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Beatriz Martínez, Pilar García, Ana Rodríguez
To move towards a safer and more sustainable food production chain, natural antimicrobials have been traditionally applied to enhance safety. This is well exemplified by the use of bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides synthesized by bacteria, as food biopreservatives. However, as knowledge on bacteriocin biology develops, novel functions beyond food preservation emerge and a shift towards health applications is positioning bacteriocins as anti-infectives and modulators of gut microbiota. On the other hand, bacteriophages, viruses infecting bacteria, have been long regarded as a threat for dairy fermentations...
August 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Julia Manetsberger, Abhinaba Ghosh, Elizabeth A H Hall, Graham Christie
The exosporium of Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 spores is morphologically distinct to exosporia observed in spores of many other species. Previous work has demonstrated that unidentified genes encoded on one of the large indigenous plasmids are required for the assembly of the Bacillus megaterium exosporium. Here we provide evidence that pBM600-encoded orthologues of the Bacillus subtilis CotW and CotX proteins, which form the crust layer in spores of that species, are structural components of the Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 spore exosporium...
August 10, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Lulu Liu, Shisheng Li, Sijing Wang, Ziyang Dong, Haichun Gao
Shewanella oneidensis is an extensively studied bacterium capable of respiring minerals as terminal electron acceptors (EAs), including a variety of iron ores. Although iron plays an essential and special role in iron respiration of S. oneidensis , little has been done to date to understand the characteristics of iron transport in this bacterium. In this study we report that all proteins encoded by the pub - putA - putB cluster for putrebactin ( S. oneidensis native siderophore) synthesis (PubABC), recognition-transport of Fe3+ -putrebactin across the outer-membrane (PutA), and reduction of ferric-putrebactin (PutB), are essential to the putrebactin-mediated iron uptake...
August 10, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Tibor Teplický, Andrej Vincze, Anton Mateašík, Zuzana Garaiová, Miroslav Michalka, Beata Čunderlíková
Polysiloxanes have shown exquisite properties for fabrication of microstructures for various biomedical and biotechnological applications. Nevertheless, their biocompatibility in terms of cell adhesion and survival ability is controversial. A simple polysiloxane modifying procedure that reproducibly enhances cell adhesion was proposed. Sonication of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer of polysiloxane type, Ormocomp, in potassium hydroxide (KOH)/ethanol solution enhanced adhesion and subsequent survival of a panel of four cell lines...
August 10, 2018: Biointerphases
Volha Dzmitruk, Evgeny Apartsin, Aliaksei Ihnatsyeu-Kachan, Viktar Abashkin, Dzmitry Shcharbin, Maria Bryszewska
The lack of an appropriate intracellular delivery system for therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) is a major problem in molecular biology, biotechnology, and medicine. A relatively new class of highly symmetrical hyperbranched polymers, called dendrimers, shows promise for transporting small TNAs into both cells and target tissues. Dendrimers have intrinsic advantages for this purpose: their physico-chemical and biological properties can be controlled during synthesis, and they are able to transport large numbers of TNA molecules that can specifically suppress the expression of single or multiple targeted genes...
August 8, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Riccardo Ferracini, Isabel Martínez Herreros, Antonio Russo, Tommaso Casalini, Filippo Rossi, Giuseppe Perale
Although bone has a high potential to regenerate itself after damage and injury, the efficacious repair of large bone defects resulting from resection, trauma or non-union fractures still requires the implantation of bone grafts. Materials science, in conjunction with biotechnology, can satisfy these needs by developing artificial bones, synthetic substitutes and organ implants. In particular, recent advances in materials science have provided several innovations, underlying the increasing importance of biomaterials in this field...
August 8, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Olaa Motwalli, Magbubah Essack, Adil Salhi, John Hanks, Ivan Mijakovic, Vladimir B Bajic
BACKGROUND: Cyanobacteria are one of the target groups of organisms explored for production of free fatty acids (FFAs) as biofuel precursors. Experimental evaluation of cyanobacterial potential for FFA production is costly and time consuming. Thus, computational approaches for comparing and ranking cyanobacterial strains for their potential to produce biofuel based on the characteristics of their predicted proteomes can be of great importance. RESULTS: To enable such comparison and ranking, and to assist biotechnology developers and researchers in selecting strains more likely to be successfully engineered for the FFA production, we developed the Biofuel Producer Screen (BioPS) platform (http://www...
2018: PloS One
Pınar Nartop
Nanoparticles have been used in many areas of biotechnology. In this study, an alternative surface sterilisation method was established for plant tissue cultures. Silver nanoparticles synthesised via green synthesis were used for the surface sterilisation of Lamiaceae seeds ( Salvia farinecae, Ocimum basilicum - Large Leaf Italian, Thymus vulgaris, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens). Water extracts of dried Alkanna tinctorum rhizomes and Syzygium aromaticum flowers were utilised in the bioreduction of silver ions...
August 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Muthulingam Seenuvasan, Govindasamy Vinodhini, Carlin Geor Malar, Nagarajan Balaji, Kannaiyan Sathish Kumar
Many industrial processes experience the advantages of enzymes which evolved the demand for enzymatic technologies. The enzyme immobilisation technology using different carriers has trustworthy applications in industrial biotechnology as these techniques encompass varied advantages such as enhanced stability, activity along with reusability. Immobilisation onto nanomaterial is highly favourable as it includes almost all aspects of science. Among the various techniques of immobilisation, the uses of nanoparticles are remarkably well perceived as these possess high-specific surface area leading to high enzyme loadings...
August 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Garry A Luke, Martin D Ryan
Oligopeptide "2A" and "2A-like" sequences ("2As"; 18-25aa) are found in a range of RNA virus genomes controlling protein biogenesis through "recoding" of the host-cell translational apparatus. Insertion of multiple 2As within a single open reading frame (ORF) produces multiple proteins; hence, 2As have been used in a very wide range of biotechnological and biomedical applications. During translation, these 2A peptide sequences mediate a eukaryote-specific, self-"cleaving" event, termed "ribosome skipping" with very high efficiency...
August 9, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Goutam Banerjee, Pritam Chattopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Biotechnological production of fragrances is a recent trend that has expanded rapidly in the last two decades. Vanillin is the second most demanded flavoring agent after saffron. Vanillin is extensively used in various applications, e.g., as a food additive in food and beverages and a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. PRESENT PERSPECTIVE: Vanillin is also considered as a valuable product for other applications, such as metal plating and production of other flavoring agents, herbicides, ripening agents, antifoaming agents, and personal and home-use products (such as in deodorants, air fresheners, and floor polishing agents)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Svenja Nicolin Bolten, Ursula Rinas, Thomas Scheper
Heparin is a highly sulfated polysaccharide which belongs to the family of glycosaminoglycans. It is involved in various important biological activities. The major biological purpose is the inhibition of the coagulation cascade to maintain the blood flow in the vasculature. These properties are employed in several therapeutic drugs. Heparin's activities are associated with its interaction to various proteins. To date, the structural heparin-protein interactions are not completely understood. This review gives a general overview of specific patterns and functional groups which are involved in the heparin-protein binding...
August 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ângelo de Fátima, Barbara Krajewska, Luzia Valentina Modolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Elvis L Ongey, Robert T Giessmann, Michel Fons, Juri Rappsilber, Lorenz Adrian, Peter Neubauer
Ruminococcin A (RumA) is a lanthipeptide with high activity against pathogenic clostridia and is naturally produced by the strict anaerobic bacterium Ruminococcus gnavus E1, isolated from human intestine. Cultivating R. gnavus E1 is challenging, limiting high-quality production, further biotechnological development and therapeutic exploitation of RumA. To supply an alternative production system, the gene encoding RumA-modifying enzyme (RumM) and the gene encoding the unmodified precursor peptide (preRumA) were amplified from the chromosome of R...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
José Carlos Santos Salgado, Luana Parras Meleiro, Sibeli Carli, Richard John Ward
The β-glucosidases (β-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC hydrolyze glycosidic bonds of alkyl-, amino-, or aryl-β-D-glucosides, cyanogenic glucosides, disaccharides and short oligosaccharides and can also catalyze the synthesis of glycosyl-bonds between different molecules via transglycosylation. Due to their ubiquitous phylogenetic distribution, substrate diversity and ability to both hydrolyze and synthesize glycosidic bonds, the catalysis and regulation of β-glucosidases have been extensively studied...
July 27, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Yu-Huei Cheng, Jiun-Jian Liaw, Che-Nan Kuo
BACKGROUND: Restriction enzymes are used frequently in biotechnology. However, manual mining of restriction enzymes is challenging. Furthermore, integrating available restriction enzymes into different bioinformatics systems is necessary for many biotechnological applications, such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Thus, in the present study, we developed the package REHUNT (Restriction Enzymes HUNTing), which mines restriction enzymes from the public database REBASE using a series of search operations...
August 10, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Cheryl M Immethun, Tae Seok Moon
Cyanobacteria are appealing hosts for green chemical synthesis due to their use of light and carbon dioxide. To optimize product yields and titers, specific and tunable regulation of the metabolic pathways is needed. Synthetic biology has increased and diversified the genetic tools available for biological process control. While early tool development focused on commonly used heterotrophs, there has been a recent expansion of tools for cyanobacteria. CRISPR-Cas9 has been used to edit the genome of cyanobacterial strains, while transcriptional regulation has been accomplished with CRISPR interference and RNA riboswitches...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Gina C Gordon, Brian F Pfleger
Cyanobacteria are attractive hosts for converting carbon dioxide and sunlight into desirable chemical products. To engineer these organisms and manipulate their metabolic pathways, the biotechnology community has developed genetic tools to control gene expression. Many native cyanobacterial promoters and related sequence elements have been used to regulate genes of interest, and heterologous tools that use non-native small molecules to induce gene expression have been demonstrated. Overall, IPTG-based induction systems seem to be leaky and initially demonstrate small dynamic ranges in cyanobacteria...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Tao Sun, Guangsheng Pei, Xinyu Song, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang
Bacterial small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are noncoding molecules with a typical length of 50-300 nt. In recent years, sRNAs have drawn notable attention due to their participation in various bacterial biological processes, such as plasmid control, viral replication, bacterial virulence, and quorum sensing. In addition, there has been a gradual realization that sRNAs play important roles in the response to various stress perturbations. Gram-negative cyanobacteria are autotrophic prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis, which makes them promising renewable chassis for the production of green fuels and chemicals as an alternative to the traditional biomass-based "microbial cell factory...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Silvija Cvitic, Boris Novakovic, Lavinia Gordon, Christine M Ulz, Magdalena Mühlberger, Francisca I Diaz-Perez, Jihoon E Joo, Vendula Svendova, Michael G Schimek, Slave Trajanoski, Richard Saffery, Gernot Desoye, Ursula Hiden
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An adverse intrauterine environment can result in permanent changes in the physiology of the offspring and predispose to diseases in adulthood. One such exposure, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), has been linked to development of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease in offspring. Epigenetic variation, including DNA methylation, is recognised as a leading mechanism underpinning fetal programming and we hypothesised that this plays a key role in fetoplacental endothelial dysfunction following exposure to GDM...
August 8, 2018: Diabetologia
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