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S Montelli, C Stelletta, J Ruiz, C Ballarin, B Cozzi, A Peruffo
In this study we characterized the morphological aspects of the early development of the head of the alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and identified the main structures of the central nervous system during the first trimester of pregnancy. The topography and the cytoarchitecture of the fetal brain regions were described by histological analysis of the brain sections. We performed this analysis on alpaca embryos and fetuses presumably aged 20, 30, 45, and 90 days. For the description of the external body structures we considered the shape of the head, the development of the optic primordium, the dorsal curvature of the body, the limb buds, the umbilical cord and relative vessels, and the thickness and transparency of the skin...
October 13, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Miye Kwon, Adrian Ho, Sukhwan Yoon
The recent drop in the price of natural gas has rekindled the interests in methanotrophs, the organisms capable of utilizing methane as the sole electron donor and carbon source, as biocatalysts for various industrial applications. As heterologous expression of the methane monooxygenases in more amenable hosts has been proven to be nearly impossible, future success in methanotroph biotechnology largely depends on securing phylogenetically and phenotypically diverse methanotrophs with relatively high growth rates...
October 12, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ke-Feng Wang, Chen Guo, Fang Ju, Nadia A Samak, Guo-Qiang Zhuang, Chun-Zhao Liu
As the first fungal quorum sensing molecule, farnesol-induced morphological transition is usually studied in dimorphic fungi, but in basidiomycetes the morphological changes regulated by farnesol are rarely investigated. In this study, we found that farnesol made the basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor develop into a hyperbranched morphology with short hyphae and bulbous tips. Farnesol treatment resulted in a significant increase of intracellular oxidative stress level, which influenced the expression of several morphogenesis-related genes, and thereby led to the morphological changes...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ashley M Sherp, Soon Goo Lee, Evelyn Schraft, Joseph M Jez
Herbicide-resistance traits are the most widely used agriculture biotechnology products. Yet, to maintain their effectiveness and to mitigate selection of herbicide-resistant weeds, the discovery of new resistance traits that use different chemical modes of action is essential. In plants, the Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) acyl acid amido synthetases catalyze the conjugation of amino acids to jasmonate and auxin phytohormones. This reaction chemistry has not been explored as a possible approach for herbicide modification and inactivation...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Janneke Aylward, Francois Roets, Leánne L Dreyer, Michael J Wingfield
BACKGROUND: Teratosphaeria gauchensis and T. zuluensis are closely related fungi that cause Teratosphaeria (previously Coniothyrium) stem canker disease on Eucalyptus species propagated in plantations for commercial purposes. This disease is present in many countries where Eucalyptus trees are planted, and continues to spread with international trade of infected plant germplasm. TAXONOMY: Fungi, Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina, Dothideomycetes, Dothideomycetidae, Capnodiales, Teratosphaeriaceae, Teratosphaeria IDENTIFICATION: The causal agents form dark masses of pycnidia that are visible on the surface of distinct stem cankers that typically form on young green stem tissues...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Nitasha Sehgal, M Eileen Sylves, Ansuman Sahoo, Jacky Chow, Sarah E Walker, Paul J Cullen, James O Berry
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are a revolutionary tool based on a bacterial acquired immune response system. CRISPR has gained widespread use for gene editing in a variety of organisms and is an increasingly valuable tool for basic genetic research, with far-reaching implications for medicine, agriculture, and industry. This lab is based on the premise that upper division undergraduate students enrolled in a Life Sciences curriculum must become familiar with cutting edge advances in biotechnology that have significant impact on society...
October 12, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Melissa J Landrum, Brandi L Kattman
The increasing application of genetic testing for determining the causes underlying Mendelian, pharmacogenetic, and somatic phenotypes has accelerated the discovery of novel variants by clinical genetics laboratories, resulting in a critical need for interpreting the significance of these variants and presenting considerable challenges. Launched in 2013 at the National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, ClinVar is a public database for clinical laboratories, researchers, expert panels, and others to share their interpretations of variants with their evidence...
November 2018: Human Mutation
Karen E Wain, Emily Palen, Juliann M Savatt, Devin Shuman, Brenda Finucane, Andrea Seeley, Thomas D Challman, Scott M Myers, Christa Lese Martin
With the increasing use of clinical genomic testing across broad medical disciplines, the need for data sharing and curation efforts to improve variant interpretation is paramount. The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) ClinVar database facilitates these efforts by serving as a repository for clinical assertions about genomic variants and associations with disease. Most variant submissions are from clinical laboratories, which may lack clinical details. Laboratories may also choose not to submit all variants...
November 2018: Human Mutation
Túlio Gomes Pacheco, Amanda de Santana Lopes, Gélia Dinah Monteiro Viana, Odyone Nascimento da Silva, Gleyson Morais da Silva, Leila do Nascimento Vieira, Miguel Pedro Guerra, Rubens Onofre Nodari, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Wagner Campos Otoni, Marcelo Rogalski
The plastome of B. orellana reveals specific evolutionary features, unique RNA editing sites, molecular markers and the position of Bixaceae within Malvales. Annatto (Bixa orellana L.) is a native species of tropical Americas with center of origin in Brazilian Amazonia. Its seeds accumulate the apocarotenoids, bixin and norbixin, which are only found in high content in this species. The seeds of B. orellana are commercially valued by the food industry because its dyes replace synthetic ones from the market due to potential carcinogenic risks...
October 11, 2018: Planta
Hirokazu Suzuki
The genus Geobacillus comprises thermophilic bacilli capable of endospore formation. The members of this genus provide thermostable proteins and can be used in whole cell applications at elevated temperatures; therefore, these organisms are of biotechnological importance. While these applications have been described in previous reviews, the present paper highlights the environmental adaptations and genome diversifications of Geobacillus spp. and their applications in evolutionary-protein engineering. Despite their obligate thermophilic properties, Geobacillus spp...
October 11, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Rob Baggott, George Lambie
This article explores Cuba's health assistance and support for other countries. It explores the rationale and motivations for Cuba's internationalism in health. It then details the various aspects of its health interventions, including emergency relief, strengthening of health systems, treatment programs, training of health professionals, engagement in multilateral cooperation, and biotechnology. The article analyzes the benefits of Cuba's health internationalism for Cuba and for others. It also explores potential adverse consequences and criticisms of Cuba's approach...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Yu Lei, Peng Fu, Xie Jun, Peng Cheng
Geraniol is an acyclic isoprenoid monoterpene isolated from the essential oils of aromatic plants including Cinnamomum tenuipilum, Valeriana officinalis , and several other plants. The limited source of geraniol from plant isolation cannot fulfill the great demand from the flavor and fragrance industries, which require maximizing geraniol production through biotechnology processes. The diverse activities of geraniol suggested that geraniol could treat various diseases as a promising drug candidate. In order to evaluate the potential of geraniol applied in a clinical trial, this review aims at providing a comprehensive summary of the pharmacological effects of geraniol...
October 11, 2018: Planta Medica
Teresa Del Castillo-Santaella, José Manuel Peula-García, Julia Maldonado-Valderrama, Ana Belén Jódar-Reyes
HYPOTHESIS: The use of polymer-based surfactants in the double-emulsion (water/oil/water, W/O/W) solvent-evaporation technique is becoming a widespread strategy for preparing biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with biomolecules of interest in biomedicine, or biotechnology. This approach enhances the stability of the NPs, reduces their size and recognition by the mononuclear phagocytic system, and protects the encapsulated biomolecule against losing biological activity...
September 29, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jiahong Wang, Chonlong Chio, Xuntong Chen, Erzheng Su, Fuliang Cao, Yongcan Jin, Wensheng Qin
To develop a cost-effective, time-saving and efficient saccharification system for converting biomass into mono-/oligo-saccharides for production of bioethanol or other biochemicals, a relatively low recalcitrant and widely available biomass Agave americana was selected as feedstock. During the investigation of efficient enzyme cocktail, pectinase, which usually is neglect for biomass saccharification, was confirmed that it dramatically improves the saccharification of agave biomass. A production-friendly fungal strain of Aspergillus niger Gyx086 was employed for low-cost enzyme cocktails production using wheat straw as substance...
September 16, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Pawel Sierocinski, Florian Bayer, Gabriel Yvon-Durocher, Melia Burdon, Tobias Großkopf, Mark Alston, David Swarbreck, Phil J Hobbs, Orkun S Soyer, Angus Buckling
Methanogenic communities play a crucial role in carbon cycling and biotechnology (anaerobic digestion), but our understanding of how their diversity, or composition in general, determines the rate of methane production is very limited. Studies to date have been correlational because of the difficulty in cultivating their constituent species in pure culture. Here we investigate the causal link between methanogenesis and diversity in laboratory anaerobic digesters by experimentally manipulating the diversity of cultures by dilution and subsequent equilibration of biomass...
October 11, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Natalia Valencia-Enciso, Carlos O Mendivil
Disorders of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism play a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Despite the widespread use of efficacious lipid-modifying therapies, the residual risk of CVD remains unacceptably high. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the application of new technologies in the treatment of lipid disorders. New therapies work mostly at the gene expression level and are, therefore, different from traditional small-molecule drugs that work mainly by inhibiting already synthesized proteins...
2018: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Hanyu Wang, Qian Li, Xiaolin Kuang, Difan Xiao, Xuebing Han, Xiangdong Hu, Xi Li, Menggen Ma
Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to high-value bioproducts by fermentative microorganisms has drawn extensive attentions worldwide. Lignocellulosic biomass cannot be efficiently utilized by microorganisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but has to be pretreated prior to fermentation. Aldehyde compounds, as the by-products generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass, are considered as the most important toxic inhibitors to S. cerevisiae cells for their growth and fermentation...
October 10, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Shyamalina Haldar, Sarita W Nazareth
The present study compared the taxonomic diversity and evaluated the functional attributes of the bacterial species from Mandovi and Zuari mangrove sediments, Goa, using paired-end amplicon sequencing of 16S rDNA and culture-based analyses, respectively. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed Proteobacteria, Firmicutes , and Actinobacteria as the dominant phyla in both the sediments. However, the abundance of these phyla significantly differed between the samples. Bacteroidetes from Mandovi sediment, and Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes from Zuari sediment were the other exclusive major phyla...
October 2018: 3 Biotech
Ji-Hyun Yun, Hojun Sung, Hyun Sik Kim, Euon Jung Tak, Woorim Kang, June-Young Lee, Dong-Wook Hyun, Pil Soo Kim, Jin-Woo Bae
Kushneria konosiri X49T is a member of the Halomonadaceae family within the order Oceanospirillales and can be isolated from salt-fermented larval gizzard shad. The genome of K. konosiri X49T reported here provides a genetic basis for its halophilic character. Diverse genes were involved in salt-in and -out strategies enabling adaptation of X49T to hypersaline environments. Due to resistance to high salt concentrations, genome research of K. konosiri X49T will contribute to the improvement of environmental and biotechnological usage by enhancing understanding of the osmotic equilibrium in the cytoplasm...
2018: Standards in Genomic Sciences
P Formentín, Ú Catalán, L Pol, S Fernández-Castillejo, R Solà, L F Marsal
Background: The ability to direct the cellular response by means of biomaterial surface topography is important for biomedical applications. Substrate surface topography has been shown to be an effective cue for the regulation of cellular response. Here, the response of human aortic endothelial cells to nanoporous anodic alumina and macroporous silicon with collagen and fibronectin functionalization has been studied. Methods: Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to analyse the effects of the material and the porosity on the adhesion, morphology, and proliferation of the cells...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
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