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Visualizing cells

Sijie Fang, Yazhuo Huang, Ningjian Wang, Shuo Zhang, Sisi Zhong, Yinwei Li, Jing Sun, Xingtong Liu, Yang Wang, Ping Gu, Bin Li, Huifang Zhou, Xianqun Fan
Context: Unique features of local immunity in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) may affect disease progression. Objective: To investigate the association between the orbital immune microenvironment and TAO development. Design/Setting/Participants: TAO and control orbital connective tissues were collected. Main Outcome Measures: Single-cell sequencing examined orbital lymphocytic infiltrates. Multi-color flow cytometry explored the phenotypes of different cell subsets and in vitro models for cell functional studies...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Neringa Jurkute, Joshua Harvey, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disorder in the population and it carries a poor visual prognosis. In this article, we review the development of treatment strategies for LHON, the evidence base and the areas of unmet clinical need. RECENT FINDINGS: There is accumulating evidence that increasing mitochondrial biogenesis could be an effective strategy for protecting retinal ganglion cells in LHON...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Subhadeep Saha, Björn Holzapfel, Yen-Ting Chen, Kai Terlinden, Pascal Lill, Christos Gatsogiannis, Heinz Rehage, Guido H Clever
Self-assembled, porous coordination cages with a functional interior find application in controlled guest inclu-sion/release, drug delivery, separation processes, and catalysis. However, only few studies exist that describe their utilization for the development of self-assembled materials based on their 3-dimensional shape and external functional-ization. Here, dodecyl chain-containing, acridone-based ligands (LA) and shape-complementary phenanthrene-derived ligands (LB) are shown to self-assemble to heteroleptic coordination cages cis-[Pd2(LA)2(LB)2]4+ acting as a gemini amphiphile (CGA-1; Cage-based Gemini Amphiphile-1)...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Masahumi Kawaguchi, Hanako Hagio, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Koji Matsumoto, Kei Nakayama, Yasuhisa Akazome, Hironori Izumi, Yousuke Tsuneoka, Fumikazu Suto, Yasunori Murakami, Hiroyuki Ichijo
Gobiida is a basal subseries of percomorphs in teleost fishes, holding a useful position for comparisons with other orders of Percomorpha as well as other cohort of teleosts. Here, we describe a telencephalic atlas of a Gobiida species Rhinogobius flumineus (Mizuno, Memoirs of the College of Science, University of Kyoto, Series B: Biology, 1960; 27, 3), based on cytoarchitectural observations, combined with analyses of the distribution patterns of neurochemical markers and transcription factors. The telencephalon of R...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Michael J O'Connell, Eric F Lock
Several recent methods address the dimension reduction and decomposition of linked high-content data matrices. Typically, these methods consider one dimension, rows or columns, that is shared among the matrices. This shared dimension may represent common features measured for different sample sets (horizontal integration) or a common sample set with features from different platforms (vertical integration). We introduce an approach for simultaneous horizontal and vertical integration, Linked Matrix Factorization (LMF), for the general case where some matrices share rows (e...
December 5, 2018: Biometrics
Konstantinos Droutsas, Myrsini Petrelli, Dimitrios Miltsakakis, Konstantinos Andreanos, Anastasia Karagianni, Apostolos Lazaridis, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea, George Kymionis
Purpose: To examine the impact of graft thickness (GT) on postoperative visual acuity and endothelial cell density after ultrathin-Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (UT-DSAEK) versus conventional DSAEK. Methods: The medical records of all patients who underwent DSAEK at our institute during a 2-year period were reviewed. After excluding subjects with low visual potential, 34 eyes were divided into two groups based on the postoperative GT as measured with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT): an UT-DSAEK group (GT ≤ 100  μ m, n =13 eyes) and a DSAEK group (GT > 100  μ m, n =21 eyes)...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Chen Zou, Xuan Zhou, Shuhan Zhuang, Guowei Huang, Hongwu Wang
Objective. This study aimed to compare the physical and mental states and the clinical effects of parenteral nutrition combined with enteral nutrition (PN+EN), total enteral nutrition (TEN), and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) after surgery in patients with maxillofacial malignant tumors. Methods. A total of 112 patients were divided into three groups, with 58, 33, and 21 patients in the PN+EN, TPN, and TEN groups, respectively. The psychological survey contained the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FRS-R), visual analog scale (VAS), numerical rating scale (NRS), Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAMA), and short-form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF-36)...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jia Liu, Cong Yu, Jian-Fang Gui, Dai-Wen Pang, Qi-Ya Zhang
Reoviruses are non-enveloped viruses with wide host range, can cause serious infections in animals, plants and microorganism, e.g., aquareovirus, which is capable of causing serious haemorrhagic in aquatic animals. To date, the entry process of aquareovirus infection remains obscure. Real-time single-virus tracking are effective tools for exploring the details in viral infection process, which are crucial for understanding the pathogenic mechanism. Here, we used quantum dots-based single particle tracking technology combined with biochemical assays and ultrastructural observation to reveal unobservable infection steps and map dynamic interactions between a reovirus, Scophthalmus maximus reovirus (SMReV), and its host cell in real time...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Aniello Lombardi, Peter Jedlicka, Heiko J Luhmann, Werner Kilb
Giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) represent a typical spontaneous activity pattern in the immature hippocampus. GDPs are mediated by GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic inputs and their initiation requires an excitatory GABAergic action, which is typical for immature neurons due to their elevated intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl- ]i ). Because GABAA receptors are ligand-gated Cl- channels, activation of these receptors can potentially influence [Cl- ]i . However, whether the GABAergic activity during GDPs influences [Cl- ]i is unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Mohsen Bahmani Kashkouli, Parya Abdolalizadeh, Mitra Oghazian, Yasaman Hadi, Nasser Karimi, Mahya Ghazizadeh
AIM: To report the frequency and factors affecting patients', globe and vision survivals in rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM). METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 63 patients (79 eyes) with biopsy-proven ROCM at a university hospital 2008-2016. Systemic and ophthalmic manifestations, imaging, management and final outcomes were recorded. Globe survival was defined as no exenteration and vision survival as final visual acuity of light perception and more...
December 4, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Yan Lan, Zichao Yang, Han Liu, Hongyan Cheng, Shuwen Liu, Suiyi Tan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the inhibitory effect of PSB0739 on the formation of semen-derived amyloid fibrils. METHODS: PAP248-286 (440 μmol/L) was incubated with PSB0739 at different concentrations, and at different time points of incubation, aliquots were taken from each sample for Congo red staining to detect the formation of amyloid fibers. The morphology of amyloid fibrils incubated in the presence or absence of PSB0739 was visualized using transmission electron microscope...
November 30, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Yang Tao, Hongbin Han, Wangxin Liu, Lu Peng, Yue Wang, Shekhar Kadam, Pau Loke Show, Xiaosong Ye
In this work, sonication (20-kHz) was conducted to assist the biosorption of phenolics from blueberry pomace extracts by brewery waste yeast biomass. The adsorption capacity of yeast increased markedly under ultrasonic fields. After sonication at 394.2 W/L and 40 °C for 120 min, the adsorption capacity was increased by 62.7% compared with that under reciprocating shaking. An artificial neural network was used to model and visualize the effects of different parameters on yeast biosorption capacity. Both biosorption time and acoustic energy density had positive influences on yeast biosorption capacity, whereas no clear influence of temperature on biosorption process was observed...
November 24, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Zacharias Thiel, Pablo Rivera-Fuentes
The development of super-resolved optical microscopies has revolutionized the way we visualize cell biology. These techniques strongly rely on the use of photochemically active fluorophores that display changes in their photophysical properties upon irradiation with light. Many reversible and irreversible photochemical transformations have been explored for this purpose, and different imaging techniques require specific mechanisms of photoconversion. In this review, we provide an overview of the most common strategies used for the development of fluorophores for super-resolution microscopy and give specific examples of state-of-the-art fluorogenic probes...
November 30, 2018: Chimia
Morgan Chandler, Tatiana Lyalina, Justin Halman, Lauren Rackley, Lauren Lee, Dylan Dang, Weina Ke, Sameer Sajja, Steven Woods, Shrija Acharya, Elijah Baumgarten, Jonathan Christopher, Emman Elshalia, Gabriel Hrebien, Kinzey Kublank, Saja Saleh, Bailey Stallings, Michael Tafere, Caryn Striplin, Kirill A Afonin
RNA aptamers selected to bind fluorophores and activate their fluorescence offer a simple and modular way to visualize native RNAs in cells. Split aptamers which are inactive until the halves are brought within close proximity can become useful for visualizing the dynamic actions of RNA assemblies and their interactions in real time with low background noise and eliminated necessity for covalently attached dyes. Here, we design and test several sets of F30 Broccoli aptamer splits, that we call fluorets, to compare their relative fluorescence and physicochemical stabilities...
December 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Charles E Granger, Qiang Yang, Hongxin Song, Kenichi Saito, Koji Nozato, Lisa R Latchney, Bianca T Leonard, Mina M Chung, David R Williams, Ethan A Rossi
Purpose: To characterize in vivo morphometry and multispectral autofluorescence of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell mosaic and its relationship to cone cell topography across the macula. Methods: RPE cell morphometrics were computed in regularly spaced regions of interest (ROIs) from contiguous short-wavelength autofluorescence (SWAF) and photoreceptor reflectance images collected across the macula in one eye of 10 normal participants (23-65 years) by using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO)...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Hongcai Cai, Yamin Li, Jean Damascene Niringiyumukiza, Ping Su, Wenpei Xiang
Circular RNA (circRNA) is a class of newly discovered noncoding RNA (ncRNA), presenting as a special covalent loop without a 5' cap or 3' tail. Multiple biological properties of circRNA have been revealed during the past decades, such as widespread expression, high conservation, cell-specificity, tissue-specificity and developmental stage-specific expression patterns, as well as resistance to RNase R digestion. CircRNA also exhibits diverse biological functions, including regulation of host genes, alternative splicing, miRNA sponges, protein traps and even protein synthesis...
December 1, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Kazim Sahin, Fatih Akdemir, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Hasan Gencoglu, Nurhan Sahin, Ibrahim H Ozercan, Shakir Ali, Ismet Yilmaz, Vijaya Juturu
PURPOSE: Zeaxanthin protects the macula from ocular damage due to light or radiation by scavenging harmful reactive oxygen species. In the present study, zeaxanthin product (OmniXan®; OMX), derived from paprika pods (Capsicum annum; Family-Solanaceae), was tested for its efficacy in the rat retina against photooxidation. METHODS: Forty-two male 8-week-old Wistar rats exposed to 12L/12D, 16L/8D and 24L/0D hours of intense light conditions were orally administrated either 0 or 100 mg/kg BW of zeaxanthin concentration...
December 4, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Dania Humaidan, Frank Breinig, Volkhard Helms
Much is known about the regulatory elements controlling the cell cycle in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). This regulation is mainly done by the (cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin) complex (Cdc2/Cdc13) that activates specific target genes and proteins via phosphorylation events during the cell cycle in a time-dependent manner. However, more work is still needed to complement the existing gaps in the current fission yeast gene regulatory network to be able to overcome abnormalities in its growth, repair and development, i...
2018: PloS One
Peter Neri
Contrast is the most fundamental property of images. Consequently, any comprehensive model of biological vision must incorporate this attribute and provide a veritable description of its impact on visual perception. Current theoretical and computational models predict that vision should modify its characteristics at low contrast: for example, it should become broader (more lowpass) to protect from noise, as often demonstrated by individual neurons. We find that the opposite is true for human discrimination of elementary image elements: vision becomes sharper, not broader, as contrast approaches threshold levels...
December 4, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Zengzhen Chen, Meng Niu, Gen Chen, Qiong Wu, Longfei Tan, Changhui Fu, Xiangling Ren, Hongshan Zhong, Ke Xu, Xianwei Meng
There are acknowledged risks of metastasis of cancer cells and obstructing cancer treatment from hypoxia. In this work, we design a multifunctional nanocomposite for treating hypoxia based on the oxygen release capability of CuO triggered by microwave (MW). Core-shell CuO@ZrO2 nanocomposites are prepared by confining CuO nanoparticles within the cavities of mesoporous ZrO2 hollow nanospheres. The 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (IL) is loaded to the CuO@ZrO2 nanocomposites for improving microwave thermal therapy (MWTT)...
December 4, 2018: ACS Nano
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