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Visualizing cells

Numan Karaarslan, Ibrahim Yilmaz, Hanefi Ozbek, Duygu Yasar Sirin, Necati Kaplan, Tezcan Caliskan, Cigdem Ozdemir, Yener Akyuva, Ozkan Ates
In the literature, there have been no studies showing clear results on how radio-contrast pharmaceuticals would affect intact disc tissue cells. In this context, it was aimed to evaluate the effects of Iopromide and Gadoxetic acid, frequently used in the discography, on intact lumbar disc tissue in pharmaco-molecular and histopathological level. Primary cell cultures were prepared from the healthy disc tissue of the patients operated in the neurosurgery clinic. Except for the control group, the cultures were incubated with the indicated radio-contrast agents...
August 18, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Nicole M Pirozzi, Jacob P Hoogenboom, Ben N G Giepmans
Nanometer-scale identification of multiple targets is crucial to understand how biomolecules regulate life. Markers, or probes, of specific biomolecules help to visualize and to identify. Electron microscopy (EM), the highest resolution imaging modality, provides ultrastructural information where several subcellular structures can be readily identified. For precise tagging of (macro)molecules, electron-dense probes, distinguishable in gray-scale EM, are being used. However, practically these genetically-encoded or immune-targeted probes are limited to three targets...
August 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Daniela Camillo, Mehran Ahmadlou, M Hadi Saiepour, Maryam Yasaminshirazi, Christiaan N Levelt, J Alexander Heimel
Inhibition in the cerebral cortex is delivered by a variety of GABAergic interneurons. These cells have been categorized by their morphology, physiology, gene expression and connectivity. Many of these classes appear to be conserved across species, suggesting that the classes play specific functional roles in cortical processing. What these functions are, is still largely unknown. The largest group of interneurons in the upper layers of mouse primary visual cortex (V1) is formed by cells expressing the calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR)...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Krishanthy Sornalingam, Ahmed Javed, Tariq Aslam, Panagiotis Sergouniotis, Simon Jones, Arunabha Ghosh, Jane Ashworth
PURPOSE: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a heterogeneous group of lysosomal storage disorders. Ocular complications (such as corneal clouding, retinopathy and optic neuropathy) are common. Notably, there is a paucity of data on the effect of genotype and systemic treatments (enzyme replacement therapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation) on the ocular phenotype in MPS. We prospectively studied the ocular features of patients with MPSI (Hurler/Hurler-Scheie/Scheie), MPSIV (Morquio) and MPSVI (Maroteaux-Lamy), to evaluate the effect of different therapeutic interventions and to correlate the findings with genetic and biomarker data...
August 17, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Jessica S Poisson, Jason P Acker, Jennie G Briard, Julia E Meyer, Robert N Ben
Ice formation remains central to our understanding of the effects of low temperatures on the biological response of cells and tissues. The formation of ice inside of cells and the net increase of crystal size due to recrystallization during thawing is associated with a loss of cell viability during cryopreservation. As small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) can control the growth of extracellular ice, we sought to investigate the ability of two aryl glycoside-based IRIs to permeate into cells and control intracellular ice recrystallization...
August 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Stavros Stavrakis, Gregor Holzner, Jaebum Choo, Andrew deMello
Recently, microfluidic-based flow cytometry platforms have been shown to be powerful tools for the manipulation and analysis of single cells and micron-sized particles in flow. That said, current microfluidic flow cytometers are limited in both their analytical throughput and spatial resolution, due to their reliance on single point interrogation schemes. Conversely, high-speed imaging techniques can be applied to a wide variety of problems in which analyte molecules are manipulated at high linear velocities...
August 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Izumi Iwata, Daiske Honda
Thraustochytrid cells attach to their food via ectoplasmic nets (ENs). Here, we analyzed the cause and effect relationship between the various forms and functions of ENs of Schizochytrium aggregatum. The ENs spread out over a large area forming a fine network to efficiently search for the experimental food source. After recognizing the experimental food source, the ENs that attached to the food source became thicker, and net elements developed. The thick ENs on the surface at the attachment site were enveloped in dense materials (fibrous materials), which were visualized as fibrous layers under a transmission electron microscope...
June 18, 2018: Protist
Yoko Momose-Sato, Katsushige Sato
Facial motor neurons of the rat embryo are first generated in rhombomere 4 and then migrate in the caudo-ventral direction. This migration forms a unique axonal trajectory called the genu, a loop of facial motor axons around the abducens nucleus. It is still unclear when and how this unique structure is functionally established during ontogenesis. Using voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) recording and the DiI staining method, we identified neural responses evoked by facial nerve (N.VII) stimulation and examined developmental processes of the facial motor nucleus in E12-E17 rat brainstems...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jinglan Jin, Hongqin Xu, Ruihong Wu, Junqi Niu, Shibo Li
PURPOSE: We aimed to study the aberrant DNA methylation profile associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and to identify key genes and pathways associated with the HBV infection stage. METHODS: A total of 54 antiviral treatment-naive HBV-infected patients and 6 healthy controls were included. Genome-wide methylated DNA immunoprecipitation analysis was performed, as previously described, after which the chip data were preprocessed. Subsequently, Cytoscape software was used for the construction of a protein-protein interaction network, and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery software was used to conduct functional enrichment analysis...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Matthew A Rodrigues
The in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay is a well-established test for evaluating genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. The use of manual microscopy to perform the assay can be laborious and often suffers from user subjectivity and interscorer variability. Automated methods including slide-scanning microscopy and conventional flow cytometry have been developed to eliminate scorer bias and improve throughput. However, these methods possess several limitations such as lack of cytoplasmic visualization using slide-scanning microscopy and the inability to visually confirm the legitimacy of MN or storage of image data for re-evaluation using flow cytometry...
August 17, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
J Parrish, K S Lim, K Baer, G J Hooper, T B F Woodfield
Traditional 2D monolayer cell cultures and submillimeter 3D tissue construct cultures used widely in tissue engineering are limited in their ability to extrapolate experimental data to predict in vivo responses due to their simplistic organization and lack of stimuli. The rise of biofabrication and bioreactor technologies has sought to address this through the development of techniques to spatially organize components of a tissue construct, and devices to supply these tissue constructs with an increasingly in vivo-like environment...
August 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Xue Zhu, Ke Wang, Fanfan Zhou, Ling Zhu
Abnormal accumulation of the free-form all-trans-retinal (atRAL), a major intermediate of human visual cycle, is considered to be a key cause of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) dysfunction in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Paeoniflorin (PF), a monoterpene glucoside isolated from Paeonia lactiflora Pall., has been used in clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for several years; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
August 16, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Bo Jia, Zhaoqiang Zhang, Xiaoling Qiu, Hongxing Chu, Xiang Sun, Xianghuai Zheng, Jianjiang Zhao, Qin Li
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow stromal cells capable of differentiating into different tissue types. Osteoblastic differentiation is a complex process that is critical for bone formation. An increasing number of studies have suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) may serve important roles in various biological processes, including osteogenesis of MSCs. However, less is known about the participation of particular miRNAs in the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). In order to identify functional miRNAs and the key genes involved in the osteogenesis of MSCs, the present study reconstructed a global network using data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xi Ou, Jing Guan, Jing-Sen Chen, Jie-Cao Ying, Xiao-Ping Liu, Pei-Kai Tian, Ji-Kui Liu, Li-Ping Nie, Yang Zhao, Guang-Yin Yu
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of latency-associated peptide (LAP)+ CD4+ T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) immunity. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to detect the proportion of LAP+ CD4+ T cells among the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 30 HBV-infected HCC patients at the pre-operative and post-operative stages, as well as 30 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected volunteers as a control group. Furthermore, tumor tissues and peri-tumor tissues from 28 patients with HCC, as well as hepatic tissues from 28 HBV-infected patients with benign lesions were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis with double staining for LAP and CD4, and the average number of the LAP+ CD4+ T cells in each visual field was quantified...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Silvia Mannucci, Stefano Tambalo, Giamaica Conti, Leonardo Ghin, Alessio Milanese, Anna Carboncino, Elena Nicolato, Maria Rosaria Marinozzi, Donatella Benati, Roberto Bassi, Pasquina Marzola, Andrea Sbarbati
Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) with chemically synthesized nanoparticles is currently used in clinical trials as it destroys tumor cells with an extremely localized deposition of thermal energy. In this paper, we investigated an MFH protocol based on magnetic nanoparticles naturally produced by magnetotactic bacteria: magnetosomes. The efficacy of such protocol is tested in a xenograft model of glioblastoma. Mice receive a single intratumoral injection of magnetosomes, and they are exposed three times in a week to an alternating magnetic field with concurrent temperature measurements...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Roman V Frolov, Esa-Ville Immonen, Paulus Saari, Päivi H Torkkeli, Hongxia Liu, Andrew S French
Plasticity is a crucial aspect of neuronal physiology essential for proper development and continuous functional optimization of neurons and neural circuits. Despite extensive studies of different visual systems, little is known about plasticity in mature microvillar photoreceptors. Here we investigate changes in electrophysiological properties and gene expression in photoreceptors of the adult cockroach, Periplaneta americana, after exposure to constant light (CL) or constant dark (CD) for several months. After CL, we observed a decrease in mean whole-cell capacitance, a proxy for cell membrane area, from 362 ± 160 to 157 ± 58 pF, and a decrease in absolute sensitivity...
August 16, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
Janine Schniering, Li Guo, Matthias Brunner, Roger Schibli, Shuang Ye, Oliver Distler, Martin Béhé, Britta Maurer
BACKGROUND: Given the need for early detection of organ involvement in systemic sclerosis, we evaluated 99m Tc-rhAnnexin V-128 for the detection of early stages of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in respective animal models using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT). METHODS: In bleomycin (BLM)-challenged mice, fos-related antigen 2 (Fra-2) transgenic (tg) mice and respective controls, lung injury was evaluated by analysis of hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Sirius red staining, with semi-quantification of fibrosis by the Ashcroft score...
August 16, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Rafael Peres, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima, Mario Fiorani, Marco Chiorri, Maria M Florentino, Ricardo Gattass
Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry reveals large-scale cortical modules in area V2 of primates known as thick, thin and interstripes. Anatomical, electrophysiological and tracing studies suggest that V2 cytochrome oxidase stripes participate in functionally distinct streams of visual information processing. However, there is controversy whether the different V2 compartments indeed correlate with specialized neuronal response properties. We used multiple-electrode arrays (16x2, 8x4 and 4x4 matrices) to simultaneously record the spiking activity (N = 190 single units) across distinct V2 stripes in anesthetized and paralyzed capuchin monkeys (N = 3 animals, 6 hemispheres)...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
R F Gubaev, V Y Gorshkov, L M Gapa, N E Gogoleva, E P Vetchinkina, Y V Gogolev
Modern techniques of next-generation sequencing (NGS) allow obtaining expression profile of all genes and provide an essential basis for characterizing metabolism in the organism of interest on a broad scale. An important condition for obtaining a demonstrative physiological picture using high throughput sequencing data is the availability of the genome sequence and its sufficient annotation for the target organism. However, a list of species with properly annotated genomes is limited. Transcriptome profiling is often performed in the so-called non-model organisms, which are those with unknown or poorly assembled and/or annotated genome sequences...
July 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Xiaolong Liu, Nils Y Meiresonne, Ahmed Bouhss, Tanneke den Blaauwen
Peptidoglycan (PG) is the unique cell shape-determining component of the bacterial envelope, and is a key target for antibiotics. PG synthesis requires the transmembrane movement of the precursor lipid II, and MurJ has been shown to provide this activity in E. coli. However, how MurJ functions in vivo has not been reported. Here we show that MurJ localizes both in the lateral membrane and at midcell, and is recruited to midcell simultaneously with late-localizing divisome proteins and proteins MraY and MurG...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
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