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Young Je Lee, Soo-Jung Kim, Matthew B Amrofell, Tae Seok Moon
Recent advances in our understanding of RNA folding and functions have facilitated the use of regulatory RNAs such as synthetic antisense RNAs (asRNAs) to modulate gene expression. However, despite the simple and universal complementarity rule, predictable asRNA-mediated repression is still challenging due to the intrinsic complexity of native asRNA-mediated gene regulation. To address this issue, we present a multivariate model, based on the change in free energy of complex formation (ΔGCF) and percent mismatch of the target binding region, which can predict synthetic asRNA-mediated repression efficiency in diverse contexts...
December 5, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Daniel O'Reilly, Zachary J Kartje, Eman A Ageely, Elise Malek-Adamian, Maryam Habibian, Annabelle Schofield, Christopher L Barkau, Kushal J Rohilla, Lauren B DeRossett, Austin T Weigle, Masad J Damha, Keith T Gagnon
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) endonucleases are at the forefront of biotechnology, synthetic biology and gene editing. Methods for controlling enzyme properties promise to improve existing applications and enable new technologies. CRISPR enzymes rely on RNA cofactors to guide catalysis. Therefore, chemical modification of the guide RNA can be used to characterize structure-activity relationships within CRISPR ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzymes and identify compatible chemistries for controlling activity...
December 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Manuel M DE Souza, Bibiana DA Silva, César S B Costa, Eliana Badiale-Furlong
In several countries halophytes are commercially cultivated in low saline or even irrigated with seawater, as well as with saline aquaculture effluent, like a sea asparagus Sarcocornia ambigua, that show a biotechnological potential for bioactive compounds production. However, their recovery from matrix is sometimes inefficient because the lignocellulosic materials difficult the solvent action when drastic conditions are not applied. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was optimized by a central composite rotational design for recovery free phenolic compounds (FPC) from the sea asparagus S...
October 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Zhengyan Guo, Pengwei Li, Guozhu Chen, Chao Li, Zhenju Cao, Yuwei Zhang, Jinwei Ren, Hua Xiang, Shuangjun Lin, Jianhua Ju, Yihua Chen
Alboflavusins (AFNs) are a group of cyclohexapeptides with moderate antibacterial and antitumor activities from Streptomyces alboflavus sp. 313. In vivo and in vitro studies proposed that AFNs are biosynthesized by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase machinery, and the 6-Cl-L-Trp precursor is supplied by a tryptophan halogenase gene locating outside the afn gene cluster. Guided by the structure-activity relationship knowledge about the AFN-like cyclohexapeptides, two Dimeric AFNs (Di-AFNs) with regiospecific biaryl linkages were designed and generated biotechnologically by expressing the P450 gene hmtS or clpS in S...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Harold C Slavkin
In anticipation of a major transformation in healthcare, this review provides highlights that anticipate the near future for oral public health (and beyond). Personalized or precision healthcare reflects the expectation that advances in genomics, imaging, and other domains will extend our risk assessment, diagnostic, and prognostic capabilities, and enables more effective prevention and therapeutic options for all Americans. Meanwhile, the current healthcare system does not meet cost, access, or quality criteria for all Americans...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Jin-Seong Cho, Hyung-Woo Jeon, Min-Ha Kim, The K Vo, Jinsoo Kim, Eung-Jun Park, Young-Im Choi, Hyoshin Lee, Kyung-Hwan Han, Jae-Heung Ko
With the exponential growth of the human population and industrial developments, research on renewable energy resources is required to alleviate environmental and economic impacts caused by the consumption of fossil fuels. In this study, we present a synthetic biological application of a wood forming tissue-specific bicistronic gene expression system to improve both the quantity and quality of woody biomass to minimize undesirable growth penalties. Our transgenic poplars, designed to express both PdGA20ox1 (a GA20-oxidase from Pinus densiflora producing bioactive gibberellin, GA) and PtrMYB221 (a MYB transcription factor negatively regulating lignin biosynthesis) under the developing xylem (DX) tissue-specific promoter (i...
December 5, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Deborah K Shoemark, Amaurys Avila Ibarra, James F Ross, Joseph L Beesley, Harriet E V Bray, Majid Mosayebi, Noah Linden, Tanniemola B Liverpool, Simon N McIntosh-Smith, Derek N Woolfson, Richard B Sessions
Understanding the assembly and dynamics of protein-based supramolecular capsids and cages is of fundamental importance and could lead to applications in synthetic biology and biotechnology. Here we present long and large atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of de novo designed self-assembling protein nanocages (SAGEs) in aqueous media. Microsecond simulations, comprised of ≈42 million atoms for three pre-formed SAGEs of different charges, in the presence of solutes and solvent have been completed. Here, the dynamics, stability and porosity of the peptide networks are explored along with their interactions with ions, small molecules and macromolecular solutes...
December 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ningbo Gao, Lei Zhang, Chunfei Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: BioMed Research International
Marcos Renato de Assis, Valdair Pinto
Biological products or biopharmaceuticals are medicinal products derived from living systems and manufactured by modern biotechnological methods that differ widely from the traditional synthetic drugs. Monoclonal antibodies are the most rapidly growing type of biologic. They are much larger and more complex molecules with inherent diversity; therefore, different manufacturers cannot produce identical biological products, even with the same type of host expression system and equivalent technologies. Thus, legal follow-on biologics manufactured and marketed after patent expiration are usually referred to as biosimilars...
December 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
Binliang Liu, Tao An, Meiying Li, Zongbi Yi, Chunxiao Li, Xiaoying Sun, Xiuwen Guan, Lixi Li, Yanfeng Wang, Yuhui Zhang, Binghe Xu, Fei Ma, Yixin Zeng
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of cancer patients die of cardiovascular diseases. The cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy is particularly important in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with limited therapeutic options. Cardiac autophagy is an important mechanism of cardiotoxicity. This research was aimed to investigate the cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy in TNBC, screen the susceptible population, and determine the relationship between cardiotoxicity and autophagy-related polymorphisms...
December 4, 2018: Cancer communications
Gregory A Taylor, Heather Kirk, Lauren Coombe, Shaun D Jackman, Justin Chu, Kane Tse, Dean Cheng, Eric Chuah, Pawan Pandoh, Rebecca Carlsen, Yongjun Zhao, Andrew J Mungall, Richard Moore, Inanc Birol, Maria Franke, Marco A Marra, Christopher Dutton, Steven J M Jones
The grizzly bear ( Ursus arctos ssp. horribilis ) represents the largest population of brown bears in North America. Its genome was sequenced using a microfluidic partitioning library construction technique, and these data were supplemented with sequencing from a nanopore-based long read platform. The final assembly was 2.33 Gb with a scaffold N50 of 36.7 Mb, and the genome is of comparable size to that of its close relative the polar bear (2.30 Gb). An analysis using 4104 highly conserved mammalian genes indicated that 96...
November 30, 2018: Genes
Rinaldi Fabio, Marzani Barbara, Pinto Daniela, Sorbellini Elisabetta
Background Alopecia areata (AA) is a non-scarring auto-immune hair disorder. Recent researches explained the role of growth factors (GFs) in hair follicle cycling. The main reservoir of GFs are alpha-granules of platelets and novel procedures have been implemented aimed at collecting platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP has been safely implemented in many medical application and has also been successfully used as alternative cell-based therapies for the treatment of hair growth disorder, among which also AA. Objectives By mean of a randomized double-blinded, placebo and active-controlled, parallel group study we have studied the efficacy of a cosmetic product (named TR-M-PRP plus) comprising biomimetic peptides specific for hair growth mimicking PRP composition for the treatment of AA...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Ulisses M F de Oliveira, Leonardo J B Lima de Matos, Maria Cristiane M de Souza, Bruna B Pinheiro, José C S Dos Santos, Luciana R B Gonçalves
In this work, the synthesis of two fruit flavor esters, namely methyl and ethyl butyrate, by lipase from Rhizomucor miehei immobilized onto chitosan in the presence of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS was investigated. In the optimized conditions, maximum esterification yield for ethyl butyrate and methyl butyrate was (92 ± 1%) and (89 ± 1%), respectively. Esterification yields for both reactions were comparable or even superior to the ones achieved when the synthesis was catalyzed by a commercial enzyme, Lipozyme®, at the same reaction conditions...
December 3, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
David P Dixon, Robert Edwards
Screening for natural products which bind to proteins in planta has been used to identify ligands of the plant-specific glutathione transferase (GST) tau (U) and phi (F) classes, that are present in large gene families in crops and weeds, but have largely undefined functions. When expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli these proteins have been found to tightly bind a diverse range of natural product ligands, with fatty acid-and porphyrinogen-derivatives associated with GSTUs and a range of heterocyclic compounds with GSTFs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jelena Jović, Aneta Buntić, Neda Radovanović, Bojan Petrović, Ljiljana Mojović
The aim of this research is to isolate and identify fungi with high lignin-degrading abilities that are autochthonous to southern Serbian region. Two novel fungal isolates identified as Trametes hirsuta F13 and Stereum gausapatum F28 were selected to assess their ligninolytic enzyme activities and the efficiency of lignin removal from beech wood sawdust. Obtained results show that both isolates are good sources of industrially valuable enzymes with a potential for application in various biotechnological and industrial processes...
September 2018: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Beti Vidmar, Maša Vodovnik
Keratin is a complex and structurally stable protein found in human and animal hard tissues, such as feathers, wool, hair, hoof and nails. Some of these, like feathers and wool, represent one of the main sources of protein-rich waste with significant potential to be transformed into value-added products such as feed, fertilizers or bioenergy. A major limitation impeding valorization of keratinous substrates is their recalcitrant structure and resistance to hydrolysis by common proteases. However, specialized keratinolytic enzymes produced by some microorganisms can efficiently degrade these substrates...
September 2018: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Jiaofang Huang, Suying Liu, Chen Zhang, Xinyu Wang, Jiahua Pu, Fang Ba, Shuai Xue, Haifeng Ye, Tianxin Zhao, Ke Li, Yanyi Wang, Jicong Zhang, Lihua Wang, Chunhai Fan, Timothy K Lu, Chao Zhong
Bacterial biofilms can be programmed to produce living materials with self-healing and evolvable functionalities. However, the wider use of artificial biofilms has been hindered by limitations on processability and functional protein secretion capacity. We describe a highly flexible and tunable living functional materials platform based on the TasA amyloid machinery of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We demonstrate that genetically programmable TasA fusion proteins harboring diverse functional proteins or domains can be secreted and can assemble into diverse extracellular nano-architectures with tunable physicochemical properties...
December 3, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Dipti D Nayak, William W Metcalf
Methanogenic archaea generate methane as a by-product of anaerobic respiration using CO2 , C1 compounds (like methanol or methylated amines), or acetate as terminal electron acceptors. Methanogens are an untapped resource for biotechnological advances related to methane production as well as methane consumption. However, key biological features of these organisms remain poorly understood. One such feature is the enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase (referred to as MCR), which catalyzes the last step in the methanogenic pathway and results in methane formation...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Rodney Burton, Mehmet Can, Daniel Esckilsen, Seth Wiley, Stephen W Ragsdale
The chapter focuses on the methods involved in producing and characterizing two key nickel-iron-sulfur enzymes in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) of anaerobic conversion of carbon dioxide fixation into acetyl-CoA: carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) and acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS). The WLP is used for biosynthesis of cell material and energy conservation by anaerobic bacteria and archaea, and it is central to several industrial biotechnology processes aimed at using syngas and waste gases for the production of fuels and chemicals...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Colin W J Lockwood, Jessica H van Wonderen, Marcus J Edwards, Samuel E H Piper, Gaye F White, Simone Newton-Payne, David J Richardson, Thomas A Clarke, Julea N Butt
Certain bacterial species have a natural ability to exchange electrons with extracellular redox partners. This behavior allows coupling of catalytic transformations inside bacteria to complementary redox transformations of catalysts and electrodes outside the cell. Electricity generation can be coupled to waste-water remediation. Industrially relevant oxidation reactions can proceed exclusively when electrons are released to anodes. Reduced products such as fuels can be generated when electrons are provided from (photo)cathodes...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
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