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Biotechnology drugs

Deborah K Shoemark, Amaurys Avila Ibarra, James F Ross, Joseph L Beesley, Harriet E V Bray, Majid Mosayebi, Noah Linden, Tanniemola B Liverpool, Simon N McIntosh-Smith, Derek N Woolfson, Richard B Sessions
Understanding the assembly and dynamics of protein-based supramolecular capsids and cages is of fundamental importance and could lead to applications in synthetic biology and biotechnology. Here we present long and large atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of de novo designed self-assembling protein nanocages (SAGEs) in aqueous media. Microsecond simulations, comprised of ≈42 million atoms for three pre-formed SAGEs of different charges, in the presence of solutes and solvent have been completed. Here, the dynamics, stability and porosity of the peptide networks are explored along with their interactions with ions, small molecules and macromolecular solutes...
December 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Marcos Renato de Assis, Valdair Pinto
Biological products or biopharmaceuticals are medicinal products derived from living systems and manufactured by modern biotechnological methods that differ widely from the traditional synthetic drugs. Monoclonal antibodies are the most rapidly growing type of biologic. They are much larger and more complex molecules with inherent diversity; therefore, different manufacturers cannot produce identical biological products, even with the same type of host expression system and equivalent technologies. Thus, legal follow-on biologics manufactured and marketed after patent expiration are usually referred to as biosimilars...
December 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
Pooja Jain, Nazia Hassan, Zeenat Iqbal, Fahima Dilnawaz
BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology based drug delivery approach has emerged as a promising field, where different kinds of formulations are developed for therapeutic applications. Inflowing of nanomedicine developed through various biomaterials appears to be a game changer in the domain of pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. Nanomedicines propose to overcome the major constraints of conventional medicine of low solubility and stability, and non-adequate pharmacokinetic profiles and side effects...
December 3, 2018: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
Elisa Rasouli, Wan Jeffrey Basirun, Majid Rezayi, Kamyar Shameli, Esmail Nourmohammadi, Roshanak Khandanlou, Zahra Izadiyan, Hoda Khoshdel Sarkarizi
Introduction: In the present research, we report a quick and green synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 -NPs) in aqueous solution using ferric and ferrous chloride, with different percentages of natural honey (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0% w/v) as the precursors, stabilizer, reducing and capping agent, respectively. The effect of the stabilizer on the magnetic properties and size of Fe3 O4 -NPs was also studied. Methods: The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Whitney Shatz, Jeffrey Aaronson, Stefan Yohe, Robert F Kelley, Yogeshvar N Kalia
Treating posterior eye diseases has become a major area of focus for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Current standard of care for treating posterior eye diseases relies on administration via intravitreal injection. Although effective, this is not without complications and there is great incentive to develop longer-acting therapeutics and/or sustained release delivery systems. Here, we present an overview of emerging technologies for delivery of biologics to the back of the eye. Areas covered: Posterior eye diseases, intravitreal injection, age-related macular degeneration, anti-VEGF, ocular pharmacokinetics, novel technologies to extend half-life, in vivo models, translation to the clinic, hurdles to effective patient care...
November 29, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Luke F Hartje, Christopher D Snow
The porosity, order, biocompatibility, and chirality of protein crystals has motivated interest from diverse research domains including materials science, biotechnology, and medicine. Porous protein crystals have the unusual potential to organize guest molecules within highly ordered scaffolds, enabling applications ranging from biotemplating and catalysis to biosensing and drug delivery. Significant research has therefore been directed toward characterizing protein crystal materials in hopes of optimizing crystallization, scaffold stability, and application efficacy...
November 28, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Fernanda G Amorim, Danilo L Menaldo, Sante E I Carone, Thiago A Silva, Marco A Sartim, Edwin De Pauw, Loic Quinton, Suely V Sampaio
Snake venom serine proteases (SVSPs) are enzymes that are capable of interfering in various parts of the blood coagulation cascade, which makes them interesting candidates for the development of new therapeutic drugs. Herein, we isolated and characterized Moojase, a potent coagulant enzyme from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. The toxin was isolated from the crude venom using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Moojase is a glycoprotein with N-linked glycans, molecular mass of 30.3 kDa and acidic character (pI 5...
November 28, 2018: Toxins
Maryam Dadar, Sandip Chakraborty, Kuldeep Dhama, Minakshi Prasad, Rekha Khandia, Sameer Hassan, Ashok Munjal, Ruchi Tiwari, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Deepak Kumar, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Wanpen Chaicumpa
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a viral infection with skin-to-skin based transmission mode. HPV annually caused over 500,000 cancer cases including cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer among others. HPV vaccination has become a public-health concern, worldwide, to prevent the cases of HPV infections including precancerous lesions, cervical cancers, and genital warts especially in adolescent female and male population by launching national programs with international alliances. Currently, available prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines are expensive to be used in developing countries for vaccination programs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Luca Falzone, Salvatore Salomone, Massimo Libra
The medical history of cancer began millennia ago. Historical findings of patients with cancer date back to ancient Egyptian and Greek civilizations, where this disease was predominantly treated with radical surgery and cautery that were often ineffective, leading to the death of patients. Over the centuries, important discoveries allowed to identify the biological and pathological features of tumors, without however contributing to the development of effective therapeutic approaches until the end of the 1800s, when the discovery of X-rays and their use for the treatment of tumors provided the first modern therapeutic approach in medical oncology...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Giulio Cabrini
Cystic fibrosis (CF), a life-threatening multiorgan genetic disease, is facing a new era of research and development using innovative gene-directed personalized therapies. The priority organ to cure is the lung, which suffers recurrent and chronic bacterial infection and inflammation since infancy, representing the main cause of morbidity and precocious mortality of these individuals. After the disappointing failure of gene-replacement approaches using gene therapy vectors, no single drug is presently available to repair all the CF gene defects...
November 26, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Alex Zhavoronkov, Polina Mamoshina, Quentin Vanhaelen, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Alexey Moskalev, Alex Aliper
The applications of modern artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms within the field of aging research offer tremendous opportunities. Aging is an almost universal unifying feature possessed by all living organisms, tissues, and cells. Modern deep learning techniques used to develop age predictors offer new possibilities for formerly incompatible dynamic and static data types. AI biomarkers of aging enable a holistic view of biological processes and allow for novel methods for building causal models-extracting the most important features and identifying biological targets and mechanisms...
November 22, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Chinnu Sabu, Panakkal Mufeedha, Kannissery Pramod
Yeast-based drug delivery offers a promising platform for the treatment of various medical conditions. Even the most promising nanoparticulate delivery systems have challenges from gastrointestinal barriers. The novel approach using bio-inspired yeast microcapsule helps in the delivery of charged nanoparticles like quantum dots, iron oxide nanoparticle and various fluorescent nanoparticles. The long-term administration has a good safety profile compared to other delivery systems. Particles can be incorporated into yeast microcapsule by electrostatic interaction, layer-by-layer approach, and surface derivatization...
November 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Gabriel S de Oliveira, Patricia P Adriani, Hao Wu, Christophe Morisseau, Bruce D Hammock, Felipe S Chambergo
Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are present in all living organisms and catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. EH are involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous epoxides, and thus have application in pharmacology and biotechnology. In this work, we describe the substrates and inhibitors selectivity of an epoxide hydrolase recently cloned from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei QM9414 (TrEH). We also studied the TrEH urea-based inhibitors effects in the fungal growth...
November 13, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Kok Ken Chan, Stephanie Hui Kit Yap, Ken-Tye Yong
Over the past decade, carbon dots have ignited a burst of interest in many different fields, including nanomedicine, solar energy, optoelectronics, energy storage, and sensing applications, owing to their excellent photoluminescence properties and the easiness to modify their optical properties through doping and functionalization. In this review, the synthesis, structural and optical properties, as well as photoluminescence mechanisms of carbon dots are first reviewed and summarized. Then, we describe a series of designs for carbon dot-based sensors and the different sensing mechanisms associated with them...
2018: Nano-micro letters
Maria Yanqing Chen, Susan S Butler, Weitong Chen, Junghae Suh
The fields of physical, chemical, and synthetic virology work in partnership to reprogram viruses as controllable nanodevices. Physical virology provides the fundamental biophysical understanding of how virus capsids assemble, disassemble, display metastability, and assume various configurations. Chemical virology considers the virus capsid as a chemically addressable structure, providing chemical pathways to modify the capsid exterior, interior, and subunit interfaces. Synthetic virology takes an engineering approach, modifying the virus capsid through rational, combinatorial, and bioinformatics-driven design strategies...
November 8, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Jaison Jeevanandam, Kaushik Pal, Michael K Danquah
Viruses are considered as natural nanomaterials as they are in the size range of 20-500 nm with a genetical material either DNA or RNA, which is surrounded by a protein coat capsid. Recently, the field of virus nanotechnology is gaining significant attention from researchers. Attention is given to the utilization of viruses as nanomaterials for medical, biotechnology and energy applications. Removal of genetic material from the viral capsid creates empty capsid for drug incorporation and coating the capsid protein crystals with antibodies, enzymes or aptamers will enhance their targeted drug deliver efficiency...
November 5, 2018: Biochimie
Elise Iracane, Paul D Donovan, Mihaela Ola, Geraldine Butler, Linda M Holland
The unfolded protein response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is well conserved in eukaryotes from metazoa to yeast. The transcription factor HAC1 is a major regulator of the UPR in many eukaryotes. Deleting HAC1 in the yeast Candida parapsilosis rendered cells more sensitive to DTT, a known inducer of the UPR. The deletion strain was also sensitive to Congo red, calcofluor white, and the antifungal drug ketoconazole, indicating that HAC1 has a role in cell wall maintenance. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that treatment of the wild type with DTT resulted in the increased expression of 368 genes...
November 7, 2018: MSphere
Satakshi Hazra, Sanjukta Patra
Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are communicable diseases caused by a group of bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths prevalent in more than 145 countries that affect the world's poverty stricken populations. WHO enlists 18 NTDs amongst people living in endemic areas having inaccessibility to preventive measures. Steps to reduce the global disease burden of the NTDs need attention at multi-factorial levels. Control programmes, mass drug administrations, transmission checks, eradication surveillances and diagnoses are some of them...
November 6, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Adewumi O Dada, Adejumoke A Inyinbor, Ebiega I Idu, Oluwasesan M Bello, Abimbola P Oluyori, Tabitha A Adelani-Akande, Abiodun A Okunola, Olarewaju Dada
Background: There is a growing interest in the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using plant extract because the technique is cost effective, eco-friendly and environmentally benign. This is phasing out the use of toxic and hazardous chemical earlier reported. Tithonia diversifolia is a wild sunflower that grows widely in the western part of Nigeria with a proven medicinal benefit. However, several studies carried out have left doubts on the basic operational parameters needed for the green synthesis of AgNPs...
2018: PeerJ
Thauane Silva, Paulo S Salomon, Lidilhone Hamerski, Juline Walter, Rafael B Menezes, José Edson Siqueira, Aline Santos, Jéssica Aparecida Morais Santos, Natália Ferme, Thaise Guimarães, Giovana O Fistarol, Paulo I Hargreaves, Cristiane Thompson, Fabiano Thompson, Thiago Moreno Souza, Marilda Siqueira, Milene Miranda
Background: The influenza virus can cause seasonal infections with mild to severe symptoms, circulating worldwide, and it can affect people in any age group. Therefore, this infection is a serious public health problem that causes severe illness and death in high-risk populations. Every year, 0.5% of the world's population is infected by this pathogen. This percentage can increase up to ten times during pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent disease. In addition, anti-influenza drugs are essential for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions...
2018: PeerJ
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