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Milk fortification

Vijay Gupta, Grace Rebekah, Yesudas Sudhakar, Sridhar Santhanam, Manish Kumar, Niranjan Thomas
OBJECTIVE: To optimize growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, human milk fortification is standard of care in neonatal units of high income countries. However, commercial fortifiers may not be available or it may be too expensive in resource limited settings. As an alternative to using human milk fortifiers, we studied the effects of milk fortification with an infant formula on growth and biochemical parameters of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants Methods: We undertook a prospective, randomized controlled trial in the neonatal unit of a tertiary care hospital in south India...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Gülsüm Kadıoğlu Şimşek, Evrim Alyamaç Dizdar, Sema Arayıcı, Fuat Emre Canpolat, Fatma Nur Sarı, Nurdan Uraş, Serife Suna Oguz
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the effects of adjustable fortification (AF), targeted fortification (TF), and standard fortification (SF) methods on the early growth of very low birth weight infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty infants <32 weeks of gestational age and weighing <1,500 g were selected. These infants were exclusively fed with breast milk and were randomized into three fortification groups: SF, AF, and TF. SF consists of adding a fixed amount of fortifier to maternal milk...
November 28, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Nathalie Kreins, Rachel Buffin, Diane Michel-Molnar, Veronique Chambon, Pierre Pradat, Jean-Charles Picaud
Background: Fortification of human milk (HM) increases its osmolality, which is associated with an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. The impact of new fortifiers on osmolality is not well-known, nor are the kinetics regarding the increase in osmolality. Aim: To determine the optimum fortifier composition for HM fortification by measuring the osmolality of fortified HM made with three powder multicomponent fortifiers (MCFs) and a protein fortifier (PF). Methods: The osmolality of HM was assessed at 2 (H2) and 24 (H24) h after fortification to compare the effects of MCF (MCF1-3) and PF used in quantities that ensured that infants' nutrient needs would be met (MCF: 4 g/100 ml HM; PF: 0...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Raye-Ann deRegnier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Ana Luiza Fontes, Lígia Pimentel, Luis Miguel Rodríguez-Alcalá, Ana Gomes
Current research on lipids is highlighting their relevant role in metabolic/signaling pathways. Conjugated fatty acids (CFA), namely isomers of linoleic and linolenic acid (i.e. CLA and CLNA, respectively) can positively modulate inflammation processes and energy metabolism, promoting anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant effects, improved lipid profiles and insulin resistance, among others. Bioactive doses have been indicated to be above 1 g/d, yet these cannot be achieved through a moderate intake (i.e. 1-2 servings) of natural sources, and certain CLA-containing products have limited commercial availability...
October 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yahua Xu, Ce Qi, Renqiang Yu, Xiangyu Wang, Qin Zhou, Jin Sun, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang
Data on the total fatty acid (FA) profile and position-specific triacylglycerides (TAGs) in preterm infants' maternal milk are essential for establishing the recommended requirement of FA in preterm infants in China. We aimed to determine the composition and positional distribution of FAs in preterm infants' maternal milk in China and further investigate the effect of maternal background on the FA composition. Breast milk samples (4, 11, 30, 60, and 90 (all ±3) days post-partum) were collected from 59 healthy women delivering preterm infants...
November 14, 2018: Food & Function
Enrico Bertino, Laura Cavallarin, Francesco Cresi, Paola Tonetto, Chiara Peila, Giulia Ansaldi, Melissa Raia, Alessia Varalda, Marzia Giribaldi, Amedeo Conti, Sara Antoniazzi, Guido E Moro, Elena Spada, Silvano Milani, Alessandra Coscia
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the use of donkey milk-derived fortifier with commercial bovine milk-derived fortifier in very preterm or very low-birthweight newborns, in terms of feeding tolerance. METHODS: This trial included 156 newborns born at <32 weeks of gestational age and/or with a birthweight ≤1500 g. Newborns were randomized 1:1 to receive enteral feeding with either a bovine milk-based fortifier (BF-arm), or a new, donkey milk-derived fortifier (DF-arm) for 21 days...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Elisa Mariani, Augusto Biasini, Lucia Marvulli, Silvia Martini, Arianna Aceti, Giacomo Faldella, Luigi Corvaglia, Alessandra Sansavini, Silvia Savini, Francesca Agostini, Marcello Stella, Erica Neri
Objective: The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effects of two different protein intake regimes on feeding tolerance, in-hospital growth, anthropometric data and psychomotor outcome up to 24 months corrected age (CA) in extremely low birth-weight (ELBW; birth weight <1000 g) infants. Methods: During the period 2008-2013, 52 ELBW infants admitted at birth to two Neonatal Intensive Care Units of Emilia Romagna (Italy) were fed according to different protocols of protein fortification of human milk: an estimated protein intakes at maximum fortification levels of 3...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Alba Yépez, Pasquale Russo, Giuseppe Spano, Iuliia Khomenko, Franco Biasioli, Vittorio Capozzi, Rosa Aznar
Cereal-based functional beverages represent social, economic, and environmental sustainable opportunities to cope with emerging trends in food consumption and global nutrition. Here we report, for the first time, the polyphasic characterization of three cereal-based kefir-like riboflavin-enriched beverages, obtained from oat, maize and barley flours, and their comparison with classical milk-based kefir. The four matrices were successfully fermented with commercial starters: i) milk-kefir and ii) water-kefir, proving the potential of cereal ingredients in the formulation of dairy-like fermented beverages with milk-kefir starter behavior better in these matrices...
February 2019: Food Microbiology
Swati Murthy, Pamela R Parker, Steven J Gross
OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of two strategies to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants-adherence to a standardized feeding protocol and use of a hospital-based milk bank to provide exclusive preterm human milk feedings. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a single-center observational study from 2010 to 2015. Infants received preterm human milk, initially trophic feeds from days 7 to 14 after birth, followed by advancement of 15 mL/kg/day to reach a goal of 180 mL/kg/day...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Anish Pillai, Susan Albersheim, Julie Matheson, Vikki Lalari, Sylvia Wei, Sheila M Innis, Rajavel Elango
There are concerns around safety and tolerance of powder human milk fortifiers to optimize nutrition in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tolerance and safety of a concentrated preterm formula (CPF) as a liquid human milk fortifier (HMF) for premature infants at increased risk of feeding intolerance. We prospectively enrolled preterm infants over an 18-month period, for whom a clinical decision had been made to add CPF to human milk due to concerns regarding tolerance of powder HMF...
October 4, 2018: Nutrients
Katarzyna Szajnar, Agata Znamirowska, Dorota Kalicka, Piotr Kuźniar, Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko
BACKGROUND: Magnesium is a micronutrient which plays an important role in a wide range of fundamental cellular reactions. Deficiency of magnesium leads to serious biochemical and symptomatic changes. The present study was carried out to establish the influence of magnesium lactate fortification on the physico- chemical, microbiological and rheological properties of fat-free yogurt manufactured using different starters. METHODS: In this study, yogurts were produced from fat-free milk, standardized with skimmed milk powder to 6% protein content, and then divided into two parts...
July 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Masoumeh Moslemi, Hedayat Hosseini, Tirang Reza Neyestani, Naeimeh Akramzadeh, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard
Iron deficiency anemia is a common problem of all ages in developed and developing countries. Various strategies are used by governments and industries to solve this problem. One of these strategies is iron fortification. In the present study, novel iron microcapsules were designed without any changes in their effects on other ingredients in infant milk formulas. Resistant starch-pectin-iron and pectin-iron microparticles were added to infant powdered milk models. Furthermore, animal studies were carried out...
December 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Israel Macedo, Luis Pereira-da-Silva, Manuela Cardoso
Background: To achieve recommended nutrient intakes in preterm infants, the target fortification method of human milk (HM) was proposed as an alternative to standard fortification method. We aimed to compare assumed energy and macronutrient intakes based on standard fortified HM with actual intakes relying on measured composition of human milk (HM), in a cohort of HM-fed very preterm infants. Methods: This study is a secondary retrospective analysis, in which assumed energy and macronutrient contents of daily pools of own mother's milk (OMM) from 33 mothers and donated HM (DHM) delivered to infants were compared with the measured values using a mid-infrared HM analyzer...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Caroline Steele
The importance of human milk for the preterm infant is well established (1-3). However, the feeding of human milk to preterm infants is typically much more complicated than the mere act of breastfeeding (3, 4). The limited oral feeding skills of many preterm infants often results in human milk being administered via an enteral feeding tube (4). In addition, fortification is commonly required to promote optimal growth and development-particularly in the smallest of preterm infants (2, 4, 5). Consequently, a mother's own milk must be pumped, labeled, transported to the hospital, stored, tracked for appropriate expiration dates and times, thawed (if previously frozen), fortified, and administered to the infant with care taken at each step of the process to avoid microbial contamination, misadministration (the wrong milk for the wrong patient), fortification errors, and waste (1-5)...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Daniel Klotz, Stefanie Jansen, Corinna Gebauer, Hans Fuchs
Background: Breast milk (BM) for premature infants is subjected to multiple steps of processing, storage and distribution. These steps may influence the quality and safety of BM. Guidelines concerning the use of mother's own milk are either not available or limited to specific aspects of BM handling and are based on evidence of variable strength. This may result in diverse BM handling routines by health care professionals. Objective: We surveyed neonatal units to increase the knowledge about the current practice of BM handling routines of mother's own milk and to identify controversial aspects that could give directions for future research...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
David Omondi Okeyo
There appears to be increasing evidence of the relationship between infant feeding practices and growth during infancy. Effective complementary feeding has demonstrated an observable positive effect on the linear growth of a child within the first 24 months of life. It appears that improved complementary feeding is directly proportional to the linear growth of a child. Fortification of commonly used food vehicles provides an opportunity for increasing nutrient intake during infancy and has the potential to improve growth and development dimensions...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Richard J Schanler, Sharon L Groh-Wargo, Bridget Barrett-Reis, Robert D White, Kaashif A Ahmad, Jeffery Oliver, Geraldine Baggs, Larry Williams, David Adamkin
OBJECTIVE: To compare growth, feeding tolerance, and clinical and biochemical evaluations in human milk-fed preterm infants randomized to receive either an acidified or a nonacidified liquid human milk fortifier. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, controlled, parallel, multicenter growth and tolerance study included 164 preterm infants (≤32 weeks of gestation, birth weight 700-1500 g) who were randomized to acidified or nonacidified liquid human milk fortifier from study day 1, the first day of fortification, through study day 29 or until hospital discharge...
November 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Emma A Amissah, Julie Brown, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are born with low glycogen stores and require higher glucose intake to match fetal accretion rates. In spite of the myriad benefits of breast milk for preterm infants, it may not adequately meet the needs of these rapidly growing infants. Supplementing human milk with carbohydrates may help. However, there is a paucity of data on assessment of benefits or harms of carbohydrate supplementation of human milk to promote growth in preterm infants. This is a 2018 update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999...
August 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lianzhu Wang, Enhua Fang, Caijuan Wang, Yong Chen, Zixu Lin, Dunming Xu
A method was developed for the determination of trace pentachlorophenol and its sodium salt in animal-origin foods by modified QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Sodium pentachlorophenolate in samples was converted to pentachlorophenol under acidic condition. The pentachlorophenol was extracted twice with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid by ultrasonic extraction. The extracts were purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction. The usages of dispersive sorbents were optimized based on the recoveries and matrix effects...
June 8, 2018: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
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