposes. However, chitinases have diverse sources, characteristics and mechanisms of action which seem to restrain optimization procedures and render standardization techniques for enhanced practical applications complex...
July 24, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Kristýna Slámová, Jana Kapešová, Kateřina Valentová
Natural flavonoids, especially in their glycosylated forms, are the most abundant phenolic compounds found in plants, fruit, and vegetables. They exhibit a large variety of beneficial physiological effects, which makes them generally interesting in a broad spectrum of scientific areas. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the modifications of the glycosidic parts of various flavonoids employing glycosidases, covering both selective trimming of the sugar moieties and glycosylation of flavonoid aglycones by natural and mutant glycosidases...
July 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Steven Janvier, Karlien Cheyns, Michaël Canfyn, Séverine Goscinny, Bart De Spiegeleer, Celine Vanhee, Eric Deconinck
Advances in biotechnology and the chemical synthesis of peptides have made biopharmaceuticals and synthetic peptide drugs viable pharmaceutical compounds today and an important source for tomorrow's drugs and therapies. Unfortunately, also falsifications and counterfeit versions of these powerful and promising drugs are offered illegally via the internet. Since these falsified preparations are produced outside the legally required quality systems, end-users have no guarantee regarding the efficacy and safety of these products...
October 1, 2018: Talanta
Hyunjin Jeon, Euiyeon Lee, Dahee Kim, Minhyung Lee, Jeahee Ryu, Chungwon Kang, Soyoun Kim, Youngeun Kwon
Live-cell-based biosensors have emerged as a useful tool for biotechnology and chemical biology. Genetically encoded sensor cells often use bimolecular fluorescence complementation or fluorescence resonance energy transfer to build a reporter unit that suffers from nonspecific signal activation at high concentrations. Here, we designed genetically encoded sensor cells that can report the presence of biologically active molecules via fluorescence-translocation based on split intein-mediated conditional protein trans-splicing (PTS) and conditional protein trans-cleavage (PTC) reactions...
August 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Laura C García-Carnero, Luis A Pérez-García, José A Martínez-Álvarez, Juana E Reyes-Martínez, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Human fungal infections remain a major challenge in medicine. Only a limited number of antifungal drugs are available, which are often related to severe adverse effects. In addition, there is an increased emergence related to resistant strains, which makes imperative to understand the host-pathogen interactions as well as to develop alternative treatments. Host innate and adaptive immunity play a crucial role controlling fungal infections; therefore, vaccines are a viable tool to prevent and treat fungal pathogens...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Eric van der Helm, Hans J Genee, Morten O A Sommer
Nature is a diverse and rich source of bioactive pathways or novel building blocks for synthetic biology. In this Perspective, we describe the emerging research field in which metagenomes are functionally interrogated using synthetic biology. This approach substantially expands the set of identified biological activities and building blocks. In reviewing this field, we find that its potential for new biological discovery is dramatically increasing. Functional metagenomic mining using genetic circuits has led to the discovery of novel bioactivity such as amidases, NF-κB modulators, naphthalene degrading enzymes, cellulases, lipases and transporters...
August 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Janis Fricke, Claudius Lenz, Jonas Wick, Felix Blei, Dirk Hoffmeister
The fungal genus Psilocybe and other genera comprise numerous mushroom species that biosynthesize psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine). It represents the prodrug to its dephosphorylated psychotropic analog, psilocin. The colloquial term "magic mushrooms" for these fungi alludes to their hallucinogenic effects and to their use as recreational drug. However, clinical trials have recognized psilocybin as a valuable candidate to be developed into a medication against depression and anxiety...
July 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Daniel Cristian Ferreira Soares, Caroline Mari Ramos Oda, Liziane Oliveira Fonseca Monteiro, Andre Luis Branco de Barros, Marli Luiza Tebaldi
Protein-polymer conjugates have achieved tremendous attention in the last few years, since their importance in diverse fields including drug delivery, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. Over the past few years, numerous chemical strategies have been developed to conjugate different synthetic polymers onto proteins and great progress has been made. Currently, there are a handful of therapeutic polymer conjugates that have been approved by the FDA, while many hundreds of products are under extensive clinical trials and preclinical development phases...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
Mohamed W Attwa, Hany W Darwish, Hassan A Alhazmi, Adnan A Kadi
Entrectinib (ENC) is a potent orally available anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor. In 10 July 2017, biotechnology company (Ignyta) announced that granted orphan drug designation approval was given by the FDA to ENC for "treatment of NTRK fusion-positive solid tumors". A validated LC-MS/MS methodology was developed for ENC quantification in human plasma matrix. The supposed method characterized by high speed, specificity and sensitivity. This established method was applied for metabolic degradation assessment of ENC...
July 10, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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