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Visualizing cells

Steffen J Sahl, Willianne I M Vonk
Fluorescence-based nanoscopy methods (also known as "superresolution" microscopy) have substantially expanded our options to examine the distributions of molecules inside cells with nanometer-scale resolution and molecular specificity. In the biophysical analysis of aggregation-prone misfolded proteins and peptides, this has enabled the visualization of distinct populations of aggregated species such as fibrillar assemblies within intact neuronal cells, well below previous limits of sensitivity and resolution...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Evelien Eenjes, Young Joo Yang-Klingler, Ai Yamamoto
Understanding the fundamental mechanism underlying the accumulation and clearance of misfolded proteins can lead to insights into the synthetic and degradative pathways that maintain the homeostasis of proteins in all cells. Given the interconnection between protein homeostasis and cell health, as well as the complexity of aggregate formation and the degradation pathways with which it is intertwined, the design of the tools that are used to examine protein aggregation and accumulation can have a profound impact on the interpretation of results...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ilya D Solovyev, Alexandra V Gavshina, Aditya S Katti, Alexey I Chizhik, Leonid M Vinokurov, Grigory D Lapshin, Tatiana V Ivashina, Maria G Khrenova, Igor I Kireev, Ingo Gregor, Jörg Enderlein, Alexander P Savitsky
Photoconvertible fluorescent proteins (PCFPs) are widely used as markers for the visualization of intracellular processes and for sub-diffraction single-molecule localization microscopy. Although wild type of a new photoconvertible fluorescent protein SAASoti tends to aggregate, we succeeded, via rational mutagenesis, to obtain variants that formed either tetramers or monomers. We compare two approaches: one is based on the structural similarity between SAASoti and Kaede, which helped us to identify a single point mutation (V127T) at the protein's hydrophobic interface that leads to monomerization...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mahmood Showail, Murad Al Obthani, Nir Sorkin, Adi Einan-Lifshitz, Tanguy Boutin, Armand Borovik, Clara C Chan, David S Rootman
OBJECTIVE: To report and analyze the clinical outcomes of the first 250 cases of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). METHODS: A retrospective case series was conducted on the first 250 DMEK cases. The cohort included eyes with previous trabeculectomy, pre-existing glaucoma drainage device, and previous vitrectomy. Outcomes measures were best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), endothelial cell loss (ECL), episodes of rejection, detachment, rebubbling rate, and the need for repeat transplantation...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Priya Narang, Amar Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: To describe double-infusion cannula technique (DICT) that involves the placement of 2 infusion cannulas in a combined surgical approach of glued intrascleral haptic fixation of intraocular lens (glued IOL) with endothelial keratoplasty (EK) in patients with aphakic bullous keratopathy. DESIGN: Prospective, single-centre, interventional study. PARTICIPANTS: Five eyes of 5 patients. METHODS: The first cannula placed for fluid infusion at pars plana stabilises the globe and facilitates vitrectomy with the glued IOL procedure...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Michael Tri H Do
Animal photoreceptors divide into two fundamental classes, ciliary and rhabdomeric. Jiang and colleagues demonstrate that this boundary is disregarded by the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells of mammals. These neurons draw from phototransduction mechanisms of both classes, enriching the signals that they produce to drive a diversity of visual functions.
October 18, 2018: Cell
Supraja G Varadarajan, Andrew D Huberman
Vision is the sense humans rely on most to navigate the world and survive. A tremendous amount of research has focused on understanding the neural circuits for vision and the developmental mechanisms that establish them. The eye-to-brain, or 'retinofugal' pathway remains a particularly important model in these contexts because it is essential for sight, its overt anatomical features relate to distinct functional attributes and those features develop in a tractable sequence. Much progress has been made in understanding the growth of retinal axons out of the eye, their selection of targets in the brain, the development of laminar and cell type-specific connectivity within those targets, and also dendritic connectivity within the retina itself...
October 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Aravind Haripriya, Pradeep Y Ramulu, Shivkumar Chandrashekharan, Rengaraj Venkatesh, Kalpana Narendran, Madhu Shekhar, Rengappa Ramakrishnan, Ravilla D Ravindran, Alan L Robin
PURPOSE: To compare: (1) intraoperative complication rates, (2) one-year visual outcomes, and (3) post-operative complication rates over the first post-operative year in eyes with and without pseudoexfoliation (PEX) undergoing cataract surgery. DESIGN: Prospective comparative interventional study PARTICIPANTS: Nine-hundred thirty eyes with cataract and uncomplicated PEX (without phacodonesis, clinically shallow anterior chambers, or pupil size < 4mm ) and 476 controls with cataract but without PEX recruited from four centers of the Aravind Eye Care System in Southern India...
October 16, 2018: Ophthalmology
Mausam Ghosh, Sanjay Das, K V L Narasinga Rao, Nupur Pruthi, V J Ramesh, Trichur R Raju, T N Sathyaprabha
Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are rare, epithelial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) that could lead to manifestation of multiple post-operative symptoms, ranging from hormonal imbalance to obesity, diabetes, visual, neurological and neurocognitive impairments. CP is more frequent in children, and has been reported in middle aged adults as well. In fact, arterial laceration and/or brain stroke which may occur following the removal of some CPs is mainly due to calcification of that CPs along with strong attachments to the blood vessels...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Tobias Brockmann, Daniel Pilger, Claudia Brockmann, Anna-Karina B Maier, Eckart Bertelmann, Necip Torun
PURPOSE: To identify predictors for the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central corneal thickness (CCT) and the endothelial cell density (ECD) after primary Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). METHODS: In a prospective observational study 108 eyes with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy underwent a primary DMEK. Preoperative data, histologic parameters from host's Descemet's membrane and follow-up data of the first eye were analyzed in regard to BCVA, CCT and ECD, 12 months after surgery...
October 19, 2018: Current Eye Research
Manuele Michelessi, Ivano Riva, Enrico Martini, Michele Figus, Paolo Frezzotti, Luca Agnifili, Gianluca Manni, Luciano Quaranta, Stefano Miglior, Chiara Posarelli, Stefano Fazio, Francesco Oddone
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of minimum rim width (MRW), peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) and multilayered macular analysis by Spectralis SD-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany) in discriminating perimetric glaucoma at different stages of the disease from healthy eyes. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, evaluation of diagnostic tests study, multilayered macular analysis and MRW and pRNFL were obtained from one eye of 197 glaucoma (76 early, 68 moderate and 53 advanced) and of 83 healthy controls from the Multicenter Italian Glaucoma Imaging Study (MIGIS)...
October 18, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Shogo Kikuta, Joe Iwanaga, Keita Todoroki, Katsumi Shinozaki, Ryuichiro Tanoue, Moriyoshi Nakamura, Jingo Kusukawa
OBJECTIVE: Fluorescence visualization devices are screening devices that can be used to examine lesions of the oral mucosa non-invasively. We observed oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and leukoplakia using the IllumiScan  (Shofu, Kyoto, Japan) fluorescence visualization device and examined its usefulness and characteristics. METHODS: We investigated 31 OSCC and nine leukoplakia in patients who were examined using the IllumiScan and treated in our department from January 2017 to February 2018...
August 6, 2018: Curēus
Janani S Iyer, Ning Zhu, Sergei Gasilov, Hanif M Ladak, Sumit K Agrawal, Konstantina M Stankovic
The gold standard method for visualizing the pathologies underlying human sensorineural hearing loss has remained post-mortem histology for over 125 years, despite awareness that histological preparation induces severe artifacts in biological tissue. Historically, the transition from post-mortem assessment to non-invasive clinical biomedical imaging in living humans has revolutionized diagnosis and treatment of disease; however, innovation in non-invasive techniques for cellular-level intracochlear imaging in humans has been difficult due to the cochlea's small size, complex 3D configuration, fragility, and deep encasement within bone...
August 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Jessica Mavadia-Shukla, Payam Fathi, Wenxuan Liang, Shaoguang Wu, Cynthia Sears, Xingde Li
We present the first, most compact, ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, distal scanning optical coherence tomography (OCT) endoscope operating at 800 nm. Achieving high speed imaging while maintaining an ultrahigh axial resolution is one of the most significant challenges with endoscopic OCT at 800 nm. Maintaining an ultrahigh axial resolution requires preservation of the broad spectral bandwidth of the light source throughout the OCT system. To overcome this critical limitation we implemented a distal scanning endoscope with diffractive optics to minimize loss in spectral throughput...
August 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Yoshiki Kobayashi, Hirotaka Yasuba, Mikiya Asako, Takahisa Yamamoto, Hiroshi Takano, Koichi Tomoda, Akira Kanda, Hiroshi Iwai
Background: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is a subtype of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in Japanese. ECRS highly associated with asthma is a refractory eosinophilic airway inflammation and requires comprehensive care as part of the united airway concept. We recently reported a series of ECRS patients with asthma treated with fine-particle inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) exhalation through the nose (ETN). Objective: To evaluate fine-particle ICS ETN treatment as a potential therapeutic option in ECRS with asthma...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lei-Qing Yang, Min Chen, Jun-Long Zhang, Da-Long Ren, Bing Hu
Hypoxia in newborns tends to result in developmental deficiencies in the white matter of the brain. As previous studies of the effects of hypoxia on neuronal development in rodents and human infants have been unable to use in vivo imaging, insight into the dynamic development of oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the central nervous system under hypoxia is limited. Here, we developed a visual model to study OL development using sublethal postnatal hypoxia in zebrafish larvae. We observed that hypoxia significantly suppressed OL progenitor cell migration toward the dorsum using in vivo imaging...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
April Meier, Ralph Nelson, Victoria P Connaughton
Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) is a model organism for vertebrate developmental processes and, through a variety of mutant and transgenic lines, various diseases and their complications. Some of these diseases relate to proper function of the visual system. In the US, the National Eye Institute indicates >140 million people over the age of 40 have some form of visual impairment. The causes of the impairments range from refractive error to cataract, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma, plus heritable diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and color vision deficits...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Songhee H Kim, Melissa Vieira, Jae Youn Shim, Hongyoung Choi, Hye Yoon Park
From biogenesis to degradation, mRNA goes through diverse types of regulation and interaction with other biomolecules. Uneven distribution of mRNA transcripts and the diverse isoforms and modifications of mRNA make us wonder how cells manage the complexity and keep the functional integrity for the normal development of cells and organisms. Single-molecule microscopy tools have expanded the scope of RNA research with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. In this review, we highlight the recent progress in the methods for labeling mRNA targets and analyzing the quantitative information from fluorescence images of single mRNA molecules...
October 19, 2018: RNA Biology
S T Johnston, K J Painter
Navigation of cells and organisms is typically achieved by detecting and processing orienteering cues. Occasionally, a cue may be assessed over a much larger range than the individual's body size, as in visual scanning for landmarks. In this paper we formulate models that account for orientation in response to short- or long-range cue evaluation. Starting from an underlying random walk movement model, where a generic cue is evaluated locally or nonlocally to determine a preferred direction, we state corresponding macroscopic partial differential equations to describe population movements...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Hoi Nok Tsao, Michael Grätzel
Learning through vision is an essential skill for intelligent machines. In an attempt to implement this highly complex feature at low energy cost, a dye-sensitized solar cell is proposed that learns using illumination time as a cue. Particularly, the device alters its photocurrent and memorizes this change in dependence of light exposure duration. This behavior parallels synaptic learning that also requires continuous or repeated electrical stimuli as triggers. Therefore, such optically learning solar cells may serve as promising building blocks in optoelectronic neural networks, potentially enabling visually learning electronics operating at negligible energy consumption and minimal hardware complexity...
October 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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