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Milk fortification

Suvi T Itkonen, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Christel J E Lamberg-Allardt
Fluid milk products are systematically, either mandatorily or voluntarily, fortified with vitamin D in some countries but their overall contribution to vitamin D intake and status worldwide is not fully understood. We searched the PubMed database to evaluate the contribution of vitamin D-fortified fluid milk products (regular milk and fermented products) to vitamin D intake and serum or plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in observational studies during 1993⁻2017. Twenty studies provided data on 25(OH)D status ( n = 19,744), and 22 provided data on vitamin D intake ( n = 99,023)...
August 9, 2018: Nutrients
Clara L Garcia-Rodenas, Carlos A De Castro, Rosemarie Jenni, Sagar K Thakkar, Lydie Beauport, Jean-François Tolsa, Céline J Fischer-Fumeaux, Michael Affolter
BACKGROUND: Proteins are major contributors to the beneficial effects of human milk (HM) on preterm infant health and development. Alpha-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin and caseins represent approximately 85% of the total HM protein. The temporal changes of these proteins in preterm (PT) HM and its comparison with term (T) HM is poorly characterized. AIMS: To quantify and compare the temporal changes of the major proteins in PT HM and T HM. METHODS: HM was collected for 4 months postpartum at 12 time points for PT HM (gestational age 28 0/7-32 6/7 weeks; 280 samples) and for 2 months postpartum at 8 time points for T HM (gestational age 37 0/7-41 6/7 weeks; 220 samples)...
July 26, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Hope Lima, Kenneth Vogel, Montana Wagner-Gillespie, Courtney Wimer, Lisa Dean, April Fogleman
OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the nutritional composition of shelf-stable human milk and compare the nutritional profile to Holder pasteurized and raw human milk from the same pool. METHODS: Milk samples from 60 mothers were pooled. From this pool, 36 samples were taken; 12 samples were kept raw, 12 samples were Holder pasteurized (HP), and 12 samples were retort processed to create a shelf stable product (SS). Samples were analyzed for percent fat, percent solids, total protein, lactose, amino acids, and thiamine...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Maria Pauline, Sejil T Verghese, Bindu Y Srinivasu, Beena Bose, Tinku Thomas, Amit K Mandal, Prashanth Thankachan, Anura V Kurpad
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nutritional anemia is a significant public health issue with 50-80% prevalence in Indian children. Fortification of food, specifically milk, with iron is a potential approach to increase dietary iron intake. Ferric pyrophosphate [Fe4(P2O7)3] is organoleptically neutral and is less soluble in acid medium and, further, has low bioavailability in milk. However, since ascorbic acid is a potent enhancer of iron absorption, the coadministration of ascorbic acid with Fe4(P2O7)3 might enhance the absorption of iron...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yangmei Li, Xinxue Liu, Neena Modi, Sabita Uthaya
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of breast milk (BM) intake on body composition at term in very preterm infants. DESIGN: Preplanned secondary analysis of the Nutritional Evaluation and Optimisation in Neonates Study, a 2-by-2 factorial randomised controlled trial of preterm parenteral nutrition (PN). SETTING: Four National Health Service hospitals in London and South-East England. PATIENTS: Infants born at <31 weeks of gestation; infants with life-threatening congenital abnormalities and those unable to receive trial PN within 24 hours of birth were ineligible...
July 14, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Samantha Duong, Norbert Strobel, Saman Buddhadasa, Katherine Stockham, Martin J Auldist, William J Wales, Peter J Moate, John D Orbell, Marlene J Cran
The fortification of processed foods including dairy products is increasingly commonplace with phytosterols among many compounds used to improve the nutritional value of food products. It is also increasingly common practice for some dairy cattle feeds to be fortified for their potential to increase phytosterol levels in milk. In this study, a combined, streamlined protocol using acid hydrolysis, saponification and sample clean-up was developed to enable the rapid and reliable measurement of phytosterols. The method was developed with focus on streamlining the overall technique to make it suitable for commercial laboratories, to reduce labor and consumable costs, while maintaining accuracy...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Marta Cabrera Lafuente, M Teresa Montes Bueno, Natividad Pastrana, Cristina Segovia, Rosario Madero Jarabo, Camilia R Martin, Felix Omeñaca Teres, Miguel Sáenz de Pipaón Marcos
BACKGROUND: Mothers of preterm (PT) infants have difficulty providing adequate quantities of human milk (HM) for their babies during their hospital stay. The macronutrient content in HM changes over time, varying across and within individual mothers. Research aim: To describe the intake of mothers' own milk (MOM) and its composition according to gestational (GA) and postnatal age (PNA) in infants born <32 weeks' GA and to correlate them with neonatal weight, length and morbidities...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Jing Sun, Yanqi Li, Xiaoyu Pan, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Anders Brunse, Anders M Bojesen, Silvia Rudloff, Martin S Mortensen, Douglas G Burrin, Per T Sangild
BACKGROUND: Fortification of donor human milk (DHM) is required for optimal growth of very preterm infants, but there are concerns of more gut dysfunction and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) when using formula-based fortifiers (FFs), especially soon after birth. Intact bovine colostrum (BC) is rich in nutrients and bioactive factors, and protects against NEC in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that fortification of DHM with BC is superior to FFs to prevent gut dysfunction and infections when provided shortly after preterm birth...
July 10, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Xuedong Wang, Mei Wang, Xuran Wang, Liyang Du, Fangyu Chu, Weinan Ding, Haidong Gu, Huili Wang
A microextraction method was developed based on utilization of a novel ionic liquid (IL) [C4 MIM][NCA] as disperser and conventional ILs as extractor (IL-IL-DLLME). This method was integrated with an in-situ metathesis reaction to achieve high extraction efficiency by eliminating the loss of analytes in the discarded disperser after microextraction. Ultrasonic energy was compared to traditional mechanical shaking to accelerate the in-situ metathesis reaction. A 3-min ultrasonic treatment provided similar extraction efficiency as a 120-min mechanical shaking...
October 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Deborah L O'Connor, Alex Kiss, Christopher Tomlinson, Nicole Bando, Ann Bayliss, Douglas M Campbell, Alan Daneman, Jane Francis, Kirsten Kotsopoulos, Prakesh S Shah, Simone Vaz, Brock Williams, Sharon Unger
Background: Human milk-based fortifiers (HMBFs) are being adopted in neonatal care to enrich the nutrients in human milk for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants despite being costly and there being limited efficacy data. No randomized clinical trial has evaluated the use of HMBF compared with bovine milk-based fortifiers (BMBFs) in the absence of formula feeding. Objective: To determine if HMBF compared with BMBF for routine nutrient enrichment of human milk improves feeding tolerance, reduces morbidity, reduces fecal calprotectin (a measure of gut inflammation), and supports the growth of infants <1250 g...
July 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Claude Billeaud, Carole Boué-Vaysse, Leslie Couëdelo, Philippe Steenhout, Jonathan Jaeger, Cristina Cruz-Hernandez, Laurent Ameye, Jacques Rigo, Jean-Charles Picaud, Elie Saliba, Nicholas P Hays, Frédéric Destaillats
Preterm infants require fortification of human milk (HM) with essential fatty acids (FA) to ensure adequate post-natal development. As part of a larger randomized controlled study, we investigated FA metabolism in a subset of 47 clinically stable preterm infants (birth weight ≤1500 g or gestational age ≤32 weeks). Infants were randomized to receive HM supplemented with either a new HM fortifier (nHMF; n = 26) containing 12.5 g medium-chain FA (MCFA), 958 mg linoleic acid (LA), 417 mg α-linolenic acid (ALA), and 157 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per 100 g of powder (in compliance with the latest guidelines) or a fat-free HMF (cHMF; n = 21)...
May 29, 2018: Nutrients
Md Musfiqur Rahman, Han Sol Lee, A M Abd El-Aty, Md Humayun Kabir, Hyung Suk Chung, Jong-Hyouk Park, Mi-Ra Kim, Ji-Hyun Kim, Ho-Chul Shin, Sung Shik Shin, Jae-Han Shim
A simple quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based method was developed for the analysis of endrin and its metabolite, δ-keto endrin, in five animal-derived food products (chicken, pork, beef, egg, and milk) using a gas chromatography-micro electron capture detector (GC-μECD). Samples were extracted with acidified acetonitrile, salted out with magnesium sulfate and sodium acetate, and finally purified with a dual layer solid-phase extraction cartridge (SPE) that contains both Supelclean ENVI-Carb (upper layer) and primary secondary amine (lower layer) SPE sorbents...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
AlJohara M AlQuaiz, Ambreen Kazi, Mona Fouda, Nada Alyousefi
Younger adults and males had a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency compared to older participants and females. Low intake of milk, central obesity, and lack of use of vitamin D supplements were associated with vitamin D deficiency, highlighting potentially important avenues for preventive intervention. BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a public health concern. This study's objective was to measure the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and determine its correlates among Saudi adults in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...
April 29, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Vassilios Raikos, Shannon B Grant, Helen Hayes, Viren Ranawana
Powdered β-glucan extracted from brewer's yeast (Yestimun, Leiber GmbH, Bramsche, Germany) was incorporated into skimmed-milk yogurt at varying concentrations (0.2-0.8% wt/wt) to investigate its potential application as a thickener. The effect of β-glucan fortification on the nutritional profile, microstructure, physicochemical properties, and texture of freshly prepared yogurts was investigated. Sensory evaluation was also conducted and was correlated with instrumental analysis. The addition of Yestimun significantly reduced the fermentation time of the yogurt mix from 4 h to 3 h...
July 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Z Khan, N Morris, H Unterrainer, N Haiden, S J Holasek, B Urlesberger
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a medical emergency and it is becoming evident that adequate nutrition starting in the first hours of life is of major importance for short and even more so for long-term health outcomes of the premature newborn. The aim was to analyze postnatal nutrient supply and growth patterns of preterm infants in response to a standardized feeding protocol during stay at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at NICU, Children Hospital Graz...
2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Taylor Peters, Cecelia Pompeii-Wolfe
Preterm infants are at high nutrition risk during neonatal intensive care and well after discharge. Nutrition care should be individualized and provided by a multidisciplinary team including a dietitian. Breast milk, the gold standard for feeding, may not meet the increased needs of preterm infants and may require fortification or supplementation. Decisions regarding formula choice and calorie concentration can also be challenging and require individualization based on growth, intake, and individual need. Developmental milestones should be considered during the initation of complementary food...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Bethou Adhisivam, Dilesh Kohat, Vasanthan Tanigasalam, Vishnu Bhat, Nishad Plakkal, C Palanivel
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of fortified pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) versus unfortified PDHM on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and immediate outcome among preterm neonates. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, south India included 80 healthy preterm neonates randomized to two groups (Group A and B). Neonates in Group A and B were fed with fortified PDHM and unfortified PDHM, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Melanie Newkirk, Fauzia Shakeel, Prabhu Parimi, Pamela Rothpletz-Puglia, Rachael Patusco, Andrea Fleisch Marcus, Rebecca Brody
BACKGROUND: In premature infants, donor breast milk (DBM) is assumed to provide reduced nutrients vs. mother's own milk (MOM). This study examined calorie and protein delivery when very low birth weight infants were fed fortified MOM or DBM, with a known nutrient composition, relative to established nutrition recommendations and to determine if there were differences between the groups. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was conducted in 29 very low birth weight infants receiving MOM or DBM...
March 30, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
James A Morris
Pathogenic bacteria, which are temporary or permanent members of our microbial flora, cause or contribute to a wide range of human disease at all ages. Conditions include Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer, autoimmunity and psychosis, amongst others. The mechanism of damage is inflammation which can be chronic or acute. An optimal microbial flora includes a wide range of pathogenic bacteria in low dose. This allows specific immunity to be developed and maintained with minimal inflammatory damage...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Hani El Kadri, Sofia Lalou, FaniTh Mantzouridou, Konstantinos Gkatzionis
W1 /O/W2 emulsion in set-type yogurt has the potential to segregate probiotics in order to avoid interference with the starter culture as well as protection against harsh processing and digestion conditions. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei DC 412 probiotic cells in milk-based W1 /O/W2 emulsions were incorporated in yogurt, in addition to starter cultures Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, and the effect on the fermentation, bacterial growth kinetics, physicochemical properties, and structural characteristics was investigated...
May 2018: Food Research International
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