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Alpha stimulation

Alik S Widge, Matthew Boggess, Alexander P Rockhill, Andrew Mullen, Shivani Sheopory, Roman Loonis, Daniel K Freeman, Earl K Miller
Oscillations of the brain's local field potential (LFP) may coordinate neural ensembles and brain networks. It has been difficult to causally test this model or to translate its implications into treatments, because there are few reliable ways to alter LFP oscillations. We developed a closed-loop analog circuit to enhance brain oscillations by feeding them back into cortex through phase-locked transcranial electrical stimulation. We tested the system in a rhesus macaque with chronically implanted electrode arrays, targeting 8-15 Hz (alpha) oscillations...
2018: PloS One
Takashi Kido, Shigeru Miyagawa, Takasumi Goto, Katsuto Tamai, Takayoshi Ueno, Koichi Toda, Toru Kuratani, Yoshiki Sawa
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that systemic administration of high-mobility group box 1 fragment attenuates the progression of myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in a hamster model of dilated cardiomyopathy by recruiting bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells thus causing enhancement of a self-regeneration system. METHODS: Twenty-week-old J2N-k hamsters, which are δ-sarcoglycan-deficient, were treated with systemic injection of high-mobility group box 1 fragment (HMGB1, n = 15) or phosphate buffered saline (control, n = 11)...
2018: PloS One
María A Natale, Gonzalo A César, María G Alvarez, Melisa D Castro Eiro, Bruno Lococo, Graciela Bertocchi, María C Albareda, Susana A Laucella
BACKGROUND: The severity of cardiac disease in chronic Chagas disease patients is associated with different features of T-cell exhaustion. Here, we assessed whether the ability of T cells to secrete IFN-γ in response to T. cruzi was linked to disruption in immune homeostasis and inflammation in patients with chronic Chagas disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PBMCs from chronic Chagas disease patients and uninfected controls were examined for frequencies of T...
December 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lu Chen, Lei Liu, Zhi-Yang Xie, Feng Wang, Lei Zhu, Cong Zhang, Pan Fan, Arjun Sinkemani, Xin Hong, Xiao-Tao Wu
Cellular loss induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) contributes to the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Cellular stress induced by TNF-α activates several processes to restore cell homeostasis. These processes include autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and related unfolded protein response (UPR). However, the effect and mechanism of UPR and autophagy regulated by TNF-α in IVD degeneration (IDD) remain unclear. The effect of autophagy on biological changes in nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) also remains elusive...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Danielle D Sliva, Christopher J Black, Paul Bowary, Uday Agrawal, Juan F Santoyo, Noah S Philip, Benjamin D Greenberg, Christopher I Moore, Stephanie R Jones
The (8-12 Hz) neocortical alpha rhythm is associated with shifts in attention across sensory systems, and is thought to represent a sensory gating mechanism for the inhibitory control of cortical processing. The present preliminary study sought to explore whether alpha frequency transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) could modulate endogenous alpha power in the somatosensory system, and whether the hypothesized modulation would causally impact perception of tactile stimuli at perceptual threshold...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Nicholas J Petrosino, Amin Zandvakili, Linda L Carpenter, Noah S Philip
Over half of those diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), and rates are even higher among military veterans. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may be a safe and efficacious treatment for PTSD, both with and without comorbid MDD. Still, the mechanism of action of TMS is not fully understood, and it remains unclear which stimulation techniques (e.g., target regions, pulse strength/frequency, waveform) optimize treatment for these patients. Recent research indicated that a patient's unique individualized alpha frequency (IAF) may be used to guide brain stimulation treatment, and emerging data suggests that stimulation synchronized to the IAF may be efficacious for MDD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Timme van der Lugt, Antje R Weseler, Wouter A Gebbink, Misha F Vrolijk, Antoon Opperhuizen, Aalt Bast
Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) can be found in protein- and sugar-rich food products processed at high temperatures, which make up a vast amount of the Western diet. The effect of AGE-rich food products on human health is not yet clear and controversy still exists due to possible contamination of samples with endotoxin and the use of endogenous formed AGEs. AGEs occur in food products, both as protein-bound and individual molecules. Which form exactly induces a pro-inflammatory effect is also unknown...
December 2, 2018: Nutrients
Sahar Biglari, Thi Y L Le, Richard P Tan, Steven G Wise, Alessandro Zambon, Gaia Codolo, Marina De Bernard, Majid Warkiani, Aaron Schindeler, Sina Naficy, Peter Valtchev, Ali Khademhosseini, Fariba Dehghani
Considerable progress has been made in the field of microfluidics to develop complex systems for modeling human skin and dermal wound healing processes. While microfluidic models have attempted to integrate multiple cell types and/or 3D culture systems, to date they have lacked some elements needed to fully represent dermal wound healing. This paper describes a cost-effective, multicellular microfluidic system that mimics the paracrine component of early inflammation close to normal wound healing. Collagen and Matrigel are tested as materials for coating and adhesion of dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
December 4, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Silvia Martina Ferrari, Giusy Elia, Francesca Ragusa, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Claudia Caruso, Salvatore Benvenga, Poupak Fallahi, Alessandro Antonelli
Patients affected by autoimmune thyroiditis reached positive effects on indices of thyroid autoimmunity and/or thyroidal function, after following a treatment with selenomethionine (Se) alone, or Se in combination with Myo-inositol (Myo-Ins). Our purpose was to investigate if Myo-Ins alone, or a combination of Se + Myo-Ins, is effective in protecting thyroid cells from the effects given by cytokines, or hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). We assessed the interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) secretion by stimulating primary thyrocytes (obtained from Hashimoto's thyroiditis or from control patients) with cytokines in presence/absence of H2 O2...
December 4, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Mariana Callil Voos, Soares de Moura Maria Clara Drummond, Renata Hydee Hasue
Purpose: Few studies have described mobilization approaches in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The present study describes the hip mobilization of a preterm infant (born at 33 6/7 weeks of gestational age) diagnosed with DDH. Design and Methods: During the 43-day hospital stay, the infant was seen twice a week (ten sessions, 20 minutes each). All sessions included hip approximation maneuvers, with the hip positioned in abduction, lateral rotation and flexion, and lower limbs passive mobilization, which were taught to the mother...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Kang Xu, Tingwen Zhou, Yuming Huang, Qingjia Chi, Jiawei Shi, Peng Zhu, Nianguo Dong
Exploring effective therapies for delaying calcific heart valve disease (CHVD) is the focus of current cardiovascular clinical and scientific research. In this study, human aortic valve interstitial cells (hVICs) were isolated from patients with CHVD. After expansion, cultured hVICs were induced with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) with or without anthraquinone emodin (EMD) treatments. Cytotoxicity and flow cytometric analysis were used to assess cell growth, while Alizarin Red S staining was used to detect hVICs calcification...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Fatemeh Hassani, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Poopak Eftekhari-Yazdi, Masood Bazrgar, Ashraf Moini, Nahid Nasiri, Ali Sharifi-Zarchi
Objective: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the cumulus oocyte complex (COC) is composed of several molecules that have different roles during follicle development. This study aims to explore gene expression profiles for ECM and cell adhesion molecules in the cumulus cells of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients based on their insulin sensitivity following controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). Materials and Methods: In this prospective case-control study enrolled 23 women less than 36 years of age who participated in an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) program...
January 2019: Cell Journal
Kelly M Cox, Scott P Commins, Brian J Capaldo, Lisa J Workman, Thomas A E Platts-Mills, El-Ad D Amir, Josephine A Lannigan, Alexander J Schuyler, Loren D Erickson
BACKGROUND: B cells play a critical role in the development and maintenance of food allergy by producing allergen-specific IgE. Despite the importance of B cells in IgE-mediated food allergy, the identity of sIgE-producing human B cells and how IgE is regulated are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To identify the immunophenotypes of circulating B cells associated with the production of galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose specific IgE production in patients with red meat allergy...
December 2, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Lorenzo Alibardi
Tail regeneration in lizard is stimulated from the apical epidermis and spinal cord, the principal sources of growth factors and signaling proteins that sustain regeneration. Immunolabeling shows that serpins (serine protease inhibitors), which genes are among those most up-regulated during tail regeneration, are prevalently immunolocalized in the regenerating epidermis and ependyma. Western blot detects main protein bands extracted from regenerating tail at 25-27 and 48-52 kDa. The former band may correspond to p27 serpin, a degraded immunogenic fragment of serpin detected in psoriasis and cancer...
December 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Lauren A Murphy, Emily A Seidler, Denis A Vaughan, Nina Resetkova, Alan S Penzias, Thomas L Toth, Kim L Thornton, Denny Sakkas
STUDY QUESTION: What is the treatment path and cumulative live birth (CLB) rate from a single oocyte retrieval of patients who intend to pursue PGT-A at the start of an IVF cycle compared to matched controls? SUMMARY ANSWER: The choice of PGT-A at the start of the first IVF cycle decreases the CLB per oocyte retrieval for patients <38 years of age, however patients ≥38 years of age benefit significantly per embryo transfer (ET) when live birth (LB) is evaluated...
November 30, 2018: Human Reproduction
Ivo S Hansen, Dominique L P Baeten, Jeroen den Dunnen
The prevailing concept regarding the immunological function of immunoglobulin A (IgA) is that it binds to and neutralizes pathogens to prevent infection at mucosal sites of the body. However, recently, it has become clear that in humans IgA is also able to actively contribute to the initiation of inflammation, both at mucosal and non-mucosal sites. This additional function of IgA is initiated by the formation of immune complexes, which trigger Fc alpha Receptor I (FcαRI) to synergize with various other receptors to amplify inflammatory responses...
November 29, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Da-Wei Zhang, Stuart J Johnstone, Hui Li, Robert J Barry, Adam R Clarke, Qihua Zhao, Yan Song, Lu Liu, Qiujin Qian, Yufeng Wang, Li Sun
In this study we extend on behavioural evidence to examine the effect of time on EEG measures related to arousal and emotion/motivation in children with/without AD/HD. Thirty children with AD/HD and 30 age- and sex-matched controls participated. EEG was recorded during an eyes-closed resting condition and divided into three 2.5 min blocks after pre-processing. Time effects for absolute and relative alpha activity were found in healthy controls; these effects did not interact with AD/HD status. Interactions between time and AD/HD status were found for absolute theta, relative theta, and theta/beta ratio (TBR), with these EEG indices increasing over time in children with AD/HD...
November 29, 2018: Brain Topography
Yujie Dai, Jingjing Ding, Wen Yin, Yuzhu He, Fei Yu, Cong Ye, Shaoxian Hu, Yikai Yu
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF- α ) was reported to increase autophagy in rheumatoid arthritis human fibroblast-like synovial cell (RA-HFLS). We investigated different levels of TNF- α exposed to RA-HFLS by focusing on the relationship of autophagy and apoptosis. RA-HFLS and normal human fibroblast-like synovial cell (HFLS) were stimulated by TNF- α in the presence or the absence of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ). Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Autophagy was determined through the expression levels of LC3, Beclin1, and P62 measured by Western Blot analysis as well as Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy...
2018: BioMed Research International
(no author information available yet)
The putative mechanism of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for medically refractory epilepsy is desynchronization of hippocampal and thalamocortical circuitry; however, the nature of the dose-response relationship and temporal dynamics is poorly understood. For greater elucidation, a study in a nonepileptic rat model was previously conducted and showed that rapid-cycle (RC) VNS achieved superior desynchrony compared to standard-cycle (SC) VNS. Here, the authors report on the first in-human analysis of the neuromodulatory dose-response effects of VNS in a patient with posttraumatic, independent, bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy refractory to medications and SC-VNS who was referred as a potential candidate for a responsive neurostimulation device...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Kathy Ruddy, Joshua Balsters, Dante Mantini, Quanying Liu, Pegah Kassraian-Fard, Nadja Enz, Ernest Mihelj, Bankim Subhash Chander, Surjo R Soekadar, Nicole Wenderoth
To date there exists no reliable method to non-invasively upregulate or downregulate the state of the resting human motor system over a large dynamic range. Here we show that an operant conditioning paradigm which provides neurofeedback of the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), enables participants to self-modulate their own brain state. Following training, participants were able to robustly increase (by 83.8%) and decrease (by 30.6%) their MEP amplitudes...
November 29, 2018: ELife
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