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Milk fortification

Alba Yépez, Pasquale Russo, Giuseppe Spano, Iuliia Khomenko, Franco Biasioli, Vittorio Capozzi, Rosa Aznar
Cereal-based functional beverages represent social, economic, and environmental sustainable opportunities to cope with emerging trends in food consumption and global nutrition. Here we report, for the first time, the polyphasic characterization of three cereal-based kefir-like riboflavin-enriched beverages, obtained from oat, maize and barley flours, and their comparison with classical milk-based kefir. The four matrices were successfully fermented with commercial starters: i) milk-kefir and ii) water-kefir, proving the potential of cereal ingredients in the formulation of dairy-like fermented beverages with milk-kefir starter behavior better in these matrices...
February 2019: Food Microbiology
Swati Murthy, Pamela R Parker, Steven J Gross
OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of two strategies to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants-adherence to a standardized feeding protocol and use of a hospital-based milk bank to provide exclusive preterm human milk feedings. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a single-center observational study from 2010 to 2015. Infants received preterm human milk, initially trophic feeds from days 7 to 14 after birth, followed by advancement of 15 mL/kg/day to reach a goal of 180 mL/kg/day...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Anish Pillai, Susan Albersheim, Julie Matheson, Vikki Lalari, Sylvia Wei, Sheila M Innis, Rajavel Elango
There are concerns around safety and tolerance of powder human milk fortifiers to optimize nutrition in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tolerance and safety of a concentrated preterm formula (CPF) as a liquid human milk fortifier (HMF) for premature infants at increased risk of feeding intolerance. We prospectively enrolled preterm infants over an 18-month period, for whom a clinical decision had been made to add CPF to human milk due to concerns regarding tolerance of powder HMF...
October 4, 2018: Nutrients
Katarzyna Szajnar, Agata Znamirowska, Dorota Kalicka, Piotr Kuźniar, Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko
BACKGROUND: Magnesium is a micronutrient which plays an important role in a wide range of fundamental cellular reactions. Deficiency of magnesium leads to serious biochemical and symptomatic changes. The present study was carried out to establish the influence of magnesium lactate fortification on the physico- chemical, microbiological and rheological properties of fat-free yogurt manufactured using different starters. METHODS: In this study, yogurts were produced from fat-free milk, standardized with skimmed milk powder to 6% protein content, and then divided into two parts...
July 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Masoumeh Moslemi, Hedayat Hosseini, Tirang Reza Neyestani, Naeimeh Akramzadeh, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard
Iron deficiency anemia is a common problem of all ages in developed and developing countries. Various strategies are used by governments and industries to solve this problem. One of these strategies is iron fortification. In the present study, novel iron microcapsules were designed without any changes in their effects on other ingredients in infant milk formulas. Resistant starch-pectin-iron and pectin-iron microparticles were added to infant powdered milk models. Furthermore, animal studies were carried out...
December 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Israel Macedo, Luis Pereira-da-Silva, Manuela Cardoso
Background: To achieve recommended nutrient intakes in preterm infants, the target fortification method of human milk (HM) was proposed as an alternative to standard fortification method. We aimed to compare assumed energy and macronutrient intakes based on standard fortified HM with actual intakes relying on measured composition of human milk (HM), in a cohort of HM-fed very preterm infants. Methods: This study is a secondary retrospective analysis, in which assumed energy and macronutrient contents of daily pools of own mother's milk (OMM) from 33 mothers and donated HM (DHM) delivered to infants were compared with the measured values using a mid-infrared HM analyzer...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Caroline Steele
The importance of human milk for the preterm infant is well established (1-3). However, the feeding of human milk to preterm infants is typically much more complicated than the mere act of breastfeeding (3, 4). The limited oral feeding skills of many preterm infants often results in human milk being administered via an enteral feeding tube (4). In addition, fortification is commonly required to promote optimal growth and development-particularly in the smallest of preterm infants (2, 4, 5). Consequently, a mother's own milk must be pumped, labeled, transported to the hospital, stored, tracked for appropriate expiration dates and times, thawed (if previously frozen), fortified, and administered to the infant with care taken at each step of the process to avoid microbial contamination, misadministration (the wrong milk for the wrong patient), fortification errors, and waste (1-5)...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Daniel Klotz, Stefanie Jansen, Corinna Gebauer, Hans Fuchs
Background: Breast milk (BM) for premature infants is subjected to multiple steps of processing, storage and distribution. These steps may influence the quality and safety of BM. Guidelines concerning the use of mother's own milk are either not available or limited to specific aspects of BM handling and are based on evidence of variable strength. This may result in diverse BM handling routines by health care professionals. Objective: We surveyed neonatal units to increase the knowledge about the current practice of BM handling routines of mother's own milk and to identify controversial aspects that could give directions for future research...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
David Omondi Okeyo
There appears to be increasing evidence of the relationship between infant feeding practices and growth during infancy. Effective complementary feeding has demonstrated an observable positive effect on the linear growth of a child within the first 24 months of life. It appears that improved complementary feeding is directly proportional to the linear growth of a child. Fortification of commonly used food vehicles provides an opportunity for increasing nutrient intake during infancy and has the potential to improve growth and development dimensions...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Richard J Schanler, Sharon L Groh-Wargo, Bridget Barrett-Reis, Robert D White, Kaashif A Ahmad, Jeffery Oliver, Geraldine Baggs, Larry Williams, David Adamkin
OBJECTIVE: To compare growth, feeding tolerance, and clinical and biochemical evaluations in human milk-fed preterm infants randomized to receive either an acidified or a nonacidified liquid human milk fortifier. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, controlled, parallel, multicenter growth and tolerance study included 164 preterm infants (≤32 weeks of gestation, birth weight 700-1500 g) who were randomized to acidified or nonacidified liquid human milk fortifier from study day 1, the first day of fortification, through study day 29 or until hospital discharge...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Emma A Amissah, Julie Brown, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are born with low glycogen stores and require higher glucose intake to match fetal accretion rates. In spite of the myriad benefits of breast milk for preterm infants, it may not adequately meet the needs of these rapidly growing infants. Supplementing human milk with carbohydrates may help. However, there is a paucity of data on assessment of benefits or harms of carbohydrate supplementation of human milk to promote growth in preterm infants. This is a 2018 update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999...
August 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lianzhu Wang, Enhua Fang, Caijuan Wang, Yong Chen, Zixu Lin, Dunming Xu
A method was developed for the determination of trace pentachlorophenol and its sodium salt in animal-origin foods by modified QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Sodium pentachlorophenolate in samples was converted to pentachlorophenol under acidic condition. The pentachlorophenol was extracted twice with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid by ultrasonic extraction. The extracts were purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction. The usages of dispersive sorbents were optimized based on the recoveries and matrix effects...
June 8, 2018: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Suvi T Itkonen, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Christel J E Lamberg-Allardt
Fluid milk products are systematically, either mandatorily or voluntarily, fortified with vitamin D in some countries but their overall contribution to vitamin D intake and status worldwide is not fully understood. We searched the PubMed database to evaluate the contribution of vitamin D-fortified fluid milk products (regular milk and fermented products) to vitamin D intake and serum or plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in observational studies during 1993⁻2017. Twenty studies provided data on 25(OH)D status ( n = 19,744), and 22 provided data on vitamin D intake ( n = 99,023)...
August 9, 2018: Nutrients
Clara L Garcia-Rodenas, Carlos A De Castro, Rosemarie Jenni, Sagar K Thakkar, Lydie Beauport, Jean-François Tolsa, Céline J Fischer-Fumeaux, Michael Affolter
BACKGROUND: Proteins are major contributors to the beneficial effects of human milk (HM) on preterm infant health and development. Alpha-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin and caseins represent approximately 85% of the total HM protein. The temporal changes of these proteins in preterm (PT) HM and its comparison with term (T) HM is poorly characterized. AIMS: To quantify and compare the temporal changes of the major proteins in PT HM and T HM. METHODS: HM was collected for 4 months postpartum at 12 time points for PT HM (gestational age 28 0/7-32 6/7 weeks; 280 samples) and for 2 months postpartum at 8 time points for T HM (gestational age 37 0/7-41 6/7 weeks; 220 samples)...
July 26, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Hope Lima, Kenneth Vogel, Montana Wagner-Gillespie, Courtney Wimer, Lisa Dean, April Fogleman
OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the nutritional composition of shelf-stable human milk and compare the nutritional profile to Holder pasteurized and raw human milk from the same pool. METHODS: Milk samples from 60 mothers were pooled. From this pool, 36 samples were taken; 12 samples were kept raw, 12 samples were Holder pasteurized (HP), and 12 samples were retort processed to create a shelf stable product (SS). Samples were analyzed for percent fat, percent solids, total protein, lactose, amino acids, and thiamine...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Maria Pauline, Sejil T Verghese, Bindu Y Srinivasu, Beena Bose, Tinku Thomas, Amit K Mandal, Prashanth Thankachan, Anura V Kurpad
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nutritional anemia is a significant public health issue with 50-80% prevalence in Indian children. Fortification of food, specifically milk, with iron is a potential approach to increase dietary iron intake. Ferric pyrophosphate [Fe4(P2O7)3] is organoleptically neutral and is less soluble in acid medium and, further, has low bioavailability in milk. However, since ascorbic acid is a potent enhancer of iron absorption, the coadministration of ascorbic acid with Fe4(P2O7)3 might enhance the absorption of iron...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yangmei Li, Xinxue Liu, Neena Modi, Sabita Uthaya
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of breast milk (BM) intake on body composition at term in very preterm infants. DESIGN: Preplanned secondary analysis of the Nutritional Evaluation and Optimisation in Neonates Study, a 2-by-2 factorial randomised controlled trial of preterm parenteral nutrition (PN). SETTING: Four National Health Service hospitals in London and South-East England. PATIENTS: Infants born at <31 weeks of gestation; infants with life-threatening congenital abnormalities and those unable to receive trial PN within 24 hours of birth were ineligible...
July 14, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Samantha Duong, Norbert Strobel, Saman Buddhadasa, Katherine Stockham, Martin J Auldist, William J Wales, Peter J Moate, John D Orbell, Marlene J Cran
The fortification of processed foods including dairy products is increasingly commonplace with phytosterols among many compounds used to improve the nutritional value of food products. It is also increasingly common practice for some dairy cattle feeds to be fortified for their potential to increase phytosterol levels in milk. In this study, a combined, streamlined protocol using acid hydrolysis, saponification and sample clean-up was developed to enable the rapid and reliable measurement of phytosterols. The method was developed with focus on streamlining the overall technique to make it suitable for commercial laboratories, to reduce labor and consumable costs, while maintaining accuracy...
September 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Marta Cabrera Lafuente, M Teresa Montes Bueno, Natividad Pastrana, Cristina Segovia, Rosario Madero Jarabo, Camilia R Martin, Felix Omeñaca Teres, Miguel Sáenz de Pipaón Marcos
BACKGROUND: Mothers of preterm (PT) infants have difficulty providing adequate quantities of human milk (HM) for their babies during their hospital stay. The macronutrient content in HM changes over time, varying across and within individual mothers. Research aim: To describe the intake of mothers' own milk (MOM) and its composition according to gestational (GA) and postnatal age (PNA) in infants born <32 weeks' GA and to correlate them with neonatal weight, length and morbidities...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Jing Sun, Yanqi Li, Xiaoyu Pan, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Anders Brunse, Anders M Bojesen, Silvia Rudloff, Martin S Mortensen, Douglas G Burrin, Per T Sangild
BACKGROUND: Fortification of donor human milk (DHM) is required for optimal growth of very preterm infants, but there are concerns of more gut dysfunction and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) when using formula-based fortifiers (FFs), especially soon after birth. Intact bovine colostrum (BC) is rich in nutrients and bioactive factors, and protects against NEC in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that fortification of DHM with BC is superior to FFs to prevent gut dysfunction and infections when provided shortly after preterm birth...
July 10, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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