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recombinant oxidative stress

Weijie Xie, Ping Zhou, Yifan Sun, Xiangbao Meng, Ziru Dai, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion is a complicated pathological process. The injury and cascade reactions caused by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion are characterized by high mortality, high recurrence, and high disability. However, only a limited number of antithrombotic drugs, such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-TPA), aspirin, and heparin, are currently available for ischemic stroke, and its safety concerns is inevitable which associated with reperfusion injury and hemorrhage. Therefore, it is necessary to further explore and examine some potential neuroprotective agents with treatment for cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury to reduce safety concerns caused by antithrombotic drugs in ischemic stroke...
December 12, 2018: Cells
Sudhir Kumar, Richa Rani, Rebekah Karns, Chandrashekhar R Gandhi
Levels of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), a multifunctional protein, are reduced in steatohepatitis. ALR depletion from ALR flox/flox /Alb-Cre [ALR-L-knockout (KO)] mouse causes robust steatosis and apoptosis of hepatocytes, and pericellular fibrosis between 1 and 2 wk postbirth. Steatosis regresses by 4 wk upon reappearance of ALR-expressing hepatocytes. We investigated mechanisms of ALR depletion-induced steatosis. ALR-L-KO mice (1-, 2-, and 4 wk old) and Adeno-Cre-transfected ALR flox/flox hepatocytes were used for in vivo and in vitro studies...
December 12, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Xiaobing Jiang, Tao Yu, Yameng Xu, Hailei Wang, Hannu Korkeala, Lei Shi
Efflux pumps are recognized as an important mechanism for decreased susceptibility of benzalkonium chloride (BC) in Listeria monocytogenes. Previous studies showed that the efflux pump MdrL was overexpressed in L. monocytogenes exposed to BC. In the present work, we aimed to clarify the role of MdrL in tolerance to BC and environmental stresses including acid, alkali, osmotic, ethanol, and oxidative stresses, as well as resistance to other antimicrobial agents in L. monocytogenes EGD-e. In addition, regulation of the expression of mdrL by LadR was investigated...
December 11, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Lellala Kashinath, Keerthiraj Namratha, Kullaiah Byrappa
A facile fabrication and processing of cerium oxide-graphene oxide (CeO2 -GO) hybrid nanocomposites without the use of any surfactant or any organic solvents using chemical method and treatment with microwave irradiation technique are reported. In-situ hexagonal nano cerium oxide particles embedded on the layered surface of GO sheets were investigated for the photodegradation of dyes, removal of chromium Cr(VI) ions and against antibacterial studies. The results imply that hybrid nanocomposites shows enhanced 5-folds of photocatalytic activities in UV (ultraviolet) light irradiation and exhibited rapid efficiency in the elimination of chromium ion better than the pure GO and CeO2 , which are inhibited by competent photosensitive electron inoculation and controlling the electron-hole recombination...
February 2019: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Satoshi Hara, Soichiro Fukumura, Hiroshi Ichinose
6-Pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase (PTS) converts 7, 8-dihydroneopterin triphosphate into 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin and is a critical enzyme for the de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, an essential cofactor for aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthases. Neopterin derived from 7,8-dihydroneopterin triphosphate is secreted by monocytes/macrophages, and is a well-known biomarker for cellular immunity. Because PTS activity in the cell can be a determinant of neopterin production, here we used recombinant human PTS protein to investigate how its activity is regulated, especially depending on redox conditions...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Giovanna Sociali, Alessia Grozio, Irene Caffa, Susanne Schuster, Pamela Becherini, Patrizia Damonte, Laura Sturla, Chiara Fresia, Mario Passalacqua, Francesca Mazzola, Nadia Raffaelli, Antje Garten, Wieland Kiess, Michele Cea, Alessio Nencioni, Santina Bruzzone
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the NAD+ salvage pathway from nicotinamide. By controlling the biosynthesis of NAD+ , NAMPT regulates the activity of NAD+ -converting enzymes, such as CD38, poly-ADP-ribose polymerases, and sirtuins (SIRTs). SIRT6 is involved in the regulation of a wide number of metabolic processes. In this study, we investigated the ability of SIRT6 to regulate intracellular NAMPT activity and NAD(P)(H) levels. BxPC-3 cells and MCF-7 cells were engineered to overexpress a catalytically active or a catalytically inactive SIRT6 form or were engineered to silence endogenous SIRT6 expression...
December 4, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Kohei Godai, Keiya Takahashi, Yuta Kashiwagi, Ching-Hang Liu, Hyun Yi, Shue Liu, Chuanhui Dong, David A Lubarsky, Shuanglin Hao
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is one of the most common complaints in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) and mitochondrial oxidative stress are involved in neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury. Here, we investigated the role of RyR and mitochondrial superoxide in neuropathic pain induced by repeated intrathecal HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) injection. METHODS: Recombinant HIV glycoprotein gp120MN was intrathecally administered to induce neuropathic pain...
November 30, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Graeme A Deuchar, Josie C van Kralingen, Lorraine M Work, Celestine Santosh, Keith W Muir, Chris McCabe, I Mhairi Macrae
In acute stroke patients, penumbral tissue is non-functioning but potentially salvageable within a time window of variable duration and represents target tissue for rescue. Reperfusion by thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy can rescue penumbra and improve stroke outcomes, but these treatments are currently available to a minority of patients. In addition to the utility of Glasgow Oxygen Level Dependent (GOLD) as an MRI contrast capable of detecting penumbra, its constituent perfluorocarbon (PFC) oxygen carrier, combined with normobaric hyperoxia, also represents a potential acute stroke treatment through improved oxygen delivery to penumbra...
November 30, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Ning-Ning Guo, Xue-Jun Sun, Ya-Kai Xie, Gui-Wen Yang, Cui-Jie Kang
As an important disulfide reductase of the intracellular antioxidant system, Thioredoxin (Trx)plays an important role in maintaining oxidative stress balance and protecting cells from oxidative damage. In recent years, there is increasing evidence that Trx is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of various diseases and a potential therapeutic target for major diseases including lung, colon, cervical, gastric and pancreatic cancer. However, few knowledge is known about the function of Trx in virus infection. In this study, we reported the cloning and functional investigation of a Trx homologue gene, named MjTrx, in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus suffered white spot syndrome virus(WSSV) infection...
November 28, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Paramjeet Singh, Nasima Bano, Md Mehedi Hossain, Rafia Basit, Mohd Jamal Dar
PURPOSE: Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3Ks) are involved in regulating cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and survival. p110α and p110β, two ubiquitously expressed isoforms of PI3K signalling, are involved in growth factor mediated signaling and survival by generating second messengers. Earlier, we have generated GFP-fusion proteins of p110α and p110β and expressed them in normal and cancer cell-lines to investigate their subcellular localization and their role in various activities...
November 29, 2018: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
Zongliang Xia, Meiping Wang, Ziwei Xu
Sulfite reductase (SiR) functions in sulfate assimilation pathway. However, whether it is involved in stress response in crops is largely unknown. Here, the SiR ortholog from Zea mays ( ZmSiR ) was characterized. The recombinant ZmSiR protein was purified from E. coli . It exhibited sulfite-dependent activity and had strong affinity for sulfite. ZmSiR transcripts were markedly up-regulated by cold and methyl viologen (MV) treatments. Overexpression of ZmSiR complemented growth retardation phenotype of Arabidopsis atsir mutant...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Eric Bortz, Ting-Ting Wu, Parthive Patel, Julian P Whitelegge, Ren Sun
Murine herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) productively infects mouse lungs, exhibiting a complex pathology characteristic of both acute viral infections and chronic respiratory diseases. We sought to discover proteins differentially expressed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from mice infected with MHV-68. Mice were infected intranasally with MHV-68. After nine days, as the lytic phase of infection resolved, differential BAL proteins were identified by two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Of 23 unique proteins, acute phase proteins, vitamin A transport, and oxidative stress response factors Pdx6 and EC-SOD (Sod3) were enriched...
November 27, 2018: Viruses
Shanshan Yu, Xiaoying Liu, Lili Men, Junjie Yao, Qian Xing, Jianling Du
Vascular endothelial apoptosis is closely associated with the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic macrovascular diseases. Selenoprotein S (SelS) participates in the protection of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells from oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced injury. However, whether SelS can protect vascular endothelium from high glucose (HG)-induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study preliminarily analyzed aortic endothelial apoptosis and SelS expression in diabetic rats in vivo and the effects of HG on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) apoptosis and SelS expression in vitro...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Alessio Crestini, Rosa Vona, Maria Lo Giudice, Marco Sbriccoli, Paola Piscopo, Antonella Borrelli, Roberto Rivabene, Laura Ricceri, Aldo Mancini, Annamaria Confaloni
We have recently isolated a new isoform of recombinant manganese superoxide dismutase (rMnSOD) which provides a potent antitumor activity and strongly counteracts the occurrence of oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. This isoform, in addition to the enzymatic action common to all SODs, also shows special functional and structural properties, essentially due to the presence of a first leader peptide that allows the protein to enter easily into cells. Among endogenous antioxidants, SOD constitutes the first line of natural defence against pathological effects induced by an excess of free radicals...
November 23, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Amber Lothian, Larissa Lago, Soumya Mukherjee, Andrea R Connor, Chris Fowler, Catriona A McLean, Malcolm Horne, Colin L Masters, Roberto Cappai, Blaine R Roberts
Abnormal protein structure and function have been implicated as the toxic species in many diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's. One key pathological hallmark in Parkinson's disease is the formation of Lewy bodies, of which alpha-synuclein is the major component. These Lewy bodies are formed by the aggregation and oligomerization of alpha-synuclein. The oligomeric form of the protein is suspected to be the main contributor to the neurotoxicity seen in the disease. The formation of toxic oligomers has been shown to occur through reactions with lipids, dopamine, hydrogen peroxide as well as metals...
November 22, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Kamil Krol, Justyna Antoniuk-Majchrzak, Marek Skoneczny, Marzena Sienko, Justyna Jendrysek, Izabela Rumienczyk, Agnieszka Halas, Anna Kurlandzka, Adrianna Skoneczna
The protein Swi6 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a cofactor in two complexes that regulate the transcription of the G1/S transition genes. It also ensures proper oxidative and cell wall stress responses. Previously, we found Swi6 to be crucial for the survival of genotoxic stress. Here, we show that a lack of Swi6 causes replication stress leading to double-strand break (DSB) formation, inefficient DNA repair, and DNA content alterations, resulting in high cell mortality. Comparative genome hybridization showed random genome rearrangement in swi6Δ , whereas in diploid swi6Δ/swi6Δ , chromosome V is duplicated...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
D S Liyanage, W K M Omeka, Hyerim Yang, G I Godahewa, Hyukjae Kwon, Bo-Hye Nam, Jehee Lee
Thioredoxin domain-containing protein 17 (TXNDC17) is a small protein (∼14 kDa) involved in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis via a thiol-disulfide reductase activity. In this study, TXNDC17 was identified and characterized from Hippocampus abdominalis. The open reading frame (ORF) consisted of 369 bp and 123 amino acids. Similar to the other thioredoxins, TXNDC17 contained a conserved WCXXC functional motif. The highest spatial mRNA expressions of HaTXNDC17 were observed in the muscle, brain, and intestine...
November 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Wei Wang, Lei-Lei Yang, Shi-Ming Luo, Jun-Yu Ma, Yong Zhao, Wei Shen, Shen Yin
Malathion is a wide spectrum organophosphorothionate insecticide that is frequently found in drinking water, food and foodstuffs. Ovarian granulosa cells modulate oogenesis by providing metabolic nutrients to oocytes. They can decide the fate of folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation by supplying regulatory cues that help in reproduction. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of malathion as a reproductive toxicant in porcine granulosa cells. In the present study, we found that malathion has obvious toxic effects on cultured porcine granulosa cells in a dose-dependent manner...
November 6, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Wanzhen Jiao, Jiafu Ji, Fengjiao Li, Jianlian Guo, Yuanjie Zheng, Shangbin Li, Wenwen Xu
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) occurs in almost all patients with diabetes and remains as one of the major causes of vision loss worldwide. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of DR remain elusive. The present study aimed to investigate the role and association of Notch signaling and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4)‑mediated oxidative stress in high glucose (HG)‑treated retinal cells. Human retinal endothelial cells were cultured for various durations in RPMI‑1640 medium containing 30 mM glucose (HG) or 30 mM mannitol (MN) as an osmotic control; apoptotic cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were assessed, respectively...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sheng-Chao Ma, Guan-Jun Lu, Hui Zhang, Ning Ding, Yan-Hua Wang, Xiao-Ling Yang, An-Ning Yang, Hui-Ping Zhang, Yi-Deng Jiang
The effect of homocysteine (Hcy) on extracellular‑superoxide dismutase (EC‑SOD) methylation levels in the aorta of mice was observed and the underlying mechanism of THP‑1 monocyte‑derived macrophages was investigated. The key targets of Hcy‑induced EC‑SOD methylation changes were identified. ApoE‑/‑ mice were fed different diets for 15 weeks and the concentrations of Hcy and lipids were subsequently detected using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Serum levels of Hcy and lipids were significantly higher in the Meth group compared with the control group...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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