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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724483/using-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-infectious-disease-research
#1
Mitchell V Palmer, Rebecca J Cox, W Ray Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Diana L Whipple
Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. The majority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720750/tuberculous-psoas-abscess-and-worsening-vascular-aneurysm-all-from-bacillus-calmette-guerin-bcg-therapy
#2
Emmanuel Okon, Janelle Stearns, Arun Kumar Durgam
BACKGROUND Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder and for the prophylaxis of primary or recurrent stage Ta and T1 papillary tumors following transurethral resection. Significant systemic complications are rare but have been reported. CASE REPORT We describe this case of Mycobacterium bovis psoas abscess and worsening abdominal aortic aneurysm following BCG therapy for bladder cancer. A 76-year-old male presented with a fever of a few days...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714174/immunological-properties-and-protective-efficacy-of-a-single-mycobacterial-antigen-displayed-on-polyhydroxybutyrate-beads
#3
Patricia Rubio-Reyes, Natalie A Parlane, Bryce M Buddle, D Neil Wedlock, Bernd H A Rehm
In 2015, there were an estimated 10.4 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases and 1.4 million deaths worldwide. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the vaccine available against TB, but it is insufficient for global TB control. This study evaluated the immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv1626 in mice while assessing the effect of co-delivering either Cpe30 (immunostimulatory peptide), CS.T3378-395 (promiscuous T helper epitope) or flagellin (TLR5 agonist) or a combination of all three immunostimulatory agents...
July 17, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712808/structural-insight-into-the-activation-of-pkni-kinase-from-m-%C3%A2-tuberculosis-via-dimerization-of-the-extracellular-sensor-domain
#4
Qiaoling Yan, Dunquan Jiang, Lanfang Qian, Qingqing Zhang, Wei Zhang, Weihong Zhou, Kaixia Mi, Luke Guddat, Haitao Yang, Zihe Rao
Protein kinases play central roles in the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within host. Here we report the individual high-resolution crystal structures of the sensor domain (in both monomer and dimer forms) and the kinase domain of PknI, a transmembrane protein member of the serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs) family. PknI is the first STPK identified whose sensor domain exists in a monomer-dimer equilibrium. Inspection of the two structures of the sensor domain (PknI_SD) revealed conformational changes upon dimerization, with an arm region of critical importance for dimer formation identified...
July 4, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710848/breaking-transmission-with-vaccines-the-case-of-tuberculosis
#5
Jesus Gonzalo-Asensio, Nacho Aguilo, Dessislava Marinova, Carlos Martin
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) have evolved causing tuberculosis (TB) in different mammalian hosts. MTBC ecotypes have adapted to diverse animal species, with M. bovis being the most common cause of TB in livestock. Cattle-to-human transmission of M. bovis through ingestion of raw milk was common before introduction of the pasteurization process. TB in humans is mainly caused by M. tuberculosis. This bacterium is considered a genetically clonal pathogen that has coevolved with humans due to its ability to manipulate and subvert the immune response...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705977/draft-genome-sequences-of-two-mycobacterium-bovis-strains-isolated-from-beef-cattle-in-paraguay
#6
Lidia Sanabria, Lorena Lagrave, Christiane Nishibe, Augusto C A Ribas, Martín J Zumárraga, Nalvo F Almeida, Flábio R Araújo
This work reports the draft genome sequences of the Mycobacterium bovis strains M1009 and M1010, isolated from the lymph nodes of two infected cows on a beef farm in Paraguay. Comparative genomics between these strains and other regional strains may provide more insights regarding M. bovis epidemiology in South America.
July 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698569/ahpc-of-the-mycobacterial-antioxidant-defense-system-and-its-interaction-with-its-reducing-partner-thioredoxin-c
#7
Chui Fann Wong, Joon Shin, Malathy Sony Subramanian Manimekalai, Wuan Geok Saw, Zhan Yin, Shashi Bhushan, Arvind Kumar, Priya Ragunathan, Gerhard Grüber
Despite the highly oxidative environment of the phagosomal lumen, the need for maintaining redox homeostasis is a critical aspect of mycobacterial biology. The pathogens are equipped with the sophisticated thioredoxin- (Trx) and peroxiredoxin system, including TrxC and the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C (AhpC), whereby TrxC is one of the reducing partners of AhpC. Here we visualize the redox modulated dodecamer ring formation of AhpC from Mycobacterium bovis (BCG strain; MbAhpC) using electron microscopy and present novel insights into the unique N-terminal epitope (40 residues) of mycobacterial AhpC...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694831/molecular-identification-of-mycobacterium-species-of-public-health-and-veterinary-importance-from-cattle-in-the-south-state-of-m%C3%A3-xico
#8
Adrian Zaragoza Bastida, Nallely Rivero Pérez, Benjamín Valladares Carranza, Keila Isaac-Olivé, Pablo Moreno Pérez, Horacio Sandoval Trujillo, Ninfa Ramírez Durán
Mycobacterium genus causes a variety of zoonotic diseases. The best known example is the zoonotic tuberculosis due to M. bovis. Much less is known about "nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)," which are also associated with infections in humans. The Mexican standard NOM-ZOO-031-1995 regulates the presence of M. bovis in cattle; however, no regulation exists for the NTM species. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify nontuberculous mycobacteria species from cattle of local herds in the south region of the State of Mexico through the identification and detection of the 100 bp molecular marker in the 23S rRNA gene with subsequent sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693300/investigation-of-bovine-tuberculosis-outbreaks-using-the-trace-back-system-and-molecular-typing-in-korean-hanwoo-beef-cattle
#9
Bok Kyung Ku, Bo-Young Jeon, Jae Myung Kim, Young-Boo Jang, Hyeyoung Lee, Jae Young Choi, Suk Chan Jung, Hyang-Mi Nam, Hun Park, Sang-Nae Cho
Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic contagious disease responsible for major agricultural economic losses. Abattoir monitoring and trace-back systems are an appropriate method to control bovine tuberculosis, particularly in beef cattle. In the present study, a trace-back system was applied to bovine tuberculosis outbreaks of Korean native Hanwoo beef cattle. Bovine tuberculosis was detected in three index beef cattle during abattoir monitoring in Jeonbuk Province, Korea, and the original herds were traced back from each index cattle...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689652/field-evaluation-of-candidate-baits-for-oral-delivery-of-bcg-vaccine-to-european-badgers-meles-meles
#10
Kate Palphramand, Richard Delahay, Andrew Robertson, Sonya Gowtage, Gareth A Williams, Robbie A McDonald, Mark Chambers, Stephen P Carter
The control of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle in the UK and Ireland is compromised by transmission of Mycobacterium bovis to cattle from the European badger (Meles meles), which acts as a wildlife reservoir. Vaccination of badgers could potentially contribute to TB control but the only licensed vaccine is injectable BadgerBCG which requires the live-capture of badgers. Current research is aimed at developing an oral TB vaccine (where vaccine is contained within bait) that is intended to be more cost-effective to deploy over large areas...
July 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689097/design-synthesis-and-antitubercular-potency-of-4-hydroxyquinolin-2-1h-ones
#11
Maíra Bidart de Macedo, Roman Kimmel, Damijana Urankar, Martin Gazvoda, Antonio Peixoto, Freya Cools, Eveline Torfs, Luc Verschaeve, Emerson Silva Lima, Antonín Lyčka, David Milićević, Antonín Klásek, Paul Cos, Stanislav Kafka, Janez Košmrlj, Davie Cappoen
In this study, a 50-membered library of substituted 4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-ones and two closely related analogues was designed, scored in-silico for drug likeness and subsequently synthesized. Thirteen derivatives, all sharing a common 3-phenyl substituent showed minimal inhibitory concentrations against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra below 10 μM and against Mycobacterium bovis AN5A below 15 μM but were inactive against faster growing mycobacterial species. None of these selected derivatives showed significant acute toxicity against MRC-5 cells or early signs of genotoxicity in the Vitotox™ assay at the active concentration range...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689009/survival-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-in-lysosomes-in%C3%A2-vivo
#12
Varadharajan Sundaramurthy, Hannelie Korf, Ashima Singla, Nicole Scherr, Liem Nguyen, Giorgio Ferrari, Regine Landmann, Kris Huygen, Jean Pieters
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most successful pathogens known, having infected more than a third of the global population. An important strategy for intracellular survival of pathogenic mycobacteria relies on their capacity to resist delivery to lysosomes, instead surviving within macrophage phagosomes. Several factors of both mycobacterial and host origin have been implicated in this process. However, whether or not this strategy is employed in vivo is not clear. Here we show that in vivo, following intravenous infection, M...
July 6, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686714/experimental-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-three-white-rhinoceroses-ceratotherium-simum-susceptibility-clinical-and-anatomical-pathology
#13
Anita L Michel, Emily P Lane, Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist, Markus Hofmeyr, Elisabeth M D L van der Heijden, Louise Botha, Paul van Helden, Michele Miller, Peter Buss
Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is endemic in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population in the Kruger National Park and other conservation areas in South Africa. The disease has been diagnosed in a total of 21 free ranging or semi-free ranging wildlife species in the country with highly variable presentations in terms of clinical signs as well as severity and distribution of tuberculous lesions. Most species are spillover or dead-end hosts without significant role in the epidemiology of the disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686691/use-of-fecal-volatile-organic-compound-analysis-to-discriminate-between-non-vaccinated-and-bcg-vaccinated-cattle-prior-to-and-after-mycobacterium-bovis-challenge
#14
Christine K Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W Ray Waters, Mitchell V Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C Rhyan, Kurt C VerCauteren, Jacek A Koziel
Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684564/draft-genome-sequences-of-three-mycobacterium-bovis-strains-identified-in-cattle-and-wildlife-in-france
#15
Maxime Branger, Amandine Hauer, Lorraine Michelet, Claudine Karoui, Thierry Cochard, Krystel De Cruz, Sylvie Henault, María Laura Boschiroli, Franck Biet
Mycobacterium bovis is the etiologic agent of bovine tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease affecting livestock, wild animals, and sometimes humans. We report here three draft genome sequences of Mycobacterium bovis strains of spoligotypes SB0821 and SB0134, isolated from wildlife but circulating in wildlife-livestock multihost systems, and SB0121, circulating exclusively in cattle.
July 6, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680043/molecular-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-bovis-in-cameroon
#16
N F Egbe, A Muwonge, L Ndip, R F Kelly, M Sander, V Tanya, V Ngu Ngwa, I G Handel, A Novak, R Ngandalo, S Mazeri, K L Morgan, A Asuquo, B M de C Bronsvoort
We describe the largest molecular epidemiological study of Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in a sub-Saharan African country with higher spatial resolution providing new insights into bTB. Four hundred and ninety-nine samples were collected for culture from 201 and 179 cattle with and without bTB-like lesions respectively out of 2,346 cattle slaughtered at Bamenda, Ngaoundere, Garoua and Maroua abattoirs between 2012-2013. Two hundred and fifty-five M. bovis were isolated, identified and genotyped using deletion analysis, Hain® Genotype MTBC, spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678885/assessment-of-bcg-and-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-vaccines-in-an-experimental-tuberculosis-infection-model-in-sheep
#17
Ana Balseiro, Raúl Altuzarra, Enric Vidal, Xavier Moll, Yvonne Espada, Iker A Sevilla, Mariano Domingo, Joseba M Garrido, Ramón A Juste, Miguel Prieto, Bernat Pérez de Val
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Animal tuberculosis (TB) is a complex animal health problem that causes disruption to trade and significant economic losses. TB involves a multi-host system where sheep, traditionally considered a rare host of this infection, have been recently included. The aims of this study were to develop an experimental TB infection model in sheep with a Mycobacterium caprae field strain isolated from a tuberculous diseased ewe, and to use this to evaluate the safety and efficacy of two vaccines against TB in sheep, the live-attenuated M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677313/a-case-of-disseminated-mycobacterium-bovis-2-years-post-intravesicular-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-therapy-for-superficial-urinary-bladder-cancer
#18
Alexander R L Robinson, Rajeswari Radhakrishnan, Robert Horvath, Sushil Pandey
Disseminated Mycobacterium bovis is an uncommon side-effect of intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy that may be mediated through Mycobacteraemia. This case report, of a 77-year-old man with a history of intravesical BCG therapy and recent cardiac surgery, highlights the need for patients with similar features on history, presenting with generalised symptoms, to have mycobacterial cultures included in their workup.
July 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671497/use-of-whole-genome-sequencing-and-evaluation-of-the-apparent-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-antemortem-tuberculosis-tests-in-the-investigation-of-an-unusual-outbreak-of-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-a-michigan-dairy-herd
#19
Colleen S Bruning-Fann, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, John B Kaneene, Bruce V Thomsen, John D Tilden, Jean S Ray, Richard W Smith, Scott D Fitzgerald, Steven R Bolin, Daniel J O'Brien, Thomas P Mullaney, Tod P Stuber, James J Averill, David Marks
OBJECTIVE To describe use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and evaluate the apparent sensitivity and specificity of antemortem tuberculosis tests during investigation of an unusual outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a Michigan dairy herd. DESIGN Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreak investigation. ANIMALS Cattle, cats, dog, and wildlife. PROCEDURES All cattle in the index dairy herd were screened for bTB with the caudal fold test (CFT), and cattle ≥ 6 months old were also screened with a γ-interferon (γIFN) assay...
July 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671074/evaluation-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-so2-vaccine-using-a-natural-tuberculosis-infection-model-in-goats
#20
J Bezos, C Casal, J Álvarez, A Roy, B Romero, A Rodríguez-Bertos, C Bárcena, A Díez, R Juste, C Gortázar, E Puentes, N Aguiló, C Martín, L de Juan, L Domínguez
The development of new vaccines against animal tuberculosis (TB) is a priority for improving the control and eradication of this disease, particularly in those species not subjected to compulsory eradication programmes. In this study, the protection conferred by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis SO2 experimental vaccine was evaluated using a natural infection model in goats. Twenty-six goats were distributed in three groups: (1) 10 goats served as a control group; (2) six goats were subcutaneously vaccinated with BCG; and (3) 10 goats were subcutaneously vaccinated with SO2...
May 2017: Veterinary Journal
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