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Alpha stimulation

Katie B Needham, Christy Bergeon Burns, Jessica L Graham, Carolyn M Bauer, Jeffrey D Kittilson, Ellen D Ketterson, Thomas Hahn, Timothy J Greives
Mechanisms related to seasonal reproductive timing in vertebrates have received far more study in males than in females, despite the fact that female timing decisions dictate when rearing of offspring will occur. Production and release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by the hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary to secrete gonadotropins, initiating the beginning stages of gonadal recrudescence and production of the sex steroids, testosterone and estradiol, which are necessary to prime the liver for secretion of yolk precursors in breeding female birds...
October 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Anliang Shao, Liming Xu, Xi Wu, Susu Liu, Yan Lu, Changfa Fan
The Gal antigen is synthesized by glycoprotein galactosyltransferase alpha 1, 3 (GGTA1) or (and) isoglobotrihexosylceramide 3 synthase (iGb3S). However, whether iGb3S deletion changes Gal epitope expression and immunological properties in animals is still not clear. The objective of this study was to develop iGb3S deficient mice, and characterize their Gal epitope expression and Gal epitope-related immunological properties. iGb3S gene knockout mice were generated on the C57BL/6 background using the bacterial artificial chromosome homology region recombination technique...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
R D Sanders, M I Banks, M Darracq, R Moran, J Sleigh, O Gosseries, V Bonhomme, J F Brichant, M Rosanova, A Raz, G Tononi, M Massimini, S Laureys, M Boly
BACKGROUND: Impaired consciousness has been associated with impaired cortical signal propagation after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We hypothesised that the reduced current propagation under propofol-induced unresponsiveness is associated with changes in both feedforward and feedback connectivity across the cortical hierarchy. METHODS: Eight subjects underwent left occipital TMS coupled with high-density EEG recordings during wakefulness and propofol-induced unconsciousness...
November 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Qiaoqing Xu, Kai Luo, Shuhuan Zhang, Weihua Gao, Wenbing Zhang, Qiwei Wei
In the present study, we identify three type I interferon (IFN) genes (Ad/AsIFNe1-3) and a type II IFN gene (Ad/AsIFNγ) from the Dabry's sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) and the Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis). Sequence analysis revealed that Ad/AsIFNe1-3 and Ad/AsIFNγ contain several conserved characteristics, including signal peptides, interferon alpha, beta, and delta (IFabd) domains, and N-glycosylation sites. Ad/AsIFNe1-3 belongs to the type I IFN group I subgroup, possessing two conserved cysteines residues (C1 and C3), and Ad/AsIFNγ contained a conserved nuclear localization sequence (NLS) motif...
October 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Michael Fähling, Alexander Paliege, Sofia Jönsson, Mediha Becirovic-Agic, Jacqueline M Melville, Trude Skogstrand, Michael Hultström
The aim was to identify new targets that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in Angiotensin II (ANGII)-mediated hypertension. Heparin affinity chromatography was used to enrich nucleic acid-binding proteins from kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive Wistar rats. The experiment was repeated with 14 days ANGII infusion using Alzet osmotic mini pumps, with or without ANGII receptor AT1a inhibition using Losartan in the drinking water. Mean arterial pressure increased after 2K1C or ANGII infusion and was inhibited with Losartan...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Amelia R Woolums, Brandi Bourg Karisch, Jane A Parish, Jooyoun Park, Keun Seok Seo, Peres Badial, Steven C Olsen
The effect of a DNA immunostimulant on inflammatory and immune responses, performance, and health in calves following abrupt weaning and introduction to a concentrate diet was tested. Sixty-four single source Angus crossbred steers were weaned on day 1 and assigned to receive a DNA immunostimulant (TRT) or saline (CON) on days 0, 2, 4, and 6. On day 0, steers received clostridial and respiratory vaccines and anthelmintic; they were then transported 2 h, allocated to pens (n = 8 per pen), and introduced to total mixed ration...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Barbara Moura Antunes, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli Dos Santos, José Cesar Rosa-Neto, Emerson Franchini, Nicolette C Bishop, Fábio Santos Lira
PURPOSE: The relationship between inflammatory markers and energetic metabolism has been explored. However, the relationship between exercise intensity and fitness status is unclear, and it is necessary to understand this relationship to apply specific exercise guidance. The purpose of the study was to analyze metabolic and inflammatory responses imposed by acute exercise sessions performed at moderate, heavy, and severe intensities and their relationship with the physical fitness status...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Éric Samarut, Amrutha Swaminathan, Raphaëlle Riché, Meijiang Liao, Rahma Hassan-Abdi, Solène Renault, Marc Allard, Liselotte Dufour, Patrick Cossette, Nadia Soussi-Yanicostas, Pierre Drapeau
OBJECTIVE: In humans, mutations of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit 1 (GABRA1) cause either mild or severe generalized epilepsy. Although these epilepsy-causing mutations have been shown to disrupt the receptor activity in vitro, their in vivo consequences on brain development and activity are not known. Here, we aim at unraveling the epileptogenesis mechanisms of GABRA1 loss of function. METHODS: We generated a gabra1-/- zebrafish mutant line displaying highly penetrant epileptic seizures...
October 15, 2018: Epilepsia
Karolina Lebiecka, Urszula Zuchowicz, Agata Wozniak-Kwasniewska, David Szekely, Elzbieta Olejarczyk, Olivier David
Aim: The aim of this work was to study the neurophysiological effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in 8 patients with major depression disorder (MDD) and 10 patients with bipolar disorder (BP), considering separately responders and non-responders to rTMS therapy in each of both groups. Methods: The Higuchi's Fractal Dimension (FD) was analyzed from 64-channels EEG signals in five physiological frequency bands and every channel separately...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yoshihiko Tanimoto, Sayaka Tamai, Takehiro Matsuzaki, Narumi Takeuchi, Takumi Noju, Saki Yanagida, Eriko Kage-Nakadai, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Toshio Kodama, Shota Nakamura, Daisuke Motooka, Tetsuya Iida, Yoshikazu Nishikawa
Diarrheagenicity of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) remains controversial. Previously, we found that motile DAEC strains isolated from diarrheal patients induced high levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion via Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). However, DAEC strains from healthy carriers hardly induced IL-8 secretion, irrespective of their possessing flagella. In this study, we demonstrated that SK1144, a DAEC strain from a healthy carrier, suppressed IL-8 and IL-6 secretion from human epithelial cell lines...
October 15, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Lu Fan, Ye Fan, Li Liu, Weiwei Tao, Xin Shan, Yu Dong, Lin Li, Sen Zhang, Hanqing Wang
Chelerythrine (CH), is a kind of benzo[c] phenanthridine alkaloid isolated from plants such as Chelidonium, with pharmacological activities as antitumor, antibiosis and anti-inflammation. However, few studies have demonstrated whether CH could protect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI), and the underlying mechanism is also uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of CH on LPS-induced ALI in mice and in RAW264.7 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with CH significantly ameliorated LPS-induced pathological changes in the lung...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Tomohiro Itoh, Kousuke Katsurayama, Mai Efdi, Masayuki Ninomiya, Mamoru Koketsu
A seco-triterpenoid, sentulic acid (SA) isolated from Sandoricum koetjape Merr attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production following co-stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFNγ) in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IFNγ, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12 in LPS/IFNγ co-stimulated RAW264.7 cells also decreased upon SA treatment. To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of SA on LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production in RAW264...
October 9, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Bipul R Acharya, Alexander Nestor-Bergmann, Xuan Liang, Shafali Gupta, Kinga Duszyc, Estelle Gauquelin, Guillermo A Gomez, Srikanth Budnar, Philippe Marcq, Oliver E Jensen, Zev Bryant, Alpha S Yap
Adherens junctions are tensile structures that couple epithelial cells together. Junctional tension can arise from cell-intrinsic application of contractility or from the cell-extrinsic forces of tissue movement. Here, we report a mechanosensitive signaling pathway that activates RhoA at adherens junctions to preserve epithelial integrity in response to acute tensile stress. We identify Myosin VI as the force sensor, whose association with E-cadherin is enhanced when junctional tension is increased by mechanical monolayer stress...
October 9, 2018: Developmental Cell
Peilin Lv, Jingni Yu, Xiayu Xu, Tianjian Lu, Feng Xu
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus and is considered as a leading cause of blindness. Oxidative stress and inflammation are significant drivers for the development of DR. Eriodictyol, a flavonoid compound, was proved to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antidiabetic activities. However, the role of eriodictyol in DR has not been unveiled. In the current study, we explored the protective effects of eriodictyol on high glucose (HG)-induced rat retinal ganglial cells (RGCs)...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Ting Gong, Chi Zhang, Jing Kang, J J Lamb, Jack J Jiang
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Vocal fold scarring remains a major treatment challenge, and scar prevention without residual lesions remains a dilemma. Cryotherapy has shown cosmetic outcomes on skin lesions with minimal scarring. The aim of this study was to clarify the beneficial effects of cryotherapy for the prevention and the treatment of vocal fold scarring. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro. METHODS: Primary cultures of human vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs) were used in this study...
October 12, 2018: Laryngoscope
Heike Biebermann, Gunnar Kleinau, Dirk Schnabel, Detlef Bockenhauer, Louise C Wilson, Ian Tully, Sarah Kiff, Patrick Scheerer, Monica Reyes, Sarah Paisdzior, John W Gregory, Jeremy Allgrove, Heiko Krude, Michael Mannstadt, Thomas J Gardella, Mehul Dattani, Harald Jüppner, Annette Grüters
Context: The alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G-protein (Gαs) links numerous receptors to adenylyl cyclase. Gαs, encoded by GNAS, is expressed predominantly from the maternal allele in certain tissues. Thus, maternal heterozygous loss-of-function mutations cause hormonal resistance, as in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia, while somatic gain-of-function mutations cause hormone-independent endocrine stimulation, as in McCune-Albright Syndrome. Objective: We here report two unrelated boys presenting with a new combination of clinical findings that suggest both gain and loss of Gαs function...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Deting Xue, Erman Chen, Huiming Zhong, Wei Zhang, Shengdong Wang, Muhammad Umar Joomun, Tianyi Yao, Yanbin Tan, ShiSheng Lin, Qiang Zheng, Zhijun Pan
Background: The osteo-immunomodulatory properties of biomaterials play an important role in the outcomes of bone regeneration. Graphene oxide (GO) has been widely applied in many research fields due to its unique properties. However, the immunomodulatory properties of GO as a biomaterial for bone tissue engineering are still unclear. Materials and methods: In this study, we evaluated the Inflammatory response of RAW264.7 cells influenced by GO. Then the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and angiogenic differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by stimulation with GO/RAW 264...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Sophie Fehlbaum, Kevin Prudence, Jasper Kieboom, Margreet Heerikhuisen, Tim van den Broek, Frank H J Schuren, Robert E Steinert, Daniel Raederstorff
Recently, the concept of prebiotics has been revisited to expand beyond non-digestible oligosaccharides, and the requirements for selective stimulation were extended to include microbial groups other than, and additional to, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Here, the gut microbiota-modulating effects of well-known and novel prebiotics were studied. An in vitro fermentation screening platform (i-screen) was inoculated with adult fecal microbiota, exposed to different dietary fibers that had a range of concentrations (inulin, alpha-linked galacto-oligosaccharides (alpha-GOS), beta-linked GOS, xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) from corn cobs and high-fiber sugar cane, and beta-glucan from oats), and compared to a positive fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) control and a negative control (no fiber addition)...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yew Wen Yap, Steve Ball, Zubair Qureshi
The coexistence of primary hypothyroidism and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-stimulating pituitary macroadenoma can be a rare occurrence and can make diagnosis very challenging. We describe a case of a 44-year-old female with a history of fatigue, poor concentration, weight gain and amenorrhoea together with biochemical evidence of primary autoimmune hypothyroidism. Her initial TSH levels were elevated with low normal free thyroxine (T4) levels. Levothyroxine treatment was initiated and the dose was gradually titrated to supraphysiologic doses...
September 25, 2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Warakorn Cheewasopit, Mhairi Laird, Claire Glister, Phil G Knight
Myostatin plays a negative role in skeletal muscle growth regulation but its potential role in the ovary has received little attention. Here, we first examined relative expression of myostatin (MSTN), myostatin receptors (ACVR1B, ACVR2B and TGFBR1) and binding protein, follistatin (FST), in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cells of developing bovine follicles. Secondly, using primary GC and TC cultures, we investigated whether myostatin affects steroidogenesis and cell number. Thirdly, effects of gonadotropins and other intrafollicular factors on MSTN expression in GC and TC were examined...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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