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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804639/tuberculosis-joint-infections-in-four-domestic-cats
#1
Stephanie M Lalor, Stephen Clarke, Jonathan Pink, Andrew Parry, Emma Scurrell, Noel Fitzpatrick, Fraje Watson, Conor O'Halloran, Danielle Gunn-Moore
CASE SERIES SUMMARY: This paper describes the clinical presentation, diagnostic imaging findings and outcome in four cats with confirmed joint-associated tuberculosis. The cats were 2-6 years of age, and immune competent. Three cases had tuberculosis affecting only one joint, whereas one case had at least three joints affected. Two cases were caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and the other two were caused by Mycobacterium microti. Radiological findings included osteolysis, periosteal reaction and associated soft tissue swelling...
July 2017: JFMS open reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802412/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-sige-mutant-st28-used-as-a-vaccine-induces-protective-immunity-in-the-guinea-pig-model
#2
JoLynn Troudt, Elizabeth Creissen, Linda Izzo, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Stefano Casonato, Riccardo Manganelli, Angelo A Izzo
With more than 9 million new infections and 1.5 million deaths claimed every year, tuberculosis remains one of the major scourges of humankind. The only vaccine available against this disease, the attenuated strain Mycobacterium bovis, BCG is effective against severe forms of the disease in infants, but scarcely effective in protecting adults from the pulmonary form of the disease, thus not stopping transmission. Consequently, the development of an effective anti-tuberculosis vaccine is a major goal for improving global health...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776523/screening-of-health-care-workers-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#3
Anand Bimari Janagond, Vithiya Ganesan, G S Vijay Kumar, Arunagiri Ramesh, Prem Anand, M Mariappan
BACKGROUND: Health-care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. While national-level data on the burden of TB in general population is available from reliable sources, nationally representative data on latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) burden in HCWs in the high burden countries is lacking. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out to assess the risk of TB infection among HCWs who directly engage in medical duties...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774560/a-novel-nanoemulsion-vaccine-induces-mucosal-interleukin-17-responses-and-confers-protection-upon-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-challenge-in-mice
#4
Mushtaq Ahmed, Douglas M Smith, Tarek Hamouda, Javier Rangel-Moreno, Ali Fattom, Shabaana A Khader
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is contracted via aerosol infection, typically affecting the lungs. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine and has variable efficacy in protecting against pulmonary TB. Additionally, chemotherapy is associated with low compliance contributing to development of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mtb. Thus, there is an urgent need for the design of more effective vaccines against TB...
July 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771142/comparison-of-semi-automated-commercial-rep-pcr-fingerprinting-spoligotyping-12-locus-miru-vntr-typing-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-analysis-of-the-embb-gene-as-molecular-typing-tools-for-mycobacterium-bovis
#5
Federica Armas, Cristina Camperio, Luana Coltella, Serena Selvaggini, Maria Beatrice Boniotti, Maria Lodovica Pacciarini, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo Presti, Cinzia Marianelli
PURPOSE: Highly discriminatory genotyping strategies are essential in molecular epidemiological studies of tuberculosis. In this study we evaluated, for the first time, the efficacy of the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) DiversiLab Mycobacterium typing kit over spoligotyping, 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing and embB single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis for Mycobacterium bovis typing. METHODOLOGY: A total of 49 M...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762863/dendritic-cells-maturated-by-co-culturing-with-hiv-1-latently-infected-jurkat-t-cells-or-stimulating-with-aids-associated-pathogens-secrete-tnf-alpha-to-reactivate-hiv-1-from-latency
#6
Xiao-Xin Ren, Li Ma, Wei-Wei Sun, Wen-Dong Kuang, Tai-Sheng Li, Xia Jin, Jian-Hua Wang
Elucidation of mechanisms underlying the establishment, maintenance of and reactivation from HIV-1 latency is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at eliminating HIV-1 reservoirs. Microbial translocation, as a consequence of HIV-1-induced deterioration of host immune system, is known to result in a systemic immune activation and transient outbursts of HIV-1 viremia in chronic HIV-1 infection. How these microbes cause the robust HIV-1 reactivation remains elusive. Dendritic cells (DCs) have previously been shown to reactivate HIV-1 from latency; however, the precise role of DCs in reactivating HIV-1 from latently infected T-cell remains obscure...
August 1, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757013/a-haplotype-at-intron-8-of-ptprt-gene-is-associated-with-resistance-to-brucella-infection-in-argentinian-creole-goats
#7
Ursula A Rossi, Flavia C Hasenauer, Maria E Caffaro, Roberto Neumann, Antonio Salatin, Mario A Poli, Carlos A Rossetti
Brucellosis is the leading zoonosis on a worldwide scale and constitutes a major public health threat in many regions of the world. Several molecular markers associated with natural resistance to intracellular bacterial infection have been identified. Recently seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the PTPRT gene were associated with resistance to Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle. Here, we perform a case-control study to test if polymorphisms at PTPRT intron 8 might influence the resistance or susceptibility to Brucella infection in goats...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753980/transgenerational-social-stress-alters-immune-behavior-associations-and-the-response-to-vaccination
#8
Alexandria Hicks-Nelson, Gillian Beamer, Kursat Gurel, Rachel Cooper, Benjamin C Nephew
Similar to the multi-hit theory of schizophrenia, social behavior pathologies are mediated by multiple factors across generations, likely acting additively, synergistically, or antagonistically. Exposure to social adversity, especially during early life, has been proposed to induce depression symptoms through immune mediated mechanisms. Basal immune factors are altered in a variety of neurobehavioral models. In the current study, we assessed two aspects of a transgenerational chronic social stress (CSS) rat model and its effects on the immune system...
July 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747346/modulation-of-roquin-function-in-myeloid-cells-reduces-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induced-inflammation
#9
Gayathri Nagalingam, Carola G Vinuesa, Warwick J Britton, Bernadette M Saunders
Damaging inflammation is a hallmark of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and understanding how this is regulated is important for the development of new therapies to limit excessive inflammation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase, Roquin, is involved in immune regulation; however, its role in immunity to M. tuberculosis is unknown. To address this, we infected mice with a point mutation in Roquin1/Rc3h1 (sanroque). Aerosol-infected sanroque mice showed enhanced control of M. tuberculosis infection associated with delayed bacterial dissemination and upregulated TNF production in the lungs after 2 wk...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739828/mice-bone-marrow-sca-1-cd44-mesenchymal-stem-cells-kill-avirulent-mycobacteria-but-not-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-through-modulation-of-cathelicidin-expression-via-p38-mapk-dependent-pathway
#10
Sumanta Kumar Naik, Avinash Padhi, Geetanjali Ganguli, Srabasti Sengupta, Sanghamitra Pati, Dasarathi Das, Avinash Sonawane
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) primarily infects lung macrophages. However, recent study has shown that Mtb also infect and persist in dormant form inside the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) even after successful antibiotic therapy. However, the mechanism(s) by which Mtb survives in BM-MSCs is still not known. Like macrophages, BM-MSCs do not contain a well-defined endocytic pathway, which is known to play a central role in the clearance of internalized mycobacteria. Here, we studied the fate of virulent and avirulent mycobacteria in Sca-1(+)/CD44(+) BM-MSCs...
July 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739421/whole-genome-sequencing-of-mycobacterium-bovis-to-obtain-molecular-fingerprints-in-human-and-cattle-isolates-from-baja-california-mexico
#11
Sarai Estrella Sandoval-Azuara, Ricardo Perea-Jacobo, Raquel Muñiz-Salazar, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Alejandro Perera-Ortiz, Gilberto López-Valencia, Doris M Bravo, Alejandro Sanchez-Flores, Daniela Miranda-Guzmán, Carlos Alberto Flores-López, Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas, Rafael Laniado-Laborín, Fabiola Lafarga de la Cruz, Tod P Stuber
OBJECTIVES: To determine genetic diversity by comparing the whole genome sequences of M. bovis cattle and human isolates from Baja California. METHODS: We used a whole genome sequencing strategy to obtain the molecular fingerprints of 172 isolates of Mycobacterium bovis from Baja California, Mexico, of which 155 were isolated from cattle, and 17 were isolated from humans. We characterized spoligotypes in silico and evaluated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences between the isolates...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724483/using-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-infectious-disease-research
#12
Mitchell V Palmer, Rebecca J Cox, W Ray Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Diana L Whipple
Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. The majority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720750/tuberculous-psoas-abscess-and-worsening-vascular-aneurysm-all-from-bacillus-calmette-guerin-bcg-therapy
#13
Emmanuel Okon, Janelle Stearns, Arun Kumar Durgam
BACKGROUND Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder and for the prophylaxis of primary or recurrent stage Ta and T1 papillary tumors following transurethral resection. Significant systemic complications are rare but have been reported. CASE REPORT We describe this case of Mycobacterium bovis psoas abscess and worsening abdominal aortic aneurysm following BCG therapy for bladder cancer. A 76-year-old male presented with a fever of a few days...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714174/immunological-properties-and-protective-efficacy-of-a-single-mycobacterial-antigen-displayed-on-polyhydroxybutyrate-beads
#14
Patricia Rubio-Reyes, Natalie A Parlane, Bryce M Buddle, D Neil Wedlock, Bernd H A Rehm
In 2015, there were an estimated 10.4 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases and 1.4 million deaths worldwide. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the vaccine available against TB, but it is insufficient for global TB control. This study evaluated the immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv1626 in mice while assessing the effect of co-delivering either Cpe30 (immunostimulatory peptide), CS.T3378-395 (promiscuous T helper epitope) or flagellin (TLR5 agonist) or a combination of all three immunostimulatory agents...
July 17, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712808/structural-insight-into-the-activation-of-pkni-kinase-from-m-%C3%A2-tuberculosis-via-dimerization-of-the-extracellular-sensor-domain
#15
Qiaoling Yan, Dunquan Jiang, Lanfang Qian, Qingqing Zhang, Wei Zhang, Weihong Zhou, Kaixia Mi, Luke Guddat, Haitao Yang, Zihe Rao
Protein kinases play central roles in the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within host. Here we report the individual high-resolution crystal structures of the sensor domain (in both monomer and dimer forms) and the kinase domain of PknI, a transmembrane protein member of the serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs) family. PknI is the first STPK identified whose sensor domain exists in a monomer-dimer equilibrium. Inspection of the two structures of the sensor domain (PknI_SD) revealed conformational changes upon dimerization, with an arm region of critical importance for dimer formation identified...
August 1, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710848/breaking-transmission-with-vaccines-the-case-of-tuberculosis
#16
Jesus Gonzalo-Asensio, Nacho Aguilo, Dessislava Marinova, Carlos Martin
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) have evolved causing tuberculosis (TB) in different mammalian hosts. MTBC ecotypes have adapted to diverse animal species, with M. bovis being the most common cause of TB in livestock. Cattle-to-human transmission of M. bovis through ingestion of raw milk was common before introduction of the pasteurization process. TB in humans is mainly caused by M. tuberculosis. This bacterium is considered a genetically clonal pathogen that has coevolved with humans due to its ability to manipulate and subvert the immune response...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705977/draft-genome-sequences-of-two-mycobacterium-bovis-strains-isolated-from-beef-cattle-in-paraguay
#17
Lidia Sanabria, Lorena Lagrave, Christiane Nishibe, Augusto C A Ribas, Martín J Zumárraga, Nalvo F Almeida, Flábio R Araújo
This work reports the draft genome sequences of the Mycobacterium bovis strains M1009 and M1010, isolated from the lymph nodes of two infected cows on a beef farm in Paraguay. Comparative genomics between these strains and other regional strains may provide more insights regarding M. bovis epidemiology in South America.
July 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698569/ahpc-of-the-mycobacterial-antioxidant-defense-system-and-its-interaction-with-its-reducing-partner-thioredoxin-c
#18
Chui Fann Wong, Joon Shin, Malathy Sony Subramanian Manimekalai, Wuan Geok Saw, Zhan Yin, Shashi Bhushan, Arvind Kumar, Priya Ragunathan, Gerhard Grüber
Despite the highly oxidative environment of the phagosomal lumen, the need for maintaining redox homeostasis is a critical aspect of mycobacterial biology. The pathogens are equipped with the sophisticated thioredoxin- (Trx) and peroxiredoxin system, including TrxC and the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C (AhpC), whereby TrxC is one of the reducing partners of AhpC. Here we visualize the redox modulated dodecamer ring formation of AhpC from Mycobacterium bovis (BCG strain; MbAhpC) using electron microscopy and present novel insights into the unique N-terminal epitope (40 residues) of mycobacterial AhpC...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694831/molecular-identification-of-mycobacterium-species-of-public-health-and-veterinary-importance-from-cattle-in-the-south-state-of-m%C3%A3-xico
#19
Adrian Zaragoza Bastida, Nallely Rivero Pérez, Benjamín Valladares Carranza, Keila Isaac-Olivé, Pablo Moreno Pérez, Horacio Sandoval Trujillo, Ninfa Ramírez Durán
Mycobacterium genus causes a variety of zoonotic diseases. The best known example is the zoonotic tuberculosis due to M. bovis. Much less is known about "nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)," which are also associated with infections in humans. The Mexican standard NOM-ZOO-031-1995 regulates the presence of M. bovis in cattle; however, no regulation exists for the NTM species. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify nontuberculous mycobacteria species from cattle of local herds in the south region of the State of Mexico through the identification and detection of the 100 bp molecular marker in the 23S rRNA gene with subsequent sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693300/investigation-of-bovine-tuberculosis-outbreaks-using-the-trace-back-system-and-molecular-typing-in-korean-hanwoo-beef-cattle
#20
Bok Kyung Ku, Bo-Young Jeon, Jae Myung Kim, Young-Boo Jang, Hyeyoung Lee, Jae Young Choi, Suk Chan Jung, Hyang-Mi Nam, Hun Park, Sang-Nae Cho
Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic contagious disease responsible for major agricultural economic losses. Abattoir monitoring and trace-back systems are an appropriate method to control bovine tuberculosis, particularly in beef cattle. In the present study, a trace-back system was applied to bovine tuberculosis outbreaks of Korean native Hanwoo beef cattle. Bovine tuberculosis was detected in three index beef cattle during abattoir monitoring in Jeonbuk Province, Korea, and the original herds were traced back from each index cattle...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
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