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Neuropathy Optic

Marc Dinkin, Ehud Lavi, Jacqueline Winterkorn, Cristiano Oliveira, Alexander E Merkler
BACKGROUND: To describe a case of optic neuropathy associated with intravascular lymphoma (IVL). METHODS: Case report and review of the literature. RESULTS: A case of asymmetric binocular vision loss is described, preceded by transient vision loss. Associated optic perineural enhancement and enhancing and diffusion-positive cortical lesions were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. Biopsy of the cerebellum revealed exclusively intraluminal neoplastic B-cells consistent with IVL...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Alessio Martucci, Carlo Nucci
Glaucoma, the leading cause of visual impairment and irreversible blindness worldwide, is a multifactorial, progressive optic neuropathy characterized by loss of retinal ganglion cells, alterations of the optic nerve head, and specific visual field defects. Clinical evidence shows that intraocular pressure is the major risk factor of the treatable disease. However, in some patients, glaucoma develops and continues to progress despite normal intraocular pressure values, suggesting that other risk factors are involved in the disease...
February 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Edward Palmer, Jesse Gale, Jonathan G Crowston, Anthony P Wells
Optic nerve head drusen are benign acellular calcium concretions that usually form early in life, just anterior to the lamina cribrosa. Improving imaging using optical coherence tomography suggests they are common and may be present in many clinically normal discs. These drusen may change in appearance in early life, but are generally stable in adulthood, and may be associated with visual field defects, anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, or rarer complications. Based on long-term clinical data and optical coherence tomography, we propose a refined hypothesis as to the cause of optic disc drusen...
December 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
Jane Farr, Emily McGarva, Jenny Nij Bijvank, Hans van Vliet, Hinke Marijke Jellema, Michael D Crossland, Axel Petzold
The Pulfrich phenomenon, originally described in normal observers, is a treatable disorder of the perception of movement in depth in cases of unilateral or asymmetric optic neuropathy. Treatment is highly bespoke and factors influencing treatment response and failure remain unclear. We assessed 25 adults with suspected Pulfrich phenomenon due to a range of conditions in two tertiary referral centres. Monocularly tinted spectacles were successful in reducing symptoms of the Pulfrich phenomenon under daylight conditions in nine subjects, eight of whom had optic neuritis...
December 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
Marita Pietrucha-Dutczak, Marialaura Amadio, Stefano Govoni, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik, Adrian Smedowski
Retinal neurons are not able to undergo spontaneous regeneration in response to damage. A variety of stressors, i.e., UV radiation, high temperature, ischemia, allergens, and others, induce reactive oxygen species production, resulting in consecutive alteration of stress-response gene expression and finally can lead to cell apoptosis. Neurons have developed their own endogenous cellular protective systems. Some of them are preventing cell death and others are allowing functional recovery after injury. The high efficiency of these mechanisms is crucial for cell survival...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Julie A Lovshin, Yuliya Lytvyn, Leif E Lovblom, Alexandra Katz, Geneviève Boulet, Petter Bjornstad, Vesta Lai, Leslie Cham, Josephine Tse, Andrej Orszag, Hillary A Keenan, Narinder Paul, Vera Bril, David T Wong, Kylen D McReelis, Michael H Brent, Bruce A Perkins, David Z I Cherney
OBJECTIVE: The importance of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in retinopathy for long-standing diabetes is not well understood. We determined retinopathy stage and evaluated associations with other vascular complications before and after physiological RAAS activation in adults with long-standing (≥50 years duration) type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants underwent retinal examination by digital funduscopic photography and optical coherence tomography and were classified as having nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), or no diabetic retinopathy (NDR) with or without diabetic macular edema (DME)...
December 6, 2018: Diabetes Care
Neringa Jurkute, Joshua Harvey, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disorder in the population and it carries a poor visual prognosis. In this article, we review the development of treatment strategies for LHON, the evidence base and the areas of unmet clinical need. RECENT FINDINGS: There is accumulating evidence that increasing mitochondrial biogenesis could be an effective strategy for protecting retinal ganglion cells in LHON...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Hongjuan Liu, Huanfen Zhou, Junqing Wang, Quangang Xu, Shihui Wei
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the status of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG) in chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION) and investigate its different clinical characteristics and prognosis. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with CRION were recruited by the Neuro-ophthalmology Department of the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from December 2015 to April 2017. Based on antibody status, they were assigned to either the MOG-CRION or seronegative-CRION groups...
December 4, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Si-An Liu, Zhen-Ni Zhao, Nan-Nan Sun, Ying Han, Jeremy Chen, Zhi-Gang Fan
Objective: In previous decades, glaucoma has been primarily attributed to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), but this has gradually been replaced by the development of optic neuropathy as the central concept of glaucoma in developed countries. However, there still remain strong controversies in the definition of glaucoma in China. In this current review, we are going to discuss these controversies and elaborate on the historical transitions of the definition of glaucoma both in China and developed countries...
December 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Sahil Aggarwal, Darren K Knight, Caleb L Shumway, Matthew Wade, Robert W Crow
PURPOSE: To compare visual acuity outcomes of cataract surgery between patients with and without non-glaucomatous optic neuropathies. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study of patients with and without optic neuropathies who underwent cataract surgery from 2010 to 2017. For all eyes, the last preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and first BCVA greater than 1 month postoperatively (to ensure sustained refractive stabilization) were recorded in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units...
December 3, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Constance Delmotte, Arnaud Depeyre, Isabelle Barthelemy, Joel Ferri
INTRODUCTION: Blindness after orthognathic surgery may be the result of the surgical procedure itself or the consequence of factors induced by general anesthesia. However, the exact mechanism between is not known. The purpose of this article is to present a case of a postoperative visual loss after orthognathic surgery under general anesthesia concluding with a brief literature review about this topic. REPORT OF CASE: We report the case of a patient who suffered unilateral blindness with homolateral frontal paresthesia after orthognathic procedure in 2 steps...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Monica Bordas, Bogdana Tabacaru, Tudor Horia Stanca
We present a case of Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (NA-AION) with uncertain etiology but a good recovery with a total gain of central visual acuity.
July 2018: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
Samuel Asanad, Elana Meer, Michele Fantini, Enrico Borrelli, Alfredo A Sadun
Purpose: Peripapillary vascular alterations have been classically described as hallmarks of Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON). We recently demonstrated microvascular pathology involving the macula in patients affected with chronic LHON using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Macular vascular pathology in acute LHON has not previously been reported. Methods: The macular superficial vasculature of an asymptomatic carrier and an affected patient with acute LHON, mitochondrial DNA mutation 3460, was assessed by OCTA...
March 2019: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Naghmeh Javanshir Rezaei, Amir Mohammad Bazzazi, Seyed Ahmad Naseri Alavi
Antibiotics are among the most widely used medications in clinical settings. Seizures, encephalopathy, optic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and exacerbation of myasthenia gravis are important examples of neurotoxic adverse events associated with the use of antibiotics. This article aims to review the most common and important neurotoxic adverse effects associated with various antibiotics routinely used in a clinical setting.
November 2018: Neurology India
Ahmed S Ibrahim, Khaled Elmasry, Ming Wan, Samer Abdulmoneim, Amber Still, Farid Khan, Abraham Khalil, Alan Saul, Md Nasrul Hoda, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey
Purpose: Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is the most feared visual consequence of head and ocular trauma in both military and civilian communities, for which standard treatment does not exist. Animal models are critical for the development of novel TON therapies as well as the understanding of TON pathophysiology. However, the models currently used for TON have some limitations regarding consistency and mirroring the exact pathological progression of TON in closed ocular trauma. In this study, we modified the model of controlled cortical impact and adapted it for studying TON...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Shirin Hamed Azzam, Swan Kang, Mario Salvi, Daniel G Ezra
BACKGROUND: Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an autoimmune disorder that constitutes a major clinical and therapeutic challenge. Current treatment options for moderate-to-severe TED include immunotherapy, orbital radiotherapy and decompression surgery. Limited drugs of proven efficacy are available for the treatment of people with TED. Given the role in the pathogenesis of TED of interleukin (IL)-6 expression in adipocytes, fibroblasts and macrophages, the proposed theory is that inhibition of IL-6 by tocilizumab may be an effective treatment in TED by directly reducing the inflammatory response...
November 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rafael Aleman-Flores, Blanca Mompeo-Corredera
Purpose: This study analyzes the structures of optic nerve elements, i.e., glial cells and nerve fibers, in an STZ-induced hyperglycemic animal model. Morphological changes in glial elements of the optic nerve in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic animals were compared. Methods: Transmission electron microscopy, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and morphometry were used in this study. Results: Hyperglycemia increased the numbers of inner mesaxons and axons with degenerative profiles...
October 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
Loka Thangamathesvaran, Elliot Crane, Kunjal Modi, Albert S Khouri
Introduction: Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy with increasing global prevalence, necessitating trainees in ophthalmology to be well-trained in the surgical modalities used to manage glaucoma. It is also important to not compromise patient safety and treatment efficacy for training and education. The purpose of our analysis is to compare postoperative outcomes of resident versus (vs.) attending performed tube shunt surgeries (TS). Materials and methods: A retrospective, chart review was performed of patients who had undergone TS between 2009 and 2015 at Rutgers University in Newark, New Jersey, USA...
May 2018: Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice
Takuya Miyabayashi, Tatsuhiro Ochiai, Naoki Suzuki, Masashi Aoki, Takehiko Inui, Yukimune Okubo, Ryo Sato, Noriko Togashi, Hiroshi Takashima, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Shoji Tsuji, Kishin Koh, Yoshihisa Takiyama, Kazuhiro Haginoya
The tropomyosin-receptor kinase fused gene (TFG) has recently been implicated in several distinct hereditary disorders, including the autosomal-recessive form of complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia called SPG57. Previously, three homozygous variants of the TFG gene were reported in five families with SPG57, in which early onset spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy, and peripheral neuropathy were variably identified. Here, we present the first Japanese patient with SPG57, and have added a homozygous p.Ile66Thr variant as the fourth SPG57 genotype...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Jing-Yu Min, Yanan Lv, Lei Mao, Yuan-Yuan Gong, Qing Gu, Fang Wei
BACKGROUND: A rodent model of photodynamic AION resulting from intravenous verteporfin is presented. The analysis of the morphological function, the pathological changes and the potential mechanism of action were further investigated. METHODS: Photodynamic treatment was conducted on the optic nerve head (ONH) following administration of the photosensitizer. The fellow eye was considered as sham control. Fundus Fluorescein angiography (FFA), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and Flash-visual evoked potential (F-VEP) recordings were conducted at different time points...
November 22, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
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