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Neuropathy Optic

Alejandra Darling, Sergio Aguilera-Albesa, Cristina Aisha Tello, Mercedes Serrano, Miguel Tomás, Rafael Camino-León, Joaquín Fernández-Ramos, Adriano Jiménez-Escrig, Pilar Poó, Mar O'Callaghan, Carlos Ortez, Andrés Nascimento, Ramón Candau Fernández Mesaque, Marcos Madruga, Luisa Arrabal, Susana Roldan, Hilario Gómez-Martín, Cristina Garrido, Teresa Temudo, Cristina Jou-Muñoz, Jordi Muchart, Thierry A G M Huisman, Andrea Poretti, Vincenzo Lupo, Carmen Espinós, Belén Pérez-Dueñas
INTRODUCTION: PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) comprises a continuum of three phenotypes with overlapping clinical and radiologic features. METHODS: Observational clinical study in a cohort of infantile and childhood onset PLAN patients and genetic analysis of the PLA2G6 gene. We analysed chronological evolution in terms of age at onset and disease course through a 66-item questionnaire. We performed qualitative and quantitative assessment of MRI abnormalities and searched for clinical and radiological phenotype and genotype correlations...
October 13, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Blandine Tramunt, Philippe Imbert, Solange Grunenwald, Franck Boutault, Philippe Caron
CONTEXT: Sight-threatening Graves' orbitopathy affects 3 to 5% of patients with Graves' orbitopathy. OBJECTIVES: To describe the management of patients with sight-threatening Graves' orbitopathy seen in a multidisciplinary thyroid-eye outpatient clinic dedicated to Graves' orbitopathy (GO). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled all patients with sight-threatening GO (dysthyroid optic neuropathy and corneal ulcer as defined in the EUGOGO statement) seen and treated in our GO multidisciplinary thyroid-eye outpatient clinic over the last two decades...
October 19, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Adam Wylęgała
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article reviews the recent findings on the use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in neurology. RECENT FINDINGS: OCTA is a new addition to the powerful and complementary technology of the OCT. Due to its noninvasiveness, and reproducibility, it is possible to obtain high-resolution 3D images of the vessels of the human eye. As the vessels of the retina with the presence of endothelial cell's tight junctions resemble the brain vessels, it was hypothesized that the imaging of the retinal vessels might bring insight into brain vessels...
October 18, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Aliakbar Sabermoghaddam, Mahsa Sardabi, Mohammad Yaser Kiarudi, Saeed Shokoohi-Rad
Subperiosteal hematoma of the orbit is a rare complication that may occur in different situations. The most common cause is blunt trauma to the head region. The victims are usually young boys and the common site is usually orbital roof. There is no uniform approach in the literature in the management of subperiosteal hematoma. Conservative management has been recommended in cases with intact visual function. If conservative management is planned, complete resorption of hematoma may last several months, and the patients must tolerate diplopia and varying degrees of proptosis in this relatively long period of time...
October 18, 2018: Orbit
Tatsuhiko Sano, Zen Kobayashi, Ken Takaoka, Kiyobumi Ota, Iichiroh Onishi, Mihoko Iizuka, Hiroyuki Tomimitsu, Shuzo Shintani
Because fungi usually spread from the paranasal sinuses to the orbital apex in invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS), IFS often presents as an orbital apex syndrome (OAS) characterized by dysfunction of cranial nerves II, III, IV, V1, and VI. We report a case of sphenoid sinus mucormycosis that presented as isolated retrobulbar optic neuropathy. A 94-year-old woman presented with acute blindness in the right eye. Examination revealed the absence of light perception and pupillary reflex in the right eye. Head MRI showed a mass in the right sphenoid sinus, which was contiguous with the right optic nerve...
September 2018: Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience
Ainat Klein, Naomi Fischer, Michaella Goldstein, Shiri Shulman, Zohar Habot-Wilner
PURPOSE: Ocular manifestations of syphilis have been reported in 2-10% of systemic infection. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence of ocular syphilis and various ocular manifestations, particularly optic nerve involvement, in newly diagnosed cases. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Medical records of newly diagnosed syphilis patients between January 2009 and January 2017 in a tertiary medical centre were reviewed. RESULTS: There were 123 new systemic syphilis cases out of 569,222 (0...
October 17, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Otília C d'Almeida, Inês R Violante, Bruno Quendera, Miguel Castelo-Branco
PURPOSE: It has remained a mystery why some genetic mitochondrial disorders affect predominantly specific cell types such as the retinal ganglion cell. This is particularly intriguing concerning retinal and cortical function since they are tightly linked in health and disease. Autosomal dominant optic neuropathy (ADOA) is a mitochondrial disease that affects the ganglion cell. However, it is unknown whether alterations are also present in the visual cortex, namely in excitation/inhibition balance...
October 15, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
C Gustavo De Moraes, Michele Pettito, Juan B Yepez, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Etienne Simon-Loriere, Mussaret B Zaidi, Matthieu Prot, Claude Ruffie, Susan S Kim, Rando Allikmets, Joseph D Terwilliger, Joseph H Lee, Gladys E Maestre
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1099/jmmcr.0.005145.].
August 2018: JMM Case Reports
Dilyara S Ismailova, Irina M Belovalova, Yaroslav O Grusha, Natalya Y Sviridenko
Orbital decompression is a surgical procedure aimed at increasing the orbital volume and/or decreasing the volume of the orbital fat. The indications for orbital decompression are determined in the course of thorough eye examination. An important objective of examination of a patient with thyroid eye disease (TED) is determination of inflammation activity and severity. Orbital decompression is a surgical procedure that can be performed in both the active and nonactive stages of the disease. However, the indications for the surgery in these cases are different...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Pooja Patel, Alon Harris, Carol Toris, Leslie Tobe, Matthew Lang, Aditya Belamkar, Adrienne Ng, Alice C Verticchio Vercellin, Sunu Mathew, Brent Siesky
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and visual field loss. Some speculate that gender plays a role in the risk of developing POAG and that the physiologic differences between men and women may be attributed to the variable effects of sex hormones on intraocular pressure (IOP), ocular blood flow, and/or neuroprotection. Estrogen, in the form of premenopausal status, pregnancy, and post-menopausal hormone therapy is associated with increase in ocular blood flow, decrease in IOP and neuroprotective properties...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Junsung Lee, Unbyeol Goh, Ji Ho Park, Sang Woo Park, Hwan Heo
PURPOSE: To improve the treatment efficiency of optic nerve diseases by delivering therapeutic materials to the optic nerve directly. METHODS: We tried to optimize liposomal composition to deliver a payload to the optic nerve efficiently when it is injected intravitreally. After loading dexamethasone into this liposome, we tested the therapeutic effect of liposomes in this treatment using a murine model of ischemic optic neuropathy. RESULTS: Our optimized liposome can deliver its payload to the optic nerve more efficiently than other tested compositions...
October 2018: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Julia Hafner, Sonja Karst, Stefan Sacu, Christoph Scholda, Eleonore Pablik, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth
PURPOSE: The pathophysiology of diabetic neurodegeneration and microvasculopathy remains controversial. Neurosensory layer thickness and corneal nerve fibre loss represent potential biomarkers of neuropathy. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the correlation between these neurodegenerative features and their association with retinal microvascular integrity in patients with type II diabetes without retinopathy. METHODS: Nerve fibre length (NFL), density (NFD) and branch density (NBD) were assessed using corneal confocal microscopy...
October 11, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Jing-Yan Lin, Yi-Na He, Na Zhu, Bin Peng
In our previous study, we have shown that number of synapses in the L5 segment of spinal dorsal horn increased significantly in a rat model of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) induced by high-dose of streptozotocin (an animal model of type 1 diabetes). The aims of this study were: (1) to determine whether high fat diet/low dose streptozotocin-diabetes, a rat model for type 2 diabetes, related PDN was also associated with this synaptic plasticity, (2) to reveal the range of this synaptic plasticity change occurred (in the whole length of spinal dorsal horn or only in the L5 lumbar segment of spinal dorsal horn) and (3) to discover whether treatment with metformin had effect on this synaptic plasticity...
October 10, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Harry A Quigley
Glaucoma care has evolved dramatically over the past generation, with changes that have incorporated new technology and improved understanding of the disease process. A major need is to construct a useful definition of glaucomatous optic neuropathy that can be used to compare data across clinical research studies. The treatment of glaucoma should now be based on achievement of a goal target for intraocular pressure, unique to each patient. Adherence with eye drop treatment is far from ideal and can be improved using reminder systems...
October 10, 2018: Eye
Lokendra Kumar Sharma, Meenakshi Tiwari, Neeraj Kumar Rai, Yidong Bai
Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is a classical mitochondrial disease caused by mutations in the mitochondrial DNA encoding complex I subunits. Oxidative stress associated with complex I defect has been implicated in developing LHON phenotype such as retinal ganglionic cell (RGC) death and loss of vision. However the mechanism of LHON pathogenesis is still not very clear and thus no effective therapies are available till date. Using cybrid models for LHON, we show that autophagy is significantly compromised in cells carrying LHON specific mtDNA mutations, which results in reduced clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria contributing to cell death...
October 9, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Melinda Y Chang, John L Keltner
BACKGROUND: Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common acute optic neuropathy in individuals older than 50 years. Demographic, ocular, and systemic risk factors for NAION have been identified, and we sought to determine which, if any, of these factors also increase risk of NAION in the fellow eye. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with "ischemic optic neuropathy" (based on International Classification of Disease [ICD] codes) seen at a single eye center between 2007 and 2017...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Brendon Wong, Clare L Fraser
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common pulmonary disorder with many systemic sequelae. Its association with diseases seen in neuro-ophthalmology is being increasingly recognized. Treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may reverse the pathology in some eye diseases. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We conducted a search of the literature using the Ovid Medline database and Google Scholar, focusing on articles that explored the association between OSA and ophthalmic conditions...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Rebecca Russ Soares, M Reza Razeghinejad
The only evidence-based mechanism for prevention and treatment of glaucomatous optic neuropathy is decreasing the intraocular pressure (IOP). Prescribing multiple ocular hypotensive agents, such as the combination of carteolol and latanoprost, may synergistically improve IOP; however, doing so may increase the complexity of a medication regimen, in turn, impairing patient adherence. Fixed-combination glaucoma medications offer convenience and effectiveness. New to this class of glaucoma medication is fixed combination carteolol-latanoprost (FCCL)...
October 8, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Oriane Rabesandratana, Olivier Goureau, Gaël Orieux
Sight is a major sense for human and visual impairment profoundly affects quality of life, especially retinal degenerative diseases which are the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. As for other neurodegenerative disorders, almost all retinal dystrophies are characterized by the specific loss of one or two cell types, such as retinal ganglion cells, photoreceptor cells, or retinal pigmented epithelial cells. This feature is a critical point when dealing with cell replacement strategies considering that the preservation of other cell types and retinal circuitry is a prerequisite...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Thizá Massaia Londero, Luana Seminotti Giaretta, Luisa Penso Farenzena, Roberto Manfro, Luis Henrique Canani, Daniel Lavinsky, Cristiane Bauermann Leitão, Andrea Carla Bauer
Objective: to assesses microvascular complications in renal transplant recipients with posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM). Research Design and Methods: in this observational study, patients with ≥ 5 years of PTDM were included from a cohort of 895 kidney recipients transplanted in 2000-2011. Diabetic retinopathy was evaluated by fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Diabetes kidney disease was evaluated by protein to creatinine ratio (PCR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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